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lection. In our country, however, the method and was formerly written Begarmoud, the introduced by Mr. Knight of obtaining new natural inference being that it originated in a kinds by means of hybridisation or warmer climate than that of Europe, and was breeding, which is far less tedious, and in which, introduced here from Turkey. It is to the too, the result can be prognosticated with some French that we have owed most of our good degree of accuracy, has been attended with so older kinds, for they seem to have had the start much success that there has been little temp- of us in pear culture, since good sorts were tation to resort to any other. Of course when known in France as early as in the thirteenth fine kinds are once obtained, by whatever means century. Foremost among our old fruits thence they may have been produced, nothing more is derived stands the Jargonelle, long since proneeded to perpetuate them than to continue pounced to be the queen of autumn pears, their propagation to any extent by grafting ; and which, still scarcely surpassed in flavour and as with regard to the hardier kinds at least ; and quite unequalled in productiveness by any Loudon assures us that the best pears can be of her contemporaries of that season, seems grown with no more trouble and expense than hardly likely to be called on to abdicate her inferior ones, it is to be hoped that eventually throne in favour of upstart modern rivals. the former will quite supersede the latter, This fruit consists literally of little more than and what is still too exclusively a luxury for eau sucrée enclosed in a rind, the analysis of the wealthy at length be freely open to all De Candolle showing that when ripe it contains classes.

83.88 per cent. of water and 11:52 per cent. So much attention having been directed to of sugar. Though we owe both the fruit and the multiplication of varieties, it is not sur- its title to France, by some strange contretemps prising that they should now be very numerous, the name is there given to a quite different and though there are still not above twenty or kind, while our Jargonelle is called by the thirty pears which are reckoned really first- extraordinary appellation of Grosse Cuisse class, Dochnahl's recent work describes above Madame, or Great Ladies' Thighs. The Ger1050, and the Bon Jardinier, the chief French man name, Frauen Schenkel, has the samo horticultural periodical, says that the catalogue meaning. in that country now comprises 3000 varieties, The Bon Chrétien is another ancient variety each of which, too, has about six synonyms. still as highly in repute as ever, both here and Attempts have been made to classify these in its native France. It has many sub-varieties, multitudinous races into families, but no very one of the commonest in England being the satisfactory arrangement has yet been achieved, William’s Bon Chrétien, often called merely the and the only classification in use in England William Pear. Of the Flemish pears more lately is that which divides them into summer, au- introduced into this country, one of the chief in tumn, and winter pears, with the further dis- beauty and flavour, scarcely owning a superior, tinction into the very soft or melting pears is the Marie Louise, the tree of which is, too, (in French beurrées), the crisper or breaking so hardy that it affords an almost certain crop pairs (crevers), and the perry (poirée) and under the most unfavourable circumstances. baking fruits. According to their forms they Other noted Flemish pears are the Beurré are described as pyriform, like the old Wind- Rance, a misnomer for Ranz, its name being sor ; oblate, like the Bergamot ; obovate, like borrowed from the district in Flanders where the Swan's Egg; or pyramidal when the lines it first grew ; and the Glou morceau, so called extend upwards nearly uncurved from the from a Walloon word equivalent to the French broad base.

friand, the title meaning therefore delicious Many of our old sorts are extinct, and others morsel or bit. are doomed to the same fate, for even the Among the Germans the pear is more prized popular Swan's Egg is pronounced by eminent at the dessert than almost any other fruit, but horticulturists to be not worth cultivating in the one which ranks highest there, and which comparison with the more modern sorts ; but may indeed be called their national fruit, as it a few are still welcome to our palates as ever originated in Germany, is the pretty Forelle, they were to preceding generations, for far from Truite, or Trout Pear, so named from a fancied superseded is our common Bergamot, long as resemblance between its speckled skin and that great a favourite among English pears as the of the fish. Ribstone Pippin among apples. Nothing In America many of the pears of Europe authentic is known of its origin but its antiquity are grown, but are rated at a much lower is undoubted, and according to Manger the standard than on this continent, the Jargonelle, name is not derived from Bergamo in Italy, as though very common, being looked on as a many have supposed, but from the Turkish poor fruit, and even the Marie Louise and Bon word beg or bey, a prince, and armoud, a pear, Chrétien as but second rate; for, as in the case


