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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. who has been the cause of the murder of hundreds. try; and a government may call on a friendly Though your usage was made villanous at the nation to give up a subject that has seriously fort, yet your revenge was too sa vage and sanguin- wronged her. I recommend Mr. Hambly to ary. If your conduct, sir, to the Indians were be content with the douceur he may have reguided by as pure motives as mine, you would ceived, and permit the uplettered Indian to live endeavor to influence them, and respect each quietly and peaceably on bis native land. other as brothers, and live in harmony and friend- I shall send a copy of this letter, with the one ship, cultivating their lands in Summer, and tak from you, to be read by the chiefs of this nation, ing their diversions of hunting in Winter, respect- and shall, at the same time, take an opportunity ing their neighbors, and making yourselves of expressing myself more fully than I did in the respected by them. If thus, sir, you would act, note sent by A piny. (and by your knowledge of their language you Wishing you a speedy recantation of your erhave much more in your power than any other rors, and a return to your former way of thinkiog, man,) you would then be the true friend of the I am your obedient servant, Indians. Were l an instigator of thefts and mur
A. ARBUTHNOT. der, would I hold the language I have done to the chiess and others who have called on me? Ask
H. the lieutenant commanding at Fort Gaines, if my letter to him breathed the strains of murder?
Letter from A. Arbuthnot to the Governor of Ask Opy Hatchy, or Dany, his interpreter, if the
Harana. recommendatory note I sent him by order of The chiefs of the Creek pation, whose names A piny, could be written by an instigator of mur are hereunto annexed, beg leave to approach your der?” Ask A piny himself if my language to him excellency, and represent iheir complaints. Long was that of a murderer? Ask Mappalitchy, a imposed on by the persons keepiog stores in this chief residing among the Americans on Oakmul country, in charging us exorbitant prices for their gee, if my language and advice to him favored goods, while they only allow us a very trilling ihai of a murderer? All those and every Indian one for our peltry, we have found it necessary to who has heard my talks, will contradict your vile look out for a person that will deal fairly with assertions.
us, and we wish to establish a store for him on But Mappalitchy has given me a clue by which Appalachicola river. We have made application I can upravel from whence the aspersions come, to the commander of St. Mark's, and he referred not from Apiny, Hatchy, or any of the chiefs of us to your excellency. It is not alone the impothe upper towns, but from him who endeavors to sition that has been practised upon us, ibat has lead them to mischief and quarrels with each made us presume to address your excellency; we other.
have complaints of a more serious nature against Did not the chiefs hear my note read with re- the persons employed by the only house that has spect, and perfectly according to my sentiments been established among us, that of Mr. Forbes, of being all as brethren, uniting in the bonds of In the first place, some years back, under false friendship and love ? Did not they agree to smoke pretences, they attempted io rob us of a very large the pipe of peace with their brethren of the lower portion of our best lands; and we the more read. nation, and live in future as brothers? What ily acceded to it, from the faithful promise given made some of them alter their minds afterwards? us that they would get English people to settle The interference of a humane man, who counsels it, and live among us, but, far from doing this, them to write me, demanding my removal from Mr. Forbes attempted to sell it to the American a band of outlaws, and which letter is signed Government, and settle it with Americans. Thus “William Hambly."
finding ourselves deceived and imposed on, we I shall only make one more observation, and withdrew our grant about three years since, that will show from whence I came, and whether which, from the stipulations contained therein I came among ihe Indians as a revenger or as the not being fulfilled on the part of Mr. Forbes, we friend of peace and harmony.
conceived we had a right to do. Secondly, Mr. In the Spring of 1816, Mr. Hambly sent Gov. Doyle and Mr. Hambly, the two persons left in ernor Cameron a letter, containing ialks of the the nation to carry on Mr. Forbes's business, chiefs of the Indian nations; they were forward. have, for more than two years, been endeavoring ed to England, and his excellency handed me, on to influence us to join the Americans; and findmy leaving Providence, an answer thereto from ing that fair means would not secure us from our the right honorable Earl Bathurst, one of His attachments to our ancient friends the Englisb, Majesty's chief Secretaries of State, that I might they have recently had recourse to threats of make the same known to the chiefs on my arrival bringing the Americans down upon us; and that in the nation. What will Governor Cameron people only want a pretext to attack us, which think of the man who, in 1816, could write against the said Doyle and Hambly attempt to give the encroachments of the Americans on the In- them, by spreading false reports of our murdering dian nation, and, in the Spring of 1817, call the the Americans, stealing their cattle, and preparing chiefs of that nation, for whom he more especially for war against them, while, in fact, it is the wrote, outlaws? Mr. Hambly may sell bis ser- Americans who murder our red brethren, steal vices to America; but no man can expatriate our cattle by hundreds at a time, and are daily himself from thatallegiance due to his native coun- I encroaching on our lands, and maintaining the Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
settlers in their ill-gotten possessions by armed 4. Chief on the Conholoway, below Fort Gaines. force.
