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any long delay, In that year (1534), river to his destination. It was his three important laws were passed. First, usage on leaving home, to be accompathe “ Act of Succession.” By this, nied to his boat by wife and children, Henry's marriage with Catherine was whom he lovingly kissed and bade declared void, and the issue of his union adieu; but this time, as with a prowith Anne announced as heirs to the phetic sentiment of the end that was throne. An oath was required in favour at hand, he closed the wicket gate of of this succession, under pain of confis- his garden, desired none to follow him, cation and imprisonment. Second, the and said in a melancholy voice, what King was made Supreme Head of the to the place and its peace he felt to be Church, and the authority of the Pope a last farewell. excluded from the control of ecclesi- The oath was solemnly tendered to astical affairs. To these were added, bim, and solemnly he refused to take it. an Act, declaring it high treason to will A friendly counsellor sought to persuade or express, by words or writing, a desire him by the logic of a rich man, to deprive the children of Henry and resolved to compound with conscience Anne Boleyn of their rights of suc- for the preservation of his wealth ; cession. Soon after, the monarch, tri- but he adhered to his declared opinion, umphing in his new titles, struck a and during four days was held in cusmedal, with a legend in Hebrew, Latin, tody by the Abbot of Westminster. At and Greek, which provoked the saying, length, the King, with an ingratitude that he had Crucified the Church as consonant to his other actions, and with Pilate had crucified the Saviour, with the the malice of exasperated and conscious solemnity of three inscriptions. As a turpitude, ordered his committal to the scrupulous lawyer, More could not ac- Tower, together with Fisher, on cept the first of these laws; as a consci- charge of high treason. All grants that entious Roman Catholic, he could not had been made to him were declared acknowledge the second; as a brave void, and every device was used to man, he could not fear the third. insult him and embitter his closing
Therefore, when the oath was im- days. Then the character of the lauded posed, More joined Bishop Fisher in monarch glowed in its full brilliance rejecting it. The marriage, he asserted, through the veil with which panegyric was unlawful, and Catherine was still and loyalty had it shrined from view. If his Queen. “By the mass, Mr. More,” there was any lustre in it, it was like said the Duke of Norfolk, “it is perilous that bloody glare of the sun, which striving with princes.” “Indignatio terrified old voyagers when sailing from principis mors est.” “Is that all my the North. Like his Roman prototype lord,” he replied “then, in good faith, Constantius, he never showed mercy to the difference between your grace and any accused of treason; and like Čalime, is only this,—that I shall die to- gula, he never satisfied his purulent day, and you to-morrow.” Well he malice unless by taking the life of knew the hollow of the block would those he had injured and feared to prosoon be glutted with his blood. To voke. His miserable limping soul, him, as to the Genevese philosopher never docile in youth, was incorrigible in after times, opinion was the Queen in maturer age; unhappily his power of the earth, and princes themselves was equal to his vice, and thus through were first among its slaves. Yet the an error of mankind, originated by origin of this power was from one an- fraud, and perpetuated by apathy, this terior- conscience, the voice of the flattered traitor and forsworn assassin, soul, less fallible than reason, the ap- found himself with the power to depeal of virtue against the sophistry of grade and murder the noblest of the weak desires. If not in these terms, human race. at least on principles of this kind, the At the Tower Gate, the porter depersecuted man resigned himself to manded of More what he wore uppersuffer for a conduct he could not most. The knight gave him his cap, change without violating the purity of and was sorry it was no better. But wit his honour. When, therefore, about a was not current there, so he was dismonth after the oath was passed, he robed, and conducted to an apartment, was cited with other clergymen to where in about a month his daughter appear before Cranmer in Lambeth, he received permission to visit him. Lookwent piously to mass, and then by the ing out of the window one day with her,
a father of Sion" and three and manly eloquence he defended the
In this manner a whole year passed that morning, and that he should not
pray for him, and remember that he died better in verse. The author took home for the Catholic faith. He next knelt his work, versified it, and brought it and repeated a psalm; then he rose, and again: “Aye,” said the Chancellor, when the executioner asked forgiveness, "now it is something. It is rhyme;kissed him, and said cheerfully, “Thou but before, it was neither rhyme nor wilt do me this day a greater benefit reason.” He once employed a clever than ever any mortal man can be able fellow to rob a justice on the bench, to give me. Pluck up thy spirit, man, who had declared that none but careless and be not afraid to do thy office. My fools ever had their pockets picked. neck is very short; take heed, therefore, Sir Thomas More, however, will be that thou strike not away, for saving thy remembered chiefly for his literary works. honesty.” After this he laid his head The Utopia or Happy Republic is a on the block, but exclaimed, "wait until household name. It was written in Latin I have removed my beard, for that has about the year 1516. Great applause never committed treason." The axe fell, greeted it all over Europe, and English, and humanity was outraged by seeing French, Italian, and Dutch translations the head of this pious man fixed on a were speedily circulated. In this ingepole on London bridge. Margaret, his nious scheme of a commonwealth, the daughter, however, found means to pur-author embodied bis own ideas of governchase this memorial of her monarch's ment. As Swift did in his Travels of crime, enclosed it in a leaden box, and Gulliver, so did he in this, obliquely ordered it to be buried with her own censuring those principles of the English body, in a vault under Saint Dunstan's, administration which were opposed to Canterbury. The Knight's corpse lies his theory of policy and public justice. in the Tower chapel, though some have Such pictures of a state in ideal perfecsaid it was afterwards removed by his tion, have been the favourite studies of daughter.
men. This suggested the new Atlantus, Henry received the report of More's of Lord Bacon; and the same fancy execution when he was playing at painted those fabulous creations of the draughts, and Anne Boleyn was look-ancient mind-the halcyon or legendary ing on. He cast his eyes on her and isles, the Makapwv vnool, the Vales of said, “thou art the cause of this man's Bliss and Cities of the Just, in which death.” He then shut himself up in a as in other brilliant illusions the imagichamber and feigned, or perhaps really nation of mankind is prone to indulge. felt melancholy, but his attempt to fix A History of Richard the Third, a Life on his wife the stigma of this crime, of Pius of Mirandula, many controveronly increases the scorn with which all sial works and some quaint but interes posterity regards his abhorred and ting letters, have been preserved. It is wretched name.
curious, and is not honourable in our More was religious, and his religion nation, that the writings of Sir Thomas was clouded by superstition; but he More have been admired more in was not a bigot. In his habits he was almost every country than in his own, simple, and in his abstinence austere. indeed, they have here been little read, Loyal, beyond virtue, to the King, he and the polemical part of them would resisted his demands when they dis- be profitable only to theological and agreed with the dictates of conscience. political students. But there is the Affectionate to his family, he was witchery of a beautiful romance in benevolent to all men, and though he Utopia"—the last library edition of diede in an exploded faith, we may re- which, was printed side by side with verence his memory as that of a wise the New Atlantis, with commentary and good man.
and introductory discourse, by J. A. The anecdotes of his wit are innume- St. John. It formed, in fact, part of a rable. One of his best replies was that series, in which the Religio Medici and to a person named Manners, who, on Hydrotaphia, or Urn Burial, by Sir his elevation, said to him, "honores Thomas Brown were included. If there mutant Mores." "In English that is be any of our readers who have not true” retorted the Knight, for then read this singular work, I am sure they "honors would change Manners." have neglected one of the richest compo
A friend brought him a stupid book sitions in the language. It is like a in manuscript, for his opinion. More Titian picture, lighted up with the pure with grave humour told him it would be aerial tints of Claude, in relief to the
deep Rembrandt chiaroscuro, in which so clearly what he was, that the world some of the groups and scenes are en- may judge him from that account. veloped. They are imperfectly familiar What I cannot avoid, however, is the with the literature of their country, reflection that More was a good and who have not studied this composite pious man, sacrificed by an odious masterpiece of philosophy and fancy. prince, before whom the English nå
I will not add any elaborate sum- tion was then content to bow down. mary on the character of Sir Thomas And as these occurrences multiply with More. We know a man when we see the pages of our annals, who can wonhow he has acted. What he speaks or der, and, still more, who can regret, writes may be a disguise, or an epitaph that in the next century, that infamous for the tomb. In the history of More's and decrepit tyranny was overthrown life, however, his motives reveal them- first in the field by Cromwell, and seselves in the general tenour of his ac- cond in Parliament by the liberal and tions. It is not, indeed, the chief merit patriotic antagonists of the Second of biography to judge the person James. whose career it paints; but to show
RAFFAELLO SANZIO. BEAUTY is not to be considered merely, and that selection is difficult. The as the fair flower that blooms by the principles relating to ideal loveliness side of the wanderer's path; it is not have, however, recently attained a more merely the line of silver or of gold that perfect development; and hence follow streaks the edges of the dusky cloud; results less likely to perplex the earnest or the bright feathery foam that crowns thinker. But we must keep aloof from the crest of the dark and rugged wave. a question so abstract. It is, however, It is all of these, and it is something very evident that many intelligent per
It is not an extrinsic ornament, sons even, have singularly chaotic ideas nor one of life's dispensible luxuries; upon this interesting subject. but, in a greater or less degree, it is an To quote the words of an acute and absolute necessity, and most truly a clear-seeing critic: “The conceptions powerful agent to purify the soul from of the elder Greeks regarding beauty material tendencies, to strengthen and were nobler than ours, and for that to elevate, to spiritualize and refine. reason their art was of a loftier chaBeauty, in the highest sense, the ideal, racter. Their beauty was divine, not the transcendental, leads the soul infal- human; intellectual, not sensuous; and, libly upwards from the earthly and the like the Jews and Persians, they sought human to the immortal and divine. It in the loveliness of the human form a is the likeness of God shining through type of the perfections of the Deity. his works; the monograph of the Great
Beauty, then," continues the Artist; the type of that radiant splen- same eloquent writer; " is a thing of the dour that shall bloom evermore in his intellect.
