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publication by Lake of Truro, and Hotten of Piccadilly (vol. i. p. 110). THOMAS Q. COUCH. "THE STAMFORD MERCURY" (4th S. ii. 179.)No perfect file of this newspaper is in existence; the most perfect is in the possession of the present publishers of the paper, but it is only complete for about one hundred and twenty years. Odd volumes and numbers of very early dates are in the hands of collectors, in different parts of
Lincolnshire. The earliest I have met with is vol. vii., commencing January 6, 1715; and as the volumes were then published half-yearly, it would give January 3, 1714, as the commencement of this newspaper. Stamford.
I have received the following information from a gentleman well acquainted with the history of this old and valuable paper.
The Stamford Mercury was first issued in 1695, not 1679. There is not a complete file at the office at Stamford. The series there begins in 1770, and is continued without break until the present year. Some earlier volumes are preserved there, but the dates are very irregular. A few early numbers are in the library at Rushall Hall, near Walsall. Several volumes-duplicates of which are not, I think, now in the office-were presented to the Waddington parish library by the Rev. Sir John Every, Bart. They have, I am sorry to add, disappeared from that collection; and their present place of deposit, if they exist, is unknown. If some reader could spare the time, when at the British Museum, to make out a list of the years of the Stamford Mercury that are there, and would send the same for publication to "N. & Q.," he would be doing a favour to more than one Lincolnshire antiquary.* I have an impression that there are some early volumes of the Stamford Mercury in the Guild Hall library, but I am by no means sure that I am not mistaken. EDWARD PEACOCK.
Bottesford Manor, Brigg.
BIOGRAPHY OF THE CHEVALIER D'EON (4th S. ii. 131.) In the two or three last numbers of a
French periodical, L'Amateur d'Autographes, published in Paris by Etienne Charavay, 26, Rue de Grands Augustins, your correspondent E. X. will find (not an answer to his query) but some curious letters of this modern Hermaphroditus. I have a good English print, representing a fencing-match before the Prince of Wales, between the Chevaliere d'Eon and Mons. de St. Georges; also several letters, and a book on "the Art of Letter-writing," with his signature.
[The following papers are in the British Museum: The Stamford Mercury from May 22 to June 12, 1718; The Lincoln, Rutland, and Stamford Mercury, from 1789, &c.-ED.]
In 1775, were published in London, Les Loisirs du Chevalier d'Eon, 13 vols., in 8vo; in 1779, appeared La Vie militaire, politique, et privée de Demoiselle Eon, Chevalier, etc., by De la Fortelle; and in 1836, Les Mémoires du Chevalier d'Eon, publiés sur les papiers fournis par la famille. Later came out a curious volume, Un Hermaphrodite, by Louis Jourdan.
I have a Mémoire, wholly in his handwriting, dated July 27, 1757, from Compiegne, asking the minister for a brevet in some cavalry regiment, which was granted on August 2. In this memoir he gives his Christian names: Charles Geneviève Louis Auguste André Timothé D'Eon de Beaumont. There is no question, then, of his virility, nor was there any doubt about it either, at his death in London (1810), according to the Comte de Provence's surgeon and two English medical From all accounts, he evidently was a I also possess a long letter of his: "Au Camp de "gallant" Chevalier in both senses of the word. Northeim le 28, 9bre, 1762," to the Minister of War, signed "D'Eon de Beaumont, Capitaine au de M. Le Comte de Broglie." Another autograph regiment D'Antichamp Dragons, Aide de Camp letter of his, from Versailles, 1778, is signed “La Chere D'Eon." On the seal, in a lozenge, a cock diplomatist and a soldier, he was vigilans et audax. flapping its wings; meaning probably that, as a
The fencing match at Carlton House, before the London. A portrait of the Chevalier D'Eon was Prince of Wales, was published by Robinde in engraved by Thos. Chambers after R. Cosway, R.A., in 1787; and another by Robt. Cooper, in
1810, for La Belle Assemblée.
