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Where the importance, and perhaps the very I must confess, that when I behold these names of the rival candidates, are lost in the con. Right Honourables sport with the liberties of test of their lawless abertors ? * Or is it not to mankind, and aim at grasping all the power and return some supple animal who buys, that he influence in the kingdom to themselves, I caninay sell you? who fawns, that he inay betray? not forbear, in the warmth of my resentment, who, like the fox in the fable, persuades you to reducing the metaphorical language of Shaklet him mount on your shoulders, that he may spear's gardener, to its more literal interpre. leave you in the pit? Is it not eventually to
talion :oppress the people who gave the servile sup. “ Cut off the heads of too-fast growing sprays, plicant his political existence ; and to enslave the
“ That look too lofty in our commonwealth : constituents whom he is chosen to protect?
“ Allmust be even in our government." Not only do facts evince that this invective is
RICHARD II. Act 3. innocent of slander, but the argumenta a priori
Should it be thought that I am too warm upon will corroborate its truth. It is not to be sup
the question, I answer, that there are posed that any constituent, or his partizans, will
things of tou serious an import to bear a smile; commit these vicious actions from virtuous mo
that there are some actions, of which, although tives; that they will ruin the people to save the
they entitle a man to a seat in Bedlamn, the vile nation; break down the first laws of humanity,
lainy shall yet exceed the folly! And in these the love of peace, of sobriety, of integrity, out
cases, the indignation of every one who feels in of zeal for the commonwealth ; and do their utmost to subvert our Constitution, that they
any respect correspondent with the nature of his
subject, must rise superior to his love of ridicule. may share in the honour of making laws intended for its preservation.
« Omne urim i vitium tunlo conspectius in se I know but one circumstance which can ag
“ Crimen habet, quanto major qui peccat ha
“ betur.” gravate the iniquity of this conduct, and that is,
JUVENAL." when a Peer of the realm engages directly, or But to return to our plebeians. indirectly, in the contest. This is such an in Were I to follow the natural train of the arsolent infringement upon the common rights of gument, I should only urge what has been remankind, as ought never to pass without exem peated times innumerable-I should of course plary punishment, were it possible to bring those bewail the inequality of representation, the abto condign punishment who deem security a surdity of boroughs almost without inhabitants, law, and claim a privilege to act ignominiously appointing delegates to maintain their rights, from the very splendour and dignity of their cha while the rights of thousands and tens of thouracter! For can there be a more ignominious sands remain defenceless. I should lament that conduct than for a nobleman, who in his own the choice of the representatives of a populous right is one branch of the legislature, meanly to and Aourishing nation should be confined to so encroach upon the rights of the other ? To la few, and ofteu to such foul and unworthy hands. vish his wealth in corrupting the principles of an I should vaidly desire that vice would correct unthinking freeholder, and influence him in the itself, and that those who are naturally disposed choice of a representative, part of whose office to abuse their power, would be the first to reit is to watch over, and restrain the abuse of that form this abuse. Yet I cannot forbear wishing power which his rank necessarily bestows? Can that every individual in the nation felt the injury there be a more shameful solecism, than for one of' being excluiled from a share in the legislature, who is deemed first in the class of gentleinen, ', and sought some constitutional and effectual to exert his influence in the appointment of a method of redress. For without a voice, either person who is to be a defence against his own en in the Parliament itself, or in the choice of a gronehments ! and break through the best barrier delegate, their dearest privileges may be barof the cunstitution, that a creature of his own tered away for a paltry bribe, or a can of ale! may be elected as a guarantee of it? The se In short, one class of inen is totally at the mercy verest laws against the open invaders of another's of another! And if this bear any part in the property, or poachers of their favourite game, to definition of a slave, those who form one of these which these personages ever gave their suffrage, classes are slaves, thoug's for the present they ought, according to the Lex Talionis, to be re feel not the chain ! turned upon themselves!
But although a radical cure for this dangerous In a contested election for a certain Bo disease is not much to be expected, and perhaps rougii, numbers of the electors, not knowing the
could not be accomplished without such violent names of the candidates for whom they gave their convulsions as might greatly endanger our polivotes, distinguished them by calling them, the
tical constitution, yet I think some considerable Duke of X's man-Lurd Z's man, &c.
palliative might be adıninistersd.