5. Oponey, chief of the Oakmulgee Towns. On the Choctahatchy river there are a large 6. Chief of the Atla palgas. body of Americans forming settlements, and more 7. Chief of the Pallatchacoley. are daily joining them. As this river is far within 8. Chief of the Chehaws. that line marked out by your excellency's Gov- 9. Chief of the Red Sticks. ernment and the Americans, some years since, 10. Francis, (the prophet.) (although that line was unknown to us until very 11. Peter McQueen, chief of the Tallahasses, lately, and we never gave our sanction, nor, in (an old Red Stick.) fact, knew of any sale of our lands made to the 12. A Red Stick, created chief by the lower Americans,), we trust your excellency will give towns. order to displace them from within the line, and send them back to their own country. Our de- Question by the court. Have you, at any time laying to address your excellency to represent the within the last twelve months, heard any converforementioned grievances has been owing to the sation between the prisoner and the chief called want of a person to attend to our talks, and put Bowlegs, relating to the war between the United them in writing for us. The commander of the States and the Seminoles ? fort at St. Mark's has heard all of our talks and Answer. I heard the prisoner tell Bowlegs that complaints. He approves of what we have done he had sent letters to the Prince Regent, and exand what we are doing; and it is by his recom-pected soon to have an answer. Some time aftermendation we have thus presumed to address wards, some of the negroes doubted his carrying your excellency.
those letters, when the prisoner stated that be We have the honor to be, &c.
had, but the distance being great, it would take A. ARBUTHNOT. some time to receive an answer. His Exc'y the GOVERNOR GENERAL, &c.
By the court. State to the court when and
where you first saw the letter signed " A. ArbuthNo. 1.
not,” dated April 2, 1818, referred to in the first Power of attorney from the Indian chiefs to A. Ar- specification of the second charge. buthnot.
Answer. About the 6th of April, a black man, Know all men by these presents, that we, chiefs who said he had received it from an lodian, gave of the Creek pation, whose names are affixed to
it to Mr. Ambrister, whom I saw reading it. this power, having full faith and confidence in Question by the court. Do you know by what Alexander Arbuthnot, of New Providence, who, means that letter was conveyed to Suwanee? knowing all our talks, is fully acquainted with
Answer. I understood by an Indian who was our intentions and wishes, do hereby, by these sent from Fort St. Mark's. presents, constitute and appoint him, the said Question by the court. Who paid the Indian Alexander Arbuthnot, our attorney and agent, for carrying the letter referred to in the last inwith full power and authority to act for us, and terrogatory? in our names, in all affairs relating to our nation,
Answer. I do not know. and also to write such letters and papers as to
Question by the court. What steps were taken him may appear necessary and proper for our by the negroes and Indians on the receipt of the benefit and that of the Creek nation.
letter? Given at Ocklocknee Sound, in the Creek Answer. They first believed the bearer to be an nation, this seventeenth day of June, one thousand enemy, and confined him; but, learning the coneight hundred and seventeen.
trary, began to prepare for the enemy, and the 1 Cappachimico, his x mark.
removal of their fainilies and effects across the 2 Inhimathlo, his x mark.
river. The Indians lived on the opposite side. 3 Charle Tustonaky, his x mark. Question by the court. Did the Indians and 4 Otusmico, his x mark.
negroes act together in the performance of mili5 Ocbacona Tustonoky, his x mark.
tary duty ? 6 Imathluche, his x mark.
Answer. No; but they always said they would 7 Inhimatchluchy, his x mark.
fight together. 8 Laboe Iohamatchlo, his x mark. Question by the court. Did not Nero command 9 Hourathee Micho, his x mark. the blacks, and did not Bowlegs own Nero; and 10 Hillisajo, his x mark.
was not the latter under the immediate command 11 Tamuches Haho, his x mark.
of Bowlegs? 12 Opothlimico, his x mark.
Answer. Nero commanded the blacks, and was Witness: PETER SAUGERT, Interpreter. owned and commanded by Bowlegs; but there
were some negro captains who obeyed none but Certified explanation of names and towns to which
Nero. the foregoing chiefs belong, agreeably to the num
Question by the court. What vessel brought to bers set opposite thereto.
Suwanee the ammunition which you said was 1. Kinhigee, chief of Mickasukey.
sold by the prisoner to the Indians and negroes? 2. Lohemothlo, chief of Fowltown.
Answer. The schooner Chance, now lying at 3. Charle Tustonoky, second chief of Oak- this wharf. She is a foretopsail vessel, belongmulgee Town.
ing to the prisoner.