P. A. L.
An autobiography by the Chevalier would most probably have been a mystification, as his life was. Recent discoveries, however, have thrown considerable light, if not the mystery of the disguise of his sex, upon the business in which he was employed. It seems that Louis XV. (considered the most listless and careless of voluptuaries), while apparently shrinking from any attention to the affairs of his kingdom, maintained a body of obscure agents, whose business it was ministers, and in fact keep him privately informed to exercise a sort of over his from this point of view on all matters of diplomacy and other public business which his avowed ministers conceived that his majesty was made acquainted with only through them. It would appear that the Chevalier was one of these agents. Chevalier at his father's house at dinner, at the A friend of mine told me he had often met the time when he chose to wear the female dress. He mentioned, however, that there was little of womanhood about him except the dress. His conversation was that of a man, and after dinner, when the ladies retired, he remained with the J. H. C.
NOTES AND QUERIES.
4th S. II. SEPT. 5, '68.]
STELLA'S BEQUEST TO STEEVENS' HOSPITAL (4th S. i. 410, 491.)-The Pall Mall reviewer, after the fashion of the writers in that paper, favoured his readers with his version of what the law ought to be, instead of what the law is. An exact rule for the point in question occurs in Blackstone's Commentaries, ii. 256; see also vol. i. p. 484:
"If a corporation comes by any accident to be dissolved, the donor or his heirs shall have the land again in reversion, and not the lord by escheat, which is perhaps the only instance where a reversion can be expectant on a grant in a fee simple absolute. But the law, we are told, doth tacitly annex a condition to every such gift or grant, that if the corporation be dissolved, the donor or grantor shall re-enter; for the cause of the gift or grant faileth."
Hereford, supplies a remarkable example of four
I apprehend that if Stella's gift was void for perpetuity, the avoidance took place when it was created by the will, and not when it was diverted from its original purpose by the failure of the limitation upon which it was founded. Such an interest as the chaplain of the hospital had in Stella's legacy would, in the case of land, be a base or qualified fee, as —
" in the case of a grant to A. and his heirs, tenants of the
manor of Dale. This estate is a fee, because by possibility it may endure for ever; yet, as that duration depends upon the concurrence of collateral circumstances which qualify and debase the purity of the donation, it is therefore a qualified or base fee."-Blackstone, vol. ii. p. 109.
The difficulty of finding out Stella's nearest relative living has nothing to do with the merits of the case. Possibly the law would consider that these words referred to the next of kin at the time of Stella's death, when the task would be comparatively easy. But the nearest relative now living would be found with certainty, if the estate could stand the costs of an inquiry in Chancery. J. WILKINS, B.C.L.
PORCELAIN (4th S. ii. 155.)—Richardson suggests the derivation of this word from "Procellanea," because it was believed that this ware was buried for many years in cells; and quotes in support of his opinion:
"True fame, like porc'lain earth, for years must lay
Hart, The Confessor.
ALPHA. Chichester is the only English cathedral possessing four aisles. The parish churches of Kendal, Westmoreland; S. Michael's, Coventry; and S. Mary Magdalene, Taunton, are, I think, the only ones with four aisles. The churches named by JOHN PIGGOT, JUN. Ottery, Yelvertoft, and Collumpton, are instanced in Parker's Glossary, along with those at Bloxam, Oxfordshire; S. Mary Magdalene, Oxford; and Higham Ferrars, Northamptonshire, as having "two aisles on one side, and one on the other "-the nave, of course, not P. E. MASEY. being counted.
JACKDAW OF RHEIMS (4th S. i. 577; ii. 21.) — I observe in About in the World, London, 1866, p. 286, the following statement: "The wretched This does not bird had stolen some spoons." accord either with the paragraph quoted by your correspondent WILLIAM E. A. AXON or with the J. MANUEL. well-known Ingoldsby legend.
Manchester Cathedral, and Christ Church, Oxford, have each five aisles. I think Great Yarmouth church, Norfolk, has four.
THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.