Is there not reason to believe that great num. personal favour rather than of public trast? and bers, perhaps a majority of the freeholders, wan. attend infinitely more to partial recommendaton with the liberties of their fellow.citizens, tions, and family connexions, than to the polimerely through gross ignorance, or culpable in- | rical principles, or the honour and probity of the attention? That ihey have the most confused party wliose cause they expouse. ideas of the office of a representative in Par The character of John Plodder is, we fear, very liament? That, although the welfare of the similar to that of the ignorant freeholders in whole nation ultimately depends upon their de general, whe barter away every thing that is vacisions, yet they know as little of the inatier as luable for a treat at an ini. Asa sample oí this Jolin Plodder, wlio thought that a parliament || class, in higher life, an old Baronet, whom we man was to guard him, some how or other, may call Sir Indifference Wealthy, may serve. against Papists, Presbyterians, and wooden shoes. I dided lately with this gentleman, who is
I would therefore recur to the idea which was really a worthy individual, and, if possible, still first suggested, that some proper method might more respectable for the goodness of his heart, be adopted, fully to acquaint the electors with than for the excellence of his dinners. But he the nature and importance of their power at seems to have the public spirit of an oyster; and such interesting periods; that they ought to be to be as inattentive to every national question as instrucied in the common liberties of mankind, his faithful dog Tray, that is borne down with the general principles of Government, and the
years, indolence, and fat, design of all civil society.
While we were at table, I endeavoured to Would it not be highly meritorious in those
rouise the old gentleman from his lethargy, by who retain ans sparks of public spirit, and are ex patiating with some yehemence upon the abpatriots indeed, to draw up a plain and clear
surd and iniquitous manner in which elections suniary of the privileges and duties of an elec.
were conducted. tor, to be put into the hands of every freeholder “ Pshaw! It's a customary thing," says the in the kingdom, particularly at the eve of a knight. general election ? Ought not these electors to He voted at a late election for a man whose be informed that they are at such times the re character, both public and private, was very exo presentatives of others--that they stand in the ceptionable, merely because their lands lay conplace of thousands--that perjury is not the only tiguous; and he thought it would have been an vice of which they can be guilty, for they must unneighbourly action to vote against him. at the same time be aiding and abetting oppres “ It is a customary thing,” said he, as he sion, that the choice of a man avowedly un helped himself to some turbot. qualified, either from the known want of capa “ Its being so customary,” said I, city, or of public or private virtue, or from his grand subject of my complaint. being already the servile minion of the court, is “ I don't see much in ii," quoth he, “ it also a crime of the first magnitude that they always was and always will be so," are responsible for the measures that man shall “I answered, that I could not help seeing a espouse; and that if the nation be ruined hy great deal in it; and that if his assertion were. llle choice of unworthy inembers, which is the true, there was but a gloomy prospect for the danger of the present times, the ruin of the nation. whole empire rests with them.
“ Aye, you croaking politicians are always Nor would such friendly and patriotic admo- foreboding evil. Why, we live as well now as nitions he seasonable to the lower class of
ever ye did,' quoth my host,-- and belps himself electors alone, but many of their superiors inight to another lice. alsu profit by then. For is it not notorious
This may not always be the case, Sir, supe that while the one are thus casily reduced or de
posing it adın issible for you to judge of the state. terred from voting with impartiality, the others, of myriads, by the plenty which your ample for.. as easily and unthinkingly, enlist themselves on tune affords you. Ani permit me to ob-erse, the side of the seducers? Or do thay not full that if your predecessors had been as indif-rent. into the opposite extrejnc, and treat with the to the common interests of mankind as yourself, uimose it difference a concern in which the inte. it might not have been in your power to have rests of ile whole state are embarked ?
Are lived as at present: and were every mau of inthere not thousands whose character and fortune fuence to be governed by the same supine entitle them to a very respectable and lawful in- | maxiins, your posterity will never see turbot or fluence in the constitution, that are restrained turile at the tables of any but priests, placemen, by indolece or pusillaniiniry, from gising their land pensioners; who will riot in luxury by suffrage at all? Drotherwise, do they not con. grievous taxes on their estates, if pot by an ini. sider the electiat of a candidate as a matter of quitous confiscation of the whole."