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. The witness also identified the manuscript of the We demand of the King, our father, to fix some prisoner on the following documents, viz: No. 1, of his people among us, who may inform him, granting him full power to act in all cases for the from time to time, of what is passing, and see Îndians, as recorded before; and also a letter, the Americans do not extend themselves on our without signature, to the Governor of St. Au-lands. gustine, numbered 2; and further, a letter, with- The Spanish subjects in the Floridas are too out date, to Mr. Mitchell, the Indian ageni, num- much in the interests of the Americans to be our bered 3; an unsigned petition of the chiefs of the friends. For the Governors, I shall always enLower Creek nation to Governor Cameron, pray- tertain the greatest regard; but for the people, ing his aid in men and munitions of war num. they do not act so as to merit any esteem and bered 4; all of which the witness stated to be in protection. You desire I would chase those mathe handwriting of the prisoner.
rauders who steal my caule. My people have
lately driven some Americans from Labheway, No. 2.
and I have no doubt the Americans will lay bold [Supposed to be from Bowlegs to the Governor of St. have before done, in stating we harbor iheir run
of this as a pretext to make war on us, as they Augustine.]
away slaves. Sir: I had the honor of receiving your letter
To Don Jose COPPINGER, of September, but the impossibility of finding a
Governor of St. Augustine. person to write an answer to the same is the cause of this apparent neglect.
No. 3. I shall be very happy to keep up a good understanding and correspondence with you; and hope
Sir: King Hatchy, the head chief of the Lower you will
, when occasion offers, advise me of such Creek nation, has called on me to request I would things as may be of service to myself and people. Of the American people living on the borders of
represent to you the cruel and oppressive conduct My warriors and others that go to St. Augustine; the Indian nation, and which he was in hopes, return with false reports, tending to harass and from a talk
you were pleased to send him some distress my people, and preventiog them from attending to their usual' avocations.
weeks since, would have been put a stop to, aod time, the Americans and Upper Indians, support can people; but, far from any stop being put to
peace restored between the Indians and the Amered by a force of about three thousand men, were
their inroads and encroachments, they are pourrunning lines far within the lodian territory; at another time, are collecting a force at Fori ing in by hundreds at a time, noi only from the Mitchell
, in the forks of Flint and Chatahoochee land side, but ascending the Appalachicola in rivers, to fall on the towns below.
vessel-loads. Thus, the Indians have been comNow, sir, we know of no reason the Americans pelled to take up arms to defend their homes from
a set of lawless invaders. can have to attack us, an inoffensive and unoffending people. We have gone of their slaves; Indians induces the head chiefs to hope that you
Your known philanthropy and good will to the we have taken none of their property since the will lose no time in using your influence to put Americans made peace with our good father, King George. We have followed the orders of a stop to those invasions of their lands and order his officer that was with us, Lieut. Colonel Ed that those who have already presumed to seize ward Nicholls, and in nowise molested the Amer
our fields may retire therefrom. icaps, though we daily see them encroaching on have been greatly instrumental in bringing the
The Indians have seized iwo persons they think our territory, stealing our cattle, and murdering Americans upon them, and they are now in their and carrying off our people. That same officer also told us, we, as allies to the great King, our possession as prisoners. It is even reported they father, were included in the treaty of peace be have made sales of Indian lands without the tween our good father and the Americans; and of the nation ; and, from their long residence in
knowledge, consent, or approbation, of the chiefs that the latter were to give up all the territory the nation, and the great influence one of those the war. Yet, so far from complying with the people formerly enjoyed among the chiefs as their ninth article of that treaty, they are daily making guilty of improper conduct to the Indian nation.
chief, there is some reason to believe he has been encroachments on our land, getting persons, who are not known to the chiefs, and, without any
Gen. Mitchell, Agt for Indian Affairs. power or authority, to grant and sign over lands
No. 4. to them. Thus they deceive the world, and make our very friends believe we are in league Petition of the chiefs of the Lower Creek nation to with them.
Governor Cameron. The principal chiefs of the nation, with the We, the undersigoed, are deputed by the chiefs head warrior, assembled at my town on the 8th of the Creek nation to wait on your excellency, instant, and came to the resolution of informing and lay before you their heavy complaints. the British Minister at Washington of the con- To ihe English we have always looked up as duct of the Americans and the officers of their friends, as protectors, and on them we now call to Government towards us. It has been done ac- aid us'in repelling the approaches of the Americordingly, and copies sent to England.
cans, who, regardless of ireaties, are daily seizing
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
on our lands and robbing our people. They have
Members. already built seven forts on our land; they are Colonel King, Colonel Dyer, making roads and running lines into the very Colonel Williams,
Lieut. Col. Lindsay, heart of our country; and, without the interfé- Lieut. Col. Gibson, Lieut. Col. Elliott, rence of the Eoglish, we shall soon be driven Major Muhlenburg, Major Fanning, from the land we inherited from our forefathers.