OLD BALLAD: "KING ARTHUR HAD THREE SONS" (4th S. i. 389.)-The following lines have been familiar to me since boyhood. Do they comprise the ballad referred to by your correspondent? "King Arthur had three sons,
As merry little dogs as e'er you'd see;
The third he was a little tailor boy
FOUR AISLES (4th S. ii. 178.)—The parish of
"The miller he stole corn,
The weaver he stole yarn,
And the Devil ran away with the little tailor boy
And the broad-cloth under his arm.'
This congregation of exiles existed for a short time only, when it doubtless became absorbed in that of Thorney, the adjoining parish. The dyke called French Drove is in Thorney parish: it is possible there may be another in Whittlesey, but never heard of it. The Thorney settlers came over from North Holland to drain the "marsh and drowned lands" that had been granted to Sir William Russell and had formerly belonged to the monastery. The settlers stipulated for freedom in their religious offices. They used to meet for worship at the toll-gate towards Wisbeach. For seventy-five years they existed independently, and then conformed to the English church. A great many names in Peterborough and the neighbourhood still give ample evidence of a French origin. The following names I have observed in Thorney churchyard:-Flahau, Leahair, Delenoy, Durance, Egar, Le Pla, Usill, Beharrell, Mange, Sigee. And Burn gives some names from the Thorney French register, of which the following are a sample, which are still to be found in the neighbourhood:-Provost, Gaches, Fovargne (this is how the labourer named by your correspondent would probably write his name), Le Tall, Ainger, Le Fevre, Descamps, Deboo, Harley, Guerin, Massingarb. W. D. SWEETING. Peterborough.
"A Uersailles le 29me Auril, 1706. "Jay receu touttes nos lettres aux quelle je nay point fait de responses de ma main nous aiant mandé mes intentions par celles que Pontchartrain nous a adressées. Il me paroist que tout est en bon train et quil ne manquera plus rien au siege; uous estes assés fort en mer pour demarer deuant barcellonne; on a portée tant que les ennemis ne seront pas plus forts quils sont au destroit ou dans la Mediterrannée. Les lettres que lon escrit de ma flotte me font beaucoup de peine il paroist que lon craint trop et que lon trouue que tout ua mal. Je me flatte que uous ne feres aucune fausse demarche et que linquiestudes des autres ne uous fera pas tomber dans aucun inconuenient.
Jen aurois beaucoup de peine pour uous et pour moy par raport au bien des affaires. Je uous ay ordonné de faire desbarquer et de renuoier a toulon un officier condanné a mort et uous ne lavés pas fait. Jen ay esté fasché car je ueux estre obey. Sil est encore sur mes vaisseaux faittes le sortir car je ueux quil se justifie deuant que de seruir. Empeschés uos escriuans demander tant de sottises car leurs lettres plaines de craintes ne leur font pas honneur et donnent des inquiétudes quil est bon déuiter. Jespere que tout finira heureusement et promptement a barcelonne et que nous uous reuerrons bien tost.
"LOUIS." P. A. L.
UGO FOSCOLO (3rd S. xi. 437.)—In answer to an inquiry some months ago about letters from Ugo Foscolo, I have eleven letters which your correspondent may see.
G. F. W.
1, Verulam Buildings, Gray's Inn.
"On the French stage, tragical effect is understood to be given by slapping the thighs, a practice not yet introduced on the English stage. Elizabeth did not hesitate to do this in swearing some of her father's oaths, and to give emphasis to the expression of her will."
This practice is of great antiquity, for we find it in Homer. The emotion of Patroclus on the Trojans invading the Grecian camp is thus de
And Mars himself,—
Ως ἔφατ'· αὐτὰρ ̓́Αρης θαλερὼ πεπλήγετο μηρὼ
Il. o. 113. "Stern Mars, with anguish for his slaughter'd son, Smote his rebelling breast, and fierce begun."