His mouth was full, and he was silent.
“ I cannot make that out,” said the Baronet. “ The more the evil is customary, the more I was going to assist him; and was collecting it is encreased and multiplied, Sir Knight. The in my own mind the links of the chain between repetition of a vice, ever so many times, can never the universal depravity and final ruin of a state. change it into a virtue; though our familiarity But he saved ine the trouble. For having finished with it may render us inattentive to its nature or his turbot, he poured out a bumper of claret; consequences. It is a customary thing also for and after he had testified his religion, loyalty, and the total absence of a public spirit, and a general public spirit, by drinking Church, King, and corruption of manners, to destroy a nation ; and Constitution, he threw himself back in his great shall any, from this shallow consideration, sit easy arm.chair, and fell fast asleep. in the prospect of its dissolulion?"
A TALE OF FORMER TIMES.
At a little distance from the small city of || finding, when chance threw the treasure in Zevikau, is a plain which still bears the name of his way. The Field of the Swans, a name which, an ancient While he was one evening performing his detradition informs us, it derived from a large lake | votions, a youth, in the uniform of a soldier, which it formerly contained, and which was presented himself at the entrance of the grotto, called The Late of the Swans. The waters of and, with a touching humility, craved permission this lake had the marvellous property of restoring to pass the night in his solitary dwelling. His youth and beauty to the females who bathed in pale cheek and hollow eye announced extreme it; but unhappily it exists no longer, or bloom | fatigue; while a countenance manly and preof Arcassia, or lily paste, might be advertised in possessing, quickened in Bruno's bosom the imvain. To such, however, as are disposed to waste pulses of humanity. He placed before the youth useless regrets on this subject, it may be some such refreshment as his grotto afforded, and preconsolation to learn, that the wonder-working | pared a bed for him by the side of his own. virtue of this precious lake could be proved by The following morning put him in possession none who were not descended from the fairy of Freidbert's little history, which contained no tribe. All others bathed in it without effect : very striking particulars, but was related with a they lost not a year in appearance, they left not a simplicity that evinced a guileless mind. The wrinkle behind them.
foster brother of the beautiful heiress of a wealthy Prior to the disappearance of the Lake of the nobleman, Freidbert had lived on terms of faini. Swans, there lived, in a grotto near it, a pious | liarity with her, which had inspired in both an hermit, named Bruno. His reputation for || ill-fated passion. It was discovered, and Freidsanctity was very great in the neighbourhood; || bert had been compelled to enter the army. The but, though curiosity had been very active in en insolence of an officer in his regiment had prodeavouring to discover from whom he was de- || voked him to resent it by a blow; and to escape scended, or whence he came, all that related to the severe punishinent annexed to his offence, him, prior to his appearance in this country, re he fied; since when he had wandered about, mained an impenetrable secret. His hospitality || concealing himself in woods during the day, and and cheerfulness, however, made him generally | pursuing his unsettled route during the night; beloved; and the simple inhabitants of the sur but having tasted nothing for the last twentyrounding mountains resorted to him for advice | eight hours, he felt so exhausted that he resolved or instruction in all their little concerns.
tu entreat the compassionate aid of the indiviAge bad enfeebled the limbs of the venerable duals of the first solitary habitation that preBruno, and bleached his once jetty locks, at the sented itself. period when he is introduced to the reader. He The good hermit invited his young guest to was no longer able to cultivate the little garden || spend a few days with him in his retirement, an which, with his own hands, he had formed be invitation which was thankfully accepted. This fore his grotto; and he earnestly desired a coni period, short as it was, enabled Bruno to discover panion who would supply his place there, and in the youth a mind so witless yet so intelligent, cheer bis Jonely hours by rational conversa a sensibility so lively, and a disposition so gratetion. Such an
one he had vainly soughtful and obliging, that he conceived the design f among the individuals that he occasionally be retaining him to enliven the remainder of his held, and had nearly renounced the hope of days. Freidbert readily embraced the proposal No. XVII. Vol. II.
made him; and changing his uni orm for the from a far distant country impelled my step habit of a holy man, applied himself assiduously || hither, and fixed me in this dreary solitude. to render his benefactor all the good offices in his Listen attentively to what I am going to say, and power.