Major Montgomery, Major Minton, The Americans tell us the English will regard Captain Vashon, Captain Crittenden. us no more, and we had better submit to them; Lieutenant J. M. Glassell, Recorder. but we cannot submit to their shackles, and will rather die in defence of our country.
When the further examination of the witness, When peace was made between the English Peter B. Cook, took place, viz: and Americans, we were told by Lieutenant Col- Question by the prisoner. How long have you onel Nicholls that the Americans were to give up been acquainted with the settlements on the Sahour lands they had taken from us, and we were wahnee? desired to live quietly and peaceably, in nowise
Answer. Between six and seven months. molesting the Americans. We have strictly fol- Question by the prisoner. For what term of lowed those orders, but the Americans have not years did you engage to live with the prisoner ? complied with the treaty. Colonel Nicholls left Answer. For no stated period; I was taken by Mr. Hambly in charge of the fort at Prospect the year. Bluff, with orders to bear us if any cause of com- Question by the prisoner. Were you not displaints, and represent the same to the British charged by the prisoner from his employ? Government; but he turned traitor and brought
Answer. He told me he had no further use the Americans down on the fort, which was blown for me after I had written the letters to Proviup, and many of our red brethren destroyed in it. dence. The ammunition stores intended for our use were
Question. Where did you stay after you were either destroyed or taken off by the Americans. discharged ? We have seni several messengers to inform your
Answer. I stayed in a small house belonging excellency of these proceedings of the Ameri- to a boy called St. John, under the protection of caps, but they have never returned to us with an Nero.
Three of our red brethren have lately Question. What was the subject matter of the been killed by the Americans while hunting on letters, you wrote to Providence ? our lands, and they threaten to attack the lowas Answer. After being refused by the prisoner a of Mickasukey and Suwanee, the only two large small venture to Providence, I wrote to my friends towns left us in the Creek nation; and without for the means to trade by myself. aid from your excellency, we cannot repel their Question by the prisoner. Do you believe the attack.
prisoner had knowledge of the venture being on We are therefore deputed to demand of your board the schooner ? excellency the assistance of troops and ammuni- Answer. I do not believe he did ; it was small, tion, that we may be able effectually to repel the at- and in my trunk. tack of the Americans, and prevent their further Question by the prisoner. Do you know that encroachments; and, if we return without assist. Ambrister was the agent of the prisoner ? ance, the Americans, who have their spies among
Answer. I do not. us, will the more quickly come upon us.
Question. Do you think that the powder and We most humbly pray, your excellency will lead shipped would more than supply the Indian send such a force as will be respected and make and negro hunters ? us respectable.
Answer. I did not see the powder and lead
myself, but was told by Bowlegs that he had a [The following endorsed on the foregoing.]
great quantity; he had them keeping to fight CHARLES CAMERON, Esq.,
with. Governor, Commander-in-chief, fc. Question. Did the Indians reside on the east I beg leave to represent to your excellency the side of the river ?—Answer. They did. necessity of my again returning to the Indian Question. You were asked if the negroes and nation with the deputies from the chiefs; and, as Indiaos, when the letter marked A was commumy trouble and expense can only be defrayed by nicated, did not lake up arms. Had they repermission to take goods to dispose of among ceived information of the defeat of the Indians at ihem, I pray your excellency will be pleased to Mickasuky prior to that time? grant me such a letter or license as will prevent Answer. It was afterwards, I believe, they reme from being captured, in case of meeting any ceived the information. Spanish cruiser on the coast of Florida.
Question. Did not Bowlegs keep other powder The court adjourned to meet lo-morrow morn- than that got from the prisoner ? ing, at 7 o'clock.
Answer. He had some he got from the bluff,
which was nearly done; he said bis hunters were FORT ST. MARK's, April 27, 1818. always bothering him about powder. The court convened pursuant to adjournment. Question. Did you slate that, at the time AmPresent:
brister ascended the river, there was no other Major General E. P. Gaines, President. vessel at the mouth of the river ?
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
Adswer. There was none other there; there dian affairs, protesting against the proceedings of was one had sailed.
the commanding officer at Fort Scott. While Question. There is a letter A spoken of; how the witness was at Suwany, the lodian chiefs do you know that the son of the prisoner had that told him that the prisoner had arrived at that letter in his possession ?
place with ten kegs of powder on board his vesAnswer. I saw him with it, which he dropped, sel; and, whilst in Fort St. Mark's, some time in and a boy called John picked it up and gave it March, Hillis Hajo, or Francis, brought an order to me.
from the prisoner to the commandant for two Question. You stated that the Indians and ne- kegs of powder, with other articles, which were groes doubted the fidelity of the prisoner in send in his possession. ing letters to the Prince Regent; do you think Question by the court. Were any murders or the prisoner would have been punished by them depredations committed on the wbite settