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to present themselves on the shores importance of those two establishof Madagascar, and France tamely ments. France, he contended, was submit to the insult. In that case highly interested in their preservathe rights of France would be tion and development. They were sadly compromised. Under those not military points, but they afcircumstances the Cabinet had forded good anchorages. The posdeemed the expedition necessary.

session of St. Marie was of great The Chamber, however, was at li commercial importance, particularly berty to express a wish on the sub- for Bourbon, which derives supplies ject; the expedition had not yet from Madagascar through its mesailed, and the Government would dium. St. Marie now contained retard its departure until the Com- 5,000 native refugees from that mittee, which was now examining island. The same might be said a demand of supplementary cre of Nossi Bé, whose population now dits, should have pronounced on its amounted to 15,000 souls. expediency. For those considera M. Guizot next rose, and asked tions the Ministry did not reject M. Billault if the words he prothe amendment.

posed to insert in the paragraph M. Billault, who spoke next, re implied that the Ministry had, in ferred to the danger of delaying, any instance, abandoned the rights perhaps for another month, the of France. departure of the expedition until M. Billault replied, that he only the Committee should have granted desired the maintenance of the stathe supplies. He then proposed tus quo, and that his amendment to_state in the paragraph that neither implied a blame nor a sur“ France abandoned none of her prise. rights over Madagascar.”

The amendments of M. Billault M. Dangeville opposed the in- and M. Dangeville were then put sertion of these words into the to the vote, and unanimously Address, for fear of reviving adopted. the pretensions of the people of The President next read the Bourbon, and others, who were paragraph having reference to anxious to conquer Madagascar. Poland, when Messrs. Mounier de “Reserve,” he said, "your rights, la Sizeraun and Navia proposed to prevent others from forming to substitute for it the following establishments at Madagascar, but sentences : abandon all idea of conquering an France, faithful to her enisland placed at so great a distance gagement, protests against the from France, and whose population, violation of treaties. In the name according to English geographers, of the law of nations, in the name amounts to 3,000,000 or 4,000,000 of Christian civilization and huof inhabitants." M. Dangeville manity, she reminds Europe of the then ridiculed the idea entertained solemn guarantees stipulated in faby the Chamber, of the importance vour of Poland.” of the establishments of St. Marie Messrs. Mounier, Navia, de and Nossi Bé, and concluded by Mornay, and Lherbette severally recommending their evacuation. addressed the Chamber in favour

M. de Mackau, the Minister of of Polish nationality ; after which Marine, observed, that M. Dange- the amendment was withdrawn, ville was mistaken respecting the and the original paragraph adopted

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with the substitution of the word ing the precarious alliance between “Poland” for “a generous na- England and France, he concluded tion.'

by asking M. Guizot if the conM. Lamartine afterwards ascend- dition of Syria, and the anarchy ed the Tribune, and asked leave to which now prevailed in Lebanon, offer a few observations on the si- preoccupied his mind, and was the tuation of the Christians of Lebanon. object of pending negotiations, and He reminded the assembly of the if the restoration of the Schahab facapitulations concluded between mily, and of a single and Christian France and the Porte, so far back Administration, was entertained by as Francis I. and Henry IV., and the French Cabinet. which had constituted her the pro M. Guizot replied, that the retector of the Syrian Catholics in establishment of order and peace in particular, and of all the other Lebanon was actively prosecuted Christian population in the East. by France. He could not pledge All the attempts hitherto made, himself for the success of his enunder the auspices of the five great deavours, but there existed a great European Powers, to improve the probability that they would achieve condition of the Maronites and the double object which M. Laother Christians of Lebanon, had martine proposed to himself. But merely tended to make it more he thought that any discussion on wretched. France, by entering the affairs of Syria at this moment the European concert, had placed might be attended with fatal conit out of her power to assist and sequences. He accordingly invited relieve a population which morally M. Lamartine not to bring forward formed part of the French nation- any amendment on this subject. ality. The evil had now reached To this M. Lamartine assented. such a pitch that something should The Address was afterwards be speedily done to prevent the carried in the Chamber of Deputies extermination of an entire people. by a majority of 91, the numbers A last negotiation should be opened being 232 to 141. with the Porte, or France should The Address was presented to separate from the European con the King on the 7th of February, cert, and manfully take that people and His Majesty returned the folunder her protection. He would, lowing answer:however, prefer the first course. M. Lamartine next advocated the

" Gentlemen Deputies, necessity of restoring the family “I receive your Address with of Schahab to the government real satisfaction. I am happy to of Lebanon, and maintained that find in it a manifestation so sigorder and tranquillity would not

nal of the support



lend reign in that unhappy country my Government, and of that loyal until the Emir Beschir was and constant co-operation which is called from exile, and invested the foundation of its force, and again with a power which he had the guarantee of all our liberties. ably exercised for fifty-five years. Public opinion acknowledges every After examining the consequences day more and more that it has of the adoption of so bold a step been by the regular progress and by France, which he admitted the perfect accord of all the powers would have the effect of destroy- of the State that France has


reached that degree of prosperity sist in developing that constantly on which I am so pleased to con- increasing welfare enjoyed at pregratulate you. Yes, gentlemen, sent by all classes of society. it is with delight I express to Such has been for a long tim you my confidence in the future the wish of my heart, the object destinies of our country. That of my endeavours ; and my most confidence is strengthened by the valuable recompense will be to sentiments you have just uttered, think that my devotion will have and it convinces me that this ac- contributed to secure its blessings cord, continuing without intermis- to my country.” sion for future generations, will as