thou wilt at the same time learn the history Spring rapidly passed away, and the summer of the lake, of this lake whose tranquil bosom solstice arrived. As this period approached, at this moment reflects the tremulous beams of Freidbert perceived his patron to be unusually the bright luminary of night. agitated. He often walked for hours on the brink “ In my youth I acquired an extensive repuof the Lake of the Swans, and commonly re
tation for courage and gallantry. My country turned more pensive than when he set out. was Switzerland, my family that of the Counts Suddenly, however, he discontinued these pro. of Kybourg. I was devoted to pleasure and to menades, and daily dispatched Freidbert thither, I love, to gratify which passion | violated every charging him to look carefully whether there sacred duty. In an amour, which infatuated my were any swans near it, and to observe their reason, I discovered that I had a rival, a dangerous Night and their number. He listened to Fried. and seducing one. Maddened by the conviction, bert's report with the deepest attention; but find. I resolved on his destruction, which I speedily ing that he continued to return without bringing effected. In consequence I was obliged to fly to any account of their appearance, he grew more Rome, to obtain absolution from the Pope. He agitated and dejected ; lost his appetite, ceased granted it, but only on the condition that I 10 sleep, and exhibited every appearance of a joined the crusaders who were on the eve of de man hastening rapidly to the grave.
parting for Palestine; and that, if I fell in the One evening, as Freidbert was perambulating enterprise, my fortune should devolve to our on the borders of the lake, he suddenly perceived mother, the church. It was absolately necessary a flight of beautiful swans. They approached that I should purchase absolution on any termsz. the lake, and hovered for some minutes, as in I therefore complied with the best grace possible, polayfulness, round it. Freidbert, who, while he and embarked on board a Venetian galley. We wondered how the appearance of those birds had reached the Ionian sea when a terrible temcould be connected with the repose of his patron, pest overtook us. The waves swelled to the was rejoiced to have their arrival to announce, clouds; our little bark became their sport, and Aew to the hermitage with the welcome intelli was threatened every instant with destruction; it gence. Bruno received it with transport; he or was driven by the winds near the isle of Naxos, dered Freidbert to go to a neighbouring town to and running foul of some rocks split into a thou. purchase some articles for a luxurious supper; sand pieces. Little accustomed to swimming, I and displayed, on his return, some bottles of the escaped death I know not how; my tutelary richest wine During their repast, he frequently angel supported me above the water till I reached expressed his joy at the arrival of the swans, and the coast, where a number of the inhabitants, not only drank copiously of the luscious beverage || who had witnessed the wreck of our vessel, were himself, but made Freidbert do so also. The collected to render what assistance was in their Liquor soon began to manifest its effects by exhi power to such of the crew as might come within jarating the spirits of the serious Freidbert, while their reach. They treated me with kindness, those of Bruno rose to a pitch which astonished and as soon as my quality was known at the his young companion. All memory of his age, court of Naxos, I received an invitation from of his infirmilies, of the gravity suited to his situ Prince Zeus to make my appearance there. ation, seemerl lost; and, with the gaiety of “ I went, and for the first time saw the beauti. youth, and a warm temperature, he expatiated ful, the graceful Zve, his wife. Her form was on the pleasures of love, spoke like a voluptuary of Grecian mould, and so exquisitely proporof the effects of beauty, and even sung songs in tioned was every part, that Zeuxis 'need have illustration of its powers over the heart.
copied nothing from any other could he have Freidbert, who, though animated and exhi- beheld her when composing his celebrated pic. Jarated by the wine, was nevertheless perfectly ture; she realized all that has been said by the himself, testified by his expressive looks the sur poets of the fabled beauty of the goddess of love. prise and curiosity which this extraordinary The first glance lighted in my breast a flame change in his benefactor excited.
which annihilated every idea not connected with ceived the sentiments which respect restrained her. No other beauty that I had ever seen him from uttering, and thus addressed the youth : seemed worthy tu inspire admiration; I forgot
“ Young man, thy faithful services for eight the object of my voyage, I could think of nothing months have given thee a claim to my confi. but how to communicate my passion to my fair dence which I ought not to delay to satisfy - enslaver, and dispose her to reg:rd it favourably. Know, then, that it is love, not devotion, which I distinguished myself at the tournaments by
carrying away every prize, and acquired a renown vehement; like a lion which the want of which cost me little labour; for the Greeks, nourishment has rendered furious, iny passion become effeminate, 110 longer retain aught of rose beyond controul, it was a kind if internal that activity, vigour, and address, which charac rage, a sort of devouring file which seemed to terized their famed ancestors. I sought by a consume my very vitals; my cheeks lost their million of those attentions which commonly colour, my limbs their activity, and my knees succeed with women, to recommend niyself to trembled like the flowers which are agitated by the seducing Zne. I made a friend of one of the wind. In this frightful slate how much did her attendants, who took care to inform me be- I want a faithful friend, in whose bosoin I might fore hand how she was to be dressed at each fete deposit my griefs, and whose suggestions might of the court, and her colours were always those pour the balın of hope into the cruel wounds of of nay scarf, and of the ribbons which ornamented my helmet. She adored music and dancing. “ I was in this desperate condition when I one When she repaired in an evening to take the air | day received a visit from Theophrastus, the phy. on a noble terrace that overlooked the sea, I sician of the prince, who had ordered him to frequently surprised her with a serenade, or a attend me. I held out my hand for him to feel ballet executed by dancers whom I had hired my pulse, but said at the same time, that I befrom the Morea. I employed the first artizans of lieved his skill could not save me from the grave Constantinople to supply her with every thing to which I was not unwillingly hastening. He that could flatter her vanity, or gratify her taste; smiled, and thus replied: 'Imagine not, noble they were sent to her without the least hint of its Cavalier, that I came to ascertain the state of being by my order, but I took care that she should your body, and prescribe for its relief, as would not be ignorant that I was the author of these an ordinary practitioner; your health is borne gallantries. If thou hast any experience in love, away on the wings of love, it can return to you Friedbert, thuu wilt know that all these assi by no other conveyance.' duities, which the insensible regard as of no im. “ I was excessively surprised to find iny secret porlance, are hieroglyphics which convey a great known to Theophrastus. I knew him to be deal where they are understood, they have a very skilful, but I was ignorant that he could so sense, and a signification, as determinate as the well read hearts. I concealed from him nothing letters and the words in our ordinary language. of that which it seemed he already knew; and The language of love is a sort of symbolical I added in a inelancholy tone,-How cın that language, and two persons who understand it, which has deprived me of health give it me back may converse in the presence of the ignorant again? Can Zoe ever be mine, and can I live without betraying ought of their sentiments. without her ? Nothing remains for ine but to
“ The muteless testimonies of iny regard, || die, and it would be a cruel effort of your art to which found their way into the very chamber of endeavour to prevent it. the princess, spoke so strongly in my favour, “ You must, you shall live,' returned Theothat I presently reniarked with transport the eyes phrastus, and since love without hope is more of this charming woman singling me out in the
terrible than death, abandon not this first of blesse crowd of courtiers that surrounded to offer her ings. There is nothing new under the sun; that their homage. In meeting mine they teemed which has happened may happen again. The with an expression of render gratitude for my
old Tithonus little dreamt that he should ever be attentions, which penetrated to the in most re the husband of the beautiful Aurora. When the cesses of my soul. I became more bold; and shepherd of mount Ida played on his pipe to his through the medium of my secret friend I ven sheep, did he think he should one day carry off tured to solicit a private interview; it was at
the beautiful Helen? What had Anchises to length granted, but did not take place. Another boast of more than you, and yet the goddess of and another time was appointed, yet some little beauty preferred him to the valiant god of circumstance or other never failed to frustrate combats?' my high raised hopes, Sometimes it was the “ It was thus, by employing science and phi. princess who could not find an opportunity to losophy, that the compassionate physician sought steal to the place named for our meeting; some
to banish despair from my heart, the despair times I found that pointed out by herself inac which, like a subtle poison, was rapidly undercessible ; in short, the demon of jealousy watched mining my existence. I listened with avidity to the beautiful Zoe with such unremitting vigi
the consolation which he poured on my ear, and lance, that I found it impossible to procure a their effect was more powerful thun could have sight of her but in the presence of the whole been the most successful remedy of his art. I court, My desires, far from being blunted by presently regained my health, and recommenced these reiterated disappointments, became more with ardour my amorous pursuit.