of the apple, the seeds of most European fruits are first boiled until a little soft, then peeled sown in America have in the course of time and put on a dish till the syrup drains from originated new varieties peculiarly adapted to them ; afterwards placed on wicker mats in an that country, and far more highly esteemed oven for twelve hours, then soaked in this there than the sorts from which they were pro- syrup, to which a little sugar and brandy duced. The prince of American pears, a variety has been added, till their own juice is thus exhibiting a rare combination of virtues, the reabsorbed, after which they are replaced in richest and most exquisitely flavoured of fruits the oven twice or thrice until they become quite being borne on the healthiest and hardiest of firm and of a rich transparent chestnut colour, trees, is the Seckel Pear, so general a favourite when they are packed in paper-lined boxes for that no garden is considered complete without home use or exportation. In hotter countries it. Small sized, dumpy in shape, and dull in fires and ovens are not needed for this purpose, colour, it has been called the ugliest of fruits, for the traveller Burchell mentions having, but if we may so far adapt the old saying as to when in the interior of South Africa, stocked admit that “Handsome is that handsome himself before crossing the desert with dried tastes," no deficiencies in beauty will be per- pears, “the manner of preserving which conceived when once the palate revels in the honied sisted in merely drying them whole and unspicy richness of the Seckel Pear, its flavour, peeled in the sun, and afterwards pressing them quite peculiar to itself, being generally pro- flat, by which simple process they keep in pernounced to be unequalled by any of its Euro- fection for more than a twelvemonth, as I pean kindred.

afterwards learnt by experience, and therefore The pear is peculiar in one respect, for, unlike can recommend them as a valuable addition to nearly all other fruits, its being fresh-gathered the stores of a traveller.” is by no means a recommendation, most varieties As the apple yields its cider so too does the being much finer in flavour if plucked early in pear afford a special beverage, less wholesome the season and ripened in the house than if | than the former, but even more agreeable, and suffered to mature on the tree; and many which therefore scarcely less esteemed, especially as appear very dry and second-rate when ripened it is made in far less quantities and has therein the open air not only keep good much longer fore more claim to the merit of rarity, its but attain first-rate quality when gathered while manufacture being now chietly limited to the unripe and shut up for weeks indoors. They cider districts of England and France. Pears however require warmth, for a pear which is for the press may be either large or small, but of melting consistency after having been ex- the more austere the taste the better the posed for some time to a temperature of 60 or liquor ; wild pears are found not unsuitable, 70 degrees would prove quite tough if left until and the fruit which is esteemed best for this wanted in a cold apartment. A German writer use is so unfit for any other that not only are recommends packing pears between feather beds they quite uneatable by man, but it is said that as a good mode of ripening them, but this even hungry swine will hardly so much as would hardly suit English notions, and the smell to them; and it is a curious fact, though Guernsey method of exposing them to the sun- not without its parallel in the annals of vegeshine on the shelves of a greenhouse commends table peculiarities, that the unexpressed juice itself as seeming the most natural and pleasant of the perry pear is so harsh and acrid as to way of bringing the fruit to healthy maturity. cause great heat and long-continued irritation The chief use of pears is as a dessert fruit, but of the throat if an attempt be made to eat it, they are also stewed or baked, many of the yet no sooner is it separated from the pulp by hard kinds being appropriated exclusively to simple pressure than it at once becomes rich this use, but most keeping pears, such as the and sweet with no more roughness than is Swan's Egg, &c., are also excellent for baking, agreeable to most palates. As pears were for when simply heaped into a dish and put in deemed by the Romans an antidote against the oven their own juice forms a rich syrup as poisonous fungi, so perry is still reckoned the sweet as though much sugar had been used, best thing to be taken after a surfeit of mushand even windfalls and damaged fruit may thus

Though it will not keep nearly so long be turned to good account with little trouble as cider, it yet contains more alcohol, and also and no expense.

In Germany, Russia, and makes better vinegar, while the residue left yet more in France pears are also dried ; the after pressure serves very well for fuel, for common sort, sold about the streets in Paris, which purpose that of cider is useless. The being merely slowly baked on boards in ovens bark of the pear tree yields a yellow dye, and after the bread has been withdrawn, but their its wood is eminently serviceable to Art, being juice being thus lost, they are far inferior to much employed not only for making parts of the more carefully prepared best sort, which / musical instruments but also to furnish blocks


for wood engraving. The wood of the wild pear is extremely hard, that of the cultivated kind much lighter and soft. ASTERISK.

A blooming girl, with nut-brown hair

Knotted above her snowy neck, With rounded cheek so rich, so fair,

That a young countess it might deck; And eyes that shed a tender light,

Which read the heart where they are thrown,

And do not seek to bide her own.
With hands enclasped, the maiden stood
In the first morn of womanhood.
Th' excitement of the time and scene

Had sent more colour to her face;
But little wot she that her Queen,

Whose gaze seemed fixed on empty space,
Was watching with absorbing power,
Half hid by flowers, that fairest flower.

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It was a Queen went forth
In pomp and state and bravery.

She was beloved, and so, in state,
She ever went, till she ceased to be

With circumstance and pomp elate.
But as she loved her people well
She bore the clamour of the bell
And saw the coloured banners wave,
And heard her lieges shout and rave,
As things unto her lot that clave.

And so she bowed with gentle mien,
Bending with sweet, untiring smile,
As rose on her slow course the while

Each shout, “God save the Queen !" “ To be a queen is a gallant thing,"

Siched a poor, weary artisan

Who close by the royal carriage ran : “'Tis a blessed lot to be a king,

To know you've a good roof over your head,

And never to feel the want of bread,
Or fear that the work will come to an end,
Or have to wait for bad times to mend.

It must be a blessed thing and good,
If sick, to be able to stay within,
And not to think you're committing sin

By neglecting the young ones' food.
And instead of trudging with blistered feet,
To ride in a coach with a nosegay sweet,

And soldiers fine

To keep the line, and people hallooing all down the street."

The mayor bad ended his address-
On the last words he laid such stress
It startled royalty's dreaming flight;

And brought back the mayor and his keys,

And the burgesses all on their knees. And the queen, with a sigb, said the thing that

was right, And gently expressed delight;

And how glad sbe was

To be there, - because Of that loyal and beautiful sight. Then the air with the drums and trumpets shook ;

And onward again

Moved the royal train
Through the gates in right royal guise,
And the weary Queen cast a lingering look

At the girl with the peaceful eyes.
" Ah, blessed lot !” said the pensive Queen,
As the laboured hours crept by,

"'Mid the foliage to dwell

Of a home one loves well, And the heaven of privacy :

Shedding sweet light

Like a star on the night,
Or a glow-worm in grass-blades green!
Thrice happy girl of the nut-brown curl,
Of eyes and brow so sweet;

'Tis not in thy fate

For heaven to wait,
For heaven is about thy feet.
Whilst a weary world fights on its path,
Thou hast the peace that an angel hath !"

But the artisan only spoke in bis heart,

As beside the carriage he ran ; And the monarch had not the diviner's art

To read all the thoughts of man.
Nor did that weary workman know

What weariness in a soul may dwell,
A weight that a sceptre cannot dispel,

A hidden grief lips may not tell,
Like rivers dark 'neath the ice that flow.

And often that the temples crowned

Are prisoners in that golden round, And a captive lone a king may be, While all about his throne are free.

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A city's streets the progress threads :

The mayor comes forth in a golden chain, With red-cloaked burgesses in his train,

And on his knees

Presents the keys Of the gates whose arch is over their heads ;

And foliage and flowers hide the stones, Like an infant's flesh on an old man's bones.

And the trumpet's bray

And the drum's deep bay Are hushed for the mayor his address to say. The Queen sits forward, all attent; Though she cannot hear, she knows what's


And as she waits in patient guise,

What object meets her wistful eyes ? Her eyes upon a casement fall,

A little oriel in the wall.
And there, bebiud the beau-pots gay,

Stands a blooming maiden tall ;

The years rolled on and the Queen still ruled,

Still reigned in her people's heart;
To the duties a crown entails well schooled,

She bore a monarch's part.
But weary Time could not efface
That form of bappy, youthful grace,

Which, like a tinkling streamı
Heard from a dry and hot high road,

Or a blest memorable dream
That mocks our present tearful load,
Came back and back and back and back,
Amidst and between life's cloudy wrack,
And sometimes brought a sudden tear

To her eyes, which none might see ;
And a long-drawn sigh when none was near

A queen's humility,
Who knew that Heaven hath better things

To give tban the gilded state of kings :-
A lightsome bosom and golden rest,
The sweetness of home, in some hidden nest,
And the presence of those the heart loves


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A HALF-HOUR's journey westward by railway exquisite Norman church, which, small as it is, will carry the visitor who happens to be staying is known to all Ecclesiologists and Church at Brighton into a retired and secluded country, architects as one of the best specimens of its which will offer him a very pleasant contrast time. Fifty years ago the place was described by to the eternal bustle and scorching sun of the Britton as having dwindled down into a village Marine Parade. Let him take a return ticket of about 30 houses, and only 188 inhabitants. either to Shoreham or to Bramber, and allow In 1861, mainly owing to the influx of hands himself a summer afternoon for a holiday, and employed upon the railway, the population had he will return to his lodgings at London-super- risen to a somewhat larger amount. Mare without any temptation to cry out, with Five and twenty years ago a great part of the Emperor Titus, "perdidi diem."

the fabric of the church, including the tran. The river Adur, which rises out of St. Leo- septs, lay in ruins ; but its fine semi-circular Dard's Forest near Horsham, found its way into arches and the curious zig-zag mouldings, the open sea, seven or eight centuries ago, dating from an early period after the Conquest, some six or seven miles west of Brighton, at a attracted the attention of the Cambridge place which now bears the name of Old Shore- Camden Society, under whose auspices the ham-the village on the shore. Partly through building was restored by Mr. Ferrey, in excelthe gradual receding of the sea, consequent on lent taste and in the most substantial manner, the alluvial deposits brought down by the about the year 1840. We are not about to Adur, and partly through the growth of a bank inflict on our readers a chapter on Church of pebbles thrown up across the river's mouth architecture, so we will beg them, if they by the action of the tide, the once Aourishing desire further information, to pay the church a port and town has sunk into a tiny rural visit of inspection. They will find the central village, the chief ornament of which is its tower, with its arcade of three arches, and




No. 270.



with its two circular panels under the parapet Society, very little has been done at present on each face, particularly worthy of their notice. towards repairing the signs of decay which Close by the church is a long wooden bridge time has marked upon the outward appearance which crosses the Adur and the adjacent of these walls ; but even in its present state marshes ; it is about a third of a mile in length, the edifice is sound and substantial, and looks and, though it looks far older, was built in as if it were destined to defy the lapse of ages 1781 under an Act of Parliament, which to undermine it. Britton says that the nave authorised the raising of 50001. for that pur- is destroyed, and points in proof of his asserpose in shares of 51. each. The bridge after- i tion to the “confused masses of walls ” which wards passed into the hands of the Duke of stand in the churchyard guarding the western Norfolk, who levied black mail, like a baron of doorway ; and Mr. Mackenzie Walcot, no mean olden time, by exacting a toll of a half-penny authority on such a subject, confirms his from every passer by, until about a year ago, opinion. But we all know that it was the when the ducal interest was bought up by the custom of the time to build these stately Brighton and Horsham Railway Company, and edifices by instalments, and so far as we can the bridge is now free to all Her Majesty's learn there is no reliable local tradition which liege subjects. We give here an illustration of asserts that the nave, though certainly begun, the bridge, in very shortened perspective. At ever completed. Mr. Britton, in his the further end of the bridge, in the parish of “ Beauties of England and Wales,” thus desLancing, under the hill side, stands an old inn, cribes the building :the Pad,* well known in former times possibly “ The lofty square tower rising from the to smugglers, and certainly to many a respect- centre of the transepts consists of two stories, able bagman who travelled his rounds in those the first entirely Saxon, having two arched days between Chichester and Worthing and the recesses with columns, and within each recess little watering-place of Brighthelmstone, and an arched window. At the sides, and between who liked to lounge an hour away there while each recess, are breaks, and columns at the waiting for the ferry-boat. Our vignette shows angle of the tower. The second story also has the inn, as it now stands.

two recesses with columus, having arches of About a third of a mile further south from the pointed form ; two windows again occur, the east end of the bridge stands what is called but their arches are circular, and their openNew Shoreham, the novelty of which appears ings are divided into three small lights, by somewhat like that of certain middle-aged columns which support small circular arches. ladies, as shown by the fact that its magnificent These lights and columns, as an antiquary has church, of which the chancel and transepts observed, * give the strongest warrant for supalone are standing, is a fine specimen of early posing that they were some of the early hints English architecture interspersed with some towards forming the system of mullion-work, Norman details. Like the church at Old which constituted the invariable ornament of Shoreham,+ it was erected by the family of De windows in subsequent ages.

The east front Braose.

is a beautiful elevation, and in good condition. It appears that soon after the Conquest, the It consists of three tiers : in the first are three same joint action of the river and the tide which circular-arched recesses with columns; and in gave birth to the tongue of land on which Great the centre recess is a circular-headed window. Yarmouth now stands, I raised also out of the On the right and left are the fronts of the side sea many acres of terra firma between Old aisles with one circular recess, and a window of Shoreham and the ocean, a part of which was the same kind to each ; above these are other probably chosen by a college of monks as a circular recesses and breaks at the angles. site for that venerable church which forms so The second, or principal tier, wholly in the conspicuous a landmark to vessels in the pointed style, presents three grand windows channel, and so pleasing an object of sight incorporated as it were into one, divided by from the parade at Brighton. With the clusters of columns with rich capitals, having exception of the interior of the chancel, which pointed heads to the arches and architraves of has been restored by the Cambridge Camden many mouldings. The third tier has one large


central circular window with several small * So called from the custom once so frequent in Corn- recesses of various forms and dimensions on wall of employing pad horses for commercial and other

each side. The front finishes with a pediment, † Mr. Sharpe does not consider that the church of Old

The details of the interior are remarkable for He supports bis argument by the deed of Wm. de their elegance, richness, and diversity ; so Brawose, who, in A.D. 1070, kives to the abbot and monks of the church of St. Florence, at Saumur, in Anjou. four

that this edifice altogether may be said to churches in the Rape of Bramber, including that of St. See Vol. ix., p. 276.

+ Gentleman's Magazine, 1807.


Shoreham is at all anterior in date to that of New Shore. ham.

Nicholas de Soraham.

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