It is universal and fair Paradise.
divine; it is incapable of tarnish or Hence, to elevate the public taste, desecration; the beauty of holiness,' becomes the duty of all “ Art-interpre- and the beauty of God,' of the Heters,” who are as the evangelists of the brew prophets, are better imaged in the ideal, through whom we receive reve- heathen deities of Greece than in the lations of the beautiful. Among people pictured saints of the Roman Church.”. in general, raro indeed is a true appre- The truth that beauty is universal, ciation of this high excellence, which has too often been overlooked; many is, or ought to be, the animating soul having sought to imprison their idea of painting, sculpture, architecture, thereof within some one particular type, music, and poetry. Such recognition instead of recognising it in every form, is rather educational than intuitive, It and in all the varieties of its developwill be objected, that the world has ment. been inundated with theories of beauty, ! It is the work of the true artist to
reveal to the sons of earth the wondrous how many, alas! there are who fail to sights and sounds that throng the introduce into their souls that harmony “ world of beauty,” in visible imagery, which ought so surely to follow a true or with the glad voice of song. For he devotion to any object that is noble and ever stands near to the pearly gates of good. Why is this? It is because unheaven, and through the portals open- worthy motives intrude upon their woring at intervals, he receives benedictions ship. Love of display, self-gratification, of loveliness, and glimpses of celestial desire of gain, looking for the praise glory, which he transmits to us through men; these are the sources of ill-sucpictured and enmarbled dreams," or cess. Ah, not thus, oh thinker-worker! amid the lofty harmonies of "starry Stand forth amid the world's tumult
free, earnest, and sincere, with no The mantle of inspiration which en- thought of self, no wish of recompense
, folded the painters and sculptors of save that which flows of necessity from ancient Greece, seemed to descend with the deep love through which work especial power upon the artists of modern is accomplished, and whence you disItaly. The residents of the fairest | cover, in truth, in high thought, or land in Europe, a country rich in his action, each is its own exceeding great toric recollections, in proud and lofty reward.” So live and act, and rest asmemories of heroic time, and thoughts sured, in due time, not only shall you of many wrongs still deeper in stern enjoy this supreme satisfaction, but influence, to them in particular, was in- yours shall also be the palm to the trusted (second to the Greeks) the mis- victor's hand, the crown to the poet's sion of interpreting the poetry of art. brow. The annals of painting and sculpture in Raphael's father left home for Perugia, Italy, form a bright and most inte. in 1494, in order to make arrangements resting record, for the Italian artists for placing his son under the tuition have given examples of almost every of Pietro Perugino, the most renowned variety of excellence, in the beautiful artist of the time, but before the comand the pathetic, in the terrible and pletion of these arrangements, Giovanni the sublime. And among the brilliant Sanzio died, in the August of the same galaxy of names included in such his year. The negotiations were, however, tory, not one star shines with more un- carried on by his widow and a friend troubled lustre than the name of the named Simone Ciarla, and so at twelve “ divine Raphael,” which is never pro- years of age, the young Raphael was nounced by the art-student without the sent to study under Perugino, with sincerest reverence and the truest love. whom he remained until he was about
RAFFAELLO SANZIO DI URBINO was twenty years of age. born on Good Friday, 1483, in the city Pietro Vannucci, surnamed Il Peruof Urbino. He was the son of a res- gino, from his residence in Perugia, was pectable painter named Giovanni San- an intimate friend of the great Lionardo zio, who was patronised by the Duke da Vinci. In a poem by Giovanni Federigo of Urbino. Raphael lost his Sanzio, these two artists are gracefully mother early in life. His father mar- alluded to as “par d'etate e par d'amore." ried again, and his second wife, Ber- The works of Vannucci are distinnardina, a fair, loving creature, was as guished by simplicity and sweetness, kind and affectionately attentive to the and a “pure and gentle feeling.” The subject of this memoir as if he had been early productions of Raphael bear eviher own child. Giovanni Sanzio was dence to the influence of his master's his son's first instructor, and the boy manner. The charming little picture was soon able to assist his father in his of “St. Catherine” in the National most important works. And thus passed Gallery is to be referred to this period. away the childhood of Raphael, amid The young artist was a most industrithe sweet and gentle influences of ous student. His favourite subject was home, beneath the soft Italian sky, his the Madonna and the infant Christ. spirit ennobled and purified by a con- Many beautiful pictures were painted by templation of all that is fair and lovely, him while he was with Perugino. Perand thus rendered a shrine for those haps the most famous is the one reprelofty thoughts which must be ever re- senting the Marriage of Mary and sultant from a right study of the beau- Joseph,” now at Milan. Raphael soon tiful, the ideal, in nature and in art. But greatly surpassed his master. In 1504