Speech by M. Thiers in the Chamber of Deputies, on Motion of M. de

Remusat-Reply by M. GuizotSpeeches of M. Guizot and M. de Montalembert in the Chamber of Peers on the Secret Service Money BillOpinions expressed by the Minister of Commerce and M. Guizot relative to the Free-Trade Measures of the English GovernmentSpeeches in the Chamber of Deputies of M. Thiers and M. GuizotAmendment proposed by M. Odillon Barrot rejected - Desperate attempt to assassinate the King by Lecomte Trial and Execution of the Assassin-Second attempt on the King's Life by Henri -His Trial and Sentence-Escape of Prince Louis Napoleon from Ham-Close of Session and Dissolution of French ChambersPosition of M. Guizot's Ministry-General Election - Opening of the New Session-Royal Speech-Election of M. Sauzet as President of the Chamber of DeputiesDestructive Inundations and Food Riots in France-Marriage of the Duc de Montpensier with the Infanta of SpainMarriage of the Duc de Bordeaux with Princess Theresa Beatrice, of Modena.


N the course of a debate that he had always been a partisan of

In putes, upon a motion made by M. 1840 it was brought before the de Remusat, for limiting the num Chamber, and in place of refusing ber of placemen, who might have it, he had, in his quality of Preseats in the Chamber, M. Thiers, sident of the Council, exercised his on the 16th of March made a influence to get it taken into conlong and elaborate speech, which sideration. The matter was was regarded at the time as his ferred to a Committee, and before political manifesto for the Session. that body he had entered into an He began by saying that he wished engagement to bring in a Bill on to reply to a reproach which had the subject, in the course of the been brought against the Ministry ensuing Session, and to make it a of March 1. It had been alleged Cabinet question, How, then, that he and the other members of could it be said that he and his that Cabinet had opposed a pro- colleagues were adverse to the position similar to the present one. reform now proposed ? He was no He could declare that for his part innovator ; he might have been

one under those old monarchies and showed that, under William III. where so many abuses existed, but and succeeding monarchs, laws had he was not one in the present day; been introduced to exclude governwhen, therefore, he supported the ment functionaries from the House proposition, he did so because he of Commons, just as the present considered the reform which it de proposition aimed at kceping them manded to be an absolute necessity. from the Chamber of Deputies. The hon. deputy then proceeded to He went on to argue, that though a discuss at great length the merits certain number of functionaries of the proposition. Going back to were necessary in the Chamber, to the reigns of Louis XIV. and give information on special quesLouis XV., and examining in an tions, yet that it did not follow historical point of view their vari that because a man was not a ous positions as young monarchs, functionary he might not be perand then as men advanced in years, fectly well able to enlighten the he showed that all Governments, Chamber. M. 0. Barrot, he said, whether absolute or free, had their was no functionary, nor was the abuses, their dangers, and their Duke de Broglie, nor Count Molé, flatterers. In absolute Govern nor M. Guizot, and yet they were ments, he remarked, flattery was men of great knowledge. He manifested above to the monarch therefore merely meant to say, himself; in free ones below, in the that public functionaries, no doubt, bosom of deliberate assemblies, and had great information, but they to those also who named the mem had not a monopoly of it. The bers of such assemblies. From Chamber ought to be a body rethis tendency arose the abuses presenting all classes of society, which the proposition aimed at but no one would speak seriously putting down. Not that these of a majority representing advoabuses were extensive cates alone, or manufacturers alone, had sometimes been represented. nor ought it to represent public France was by no means the most functionaries alone. And yet the corrupt country in the world, as present one was exclusively comsome persons took a pleasure in posed of public functionaries. representing it; there was now, There were 184 of these in the perhaps, less elevation of mind Chamber. than thirty years before, but there M. Liadieres-152. was infinitely more purity of morals M. Thiers.--Yes, 152, if the than existed then." But evils had Deputies composing part of the decidedly taken root, of the kind King's Household or Councillors of referred to in the proposition, and State in extraordinary service, and there could be no doubt that they such like employés, were excluded, ought to be checked in their but of those 184 functionaries, 130 growth, if not altogether eradicated. at least were Ministerial. The The hon. deputy then referred to number of deputies usually voting the example of England, which, he was about 400. Of these 225 sided said, could be cited as model, not with the Ministry, and 175 for the of a social institution, but of a Opposition, which gave an average political one. He referred to the majority of 50 to the Government. similitude which existed between But if 130 functionaries were found the revolutions of 1688 and 1830, amongst the 225, could it be



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