This certainly is not Homer; but Pope, with his usual judgment, has substituted for an action almost ridiculous to English feelings that which expresses to them sorrow and emotion. It is to be observed that both thighs are represented to be smitten; unp is always in the dual number. The most ancient form of oath of which we read was by putting the hand under the thigh of the person imposing it, which was used both by Abraham and by Jacob (see Genesis xxiv. 2 and xlvii. 29). And in speaking of the parts of the body, it is remarkable that the ancients appear to have entertained a more correct idea of the seat of
the tender affections than we do; for of Joseph it is said that "his bowels did yern upon his brother" (Gen. xliii. 30), whereas we speak of beating the breast, and moving the heart, a thing too often morally insensible, and found by modern discoveries to be altogether physically so also. W.
ANCIENT AND MODERN SANSCRIT (4th S. ii. 93, 165.) The Sanscrit was introduced into India fifteen centuries before Christ (Eichhoff, Parallèle des Langues, p. 21), having driven out the languages of the aborigines of India, which are now only spoken in the southern Deccan, as the Telinga, Tamul, and others (Gildemeister, Penny Cyc., XX. 397). Besides the religious Veds, consisting of a hundred thousand strophes of four lines each, composed in the thirteenth century B.C., it includes many works in poetry, romance, philosophy, law, and science (Adelung, Mithridates, i. 135). The classical Sanscrit has for about three thousand years, partly as a living language and partly as a learned one, retained the same general structure. It was the language of the court of Cashmere as late as the twelfth century A.D., and was probably in use in the courts of Rajpootana even in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Mahommedan conquest, however, gave the final blow to the language, and it is now used only in learned disputations in the colleges of the Brahmins (Gildemeister, id., p. 398). The words asked for, as given by Williams, are-RUM, 8. (the spirit), गोडी - डिकं, गुडलं, शीधुः -धु m. n. आसवः, हीलुकं, मैरमं. BRANDY, 8.
मद्यशुण्डा मद्यासवं सुरा आसवं शीधुः
m.au. GIN, 8. (spirit),
-रो, वारुणी, शीधुः दाला, आसवं .
The line of demarcation between ancient and modern Sanscrit may be thus stated: -Whatever is found in genuine works prior to the twelfth century A.D. may be considered ancient, whilst the meaning of European words of invention subsequent to that date, although expressed in Sanscrit terms, must be deemed modern; as telegram, telegraph, telescope, microscope, photograph, &c., are modern, although expressed in ancient Greek T. J. BUCKTON. ROYSTON CLUB (4th S. ii. 179.)-I can inform TEWARS that the MS. list of members of the above club is to be found among the MS. additions to Salmon's Bedfordshire, numbered Gough
-धु "., मदिरा,
"The Rev. W. Smith is worthy of memory for his influence over the learning of the Episcopal clergy, at a period when scholarship was at a low ebb in this country; for his having left a lasting monument of himself in the American Book of Common Prayer, in the Office for the Induction of Ministers, of which he was the sole author and compiler; and also, especially, for his works in Church Music."-See Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, v. 345-349; and Duyckinck's American Literature, Supplement, p. 58.
This contribution of Dr. Smith to the Prayer Book was prepared at the request of the Diocesan Convention of Connecticut, and accepted by the General Convention in 1804. JUXTA TURRIM.
NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.
A Handbook of Pictorial Art. By the Rev. R. S. St. John Tyrwhitt, M.A. With a Chapter on Perspective by A. Macdonald, School of Art, Oxford. Clarendon Series. (Macmillan.)
This is a well-timed book on a subject to which public attention is day by day more earnestly directed, the value and importance of art education, and the form which that education should assume. It is divided into two parts; the first, Theory, treats of art as a branch of liberal education,-what the careful amateur gains by practising it, and what it will be worth to him to have learned more or less about Art. Mr. Tyrwhitt declares it will "do him good mentally, morally, and physically. it will train to grasp at ideas of
Mental morally, it wiln make him thankful for them,
save him from lower desires, and open to him the way of aspiration; physically, it will teach him how to make the hand obey the eye with a perfect service, and give him a vast advantage in accomplishments, or sports, or serious works of accuracy and skill which depend for success on perfect union in action of eye and hand." Mr. Tyrwhitt next proceeds to the Practice, and in this division frankly acknowledges his indebtedness to the writings and advice of Mr. Ruskin, and more especially to the assistance of Mr. Alexander Macdonald, Master of the Oxford Art School, the greater part of the chapters on Perspective and Water-colour being the work of that gentleman. In this division of the work Mr. Tyrwhitt has laboured, as it appears to us, successfully to give a progressive and coherent system of instruction, in which one step may lead properly into another, and the earlier processes or exercises be a consistent preparation for a Îater and more elaborate one. If gentlemen both in and out of the House of Commons, who at one time preach up the superiority of French and other continental workmen over the workmen of this country in all constructive and ornamental trades, and at another, attack the authorities of South Kensington for their endeavours to give our working-men the art training which their continental rivals receive, would reflect that, while such superiority exists, trade, work, and bread must and will
go from England to France and Germany, they would themselves be better patriots and sounder political economists. Mr. Tyrwhitt takes a wider and more patriotic view of the matter, and his Handbook of Pictorial Art is well calculated to promote the study of art as a branch of general education; as his directions, if carefully studied and diligently followed, are to promote among English artisans a readier eye, a firmer hand, and greater taste and facility in the production of works of decorative and ornamental character.
Half Hours with the Best Letter-writers and Autobiographers; forming a Collection of Memoirs and Anecdotes of Eminent Persons. Second Series. By Charles Knight. (Routledge & Sons.)
Few men have written more books for the instruction and amusement of the reading world than Mr. Charles Knight,-none have written better. Every work that he produces is distinguished by a kindly and intelligent spirit of criticism, and a thorough love of the good and the beautiful. The object which Mr. Knight proposed to himself in the First Series of the present work (which is no exception to this rule) was, "to supply brief memoirs, or characteristic traits, of many distinguished persons, in connection with the records of their own thoughts and feelings, as preserved in autobiographies, in diaries, and in familiar letters"; and this is well carried out in the volume before us, which differs, however, in one respect from its predecessor; for while it was no part of Mr. Knight's original plan to include unpublished letters, yet having permission to print for the first time some interesting letters of Robert Southey and of George Canning, he has very wisely availed himself of such permission, and thereby added fresh interest to a work already sufficiently attractive. In the present volume there is abundant variety, as a glance at its contents will show; for in addition to the documents to which we have already referred, we have pleasant papers on the Paston Letters, the Percy Correspondence, on Cowper's Autobiography, Junius and Woodfall, Edmund Gibbon, Thomas De Quincey, and many essays of the like agreeable character illustrative of the lives and letters of persons who have won for themselves names which we love to keep in remembrance.
that no suitable monument marked the grave of Leigh Hunt in Kensal Green Cemetery, and he suggested that one should be erected by private subscription. He consulted Mr. Joseph Durham, A.R.A., on the subject, and that gentleman kindly consented to execute a bust and pedestal for the mere cost of the work. Mr. Hall then applied by letter to friends and admirers of the poet, and about 701. were paid or promised. The estimated cost of the entire work is 150l., and it has been determined to raise the requisite 807. by public appeal. Contributions may be paid to Mr. S. C. Hall, at the Art Journal office; to Mr. Edmund Ollier, 10, Victoria Grove, Kensington, W., the Hon. Secretaries; or to S. R. Townshend Mayer, F.R.S.L., Hon. Treasurer, 25, Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C. Cheques and Post-office orders should be crossed "Ransom, Bouverie, & Co.," that firm having kindly consented to act as bankers of the fund.
JACOB VAN LENNEP.-Mr. Jacob van Lennep, one of our foremost poets, historians, and philologists, is dead. The Dutch literature loses a man in him whose capabilities were acknowledged and valued even beyond the boundaries of the Low German language. Most of his novels lated into French, English, and German. He was born at -widely circulated in his own country-have been transAmsterdam in the year 1802, and died at his country residence at Oosterbeck, near Arnheim, on August 25. At the Low German Philological and Literary Congress, the Tenth Session of which was opened to-day in this city, a proposal was made and carried nem, con. to erect a monument on his grave, the expenses to be defrayed by means of public subscription.-H. TIEDEMAN. The Hague, August 31, 1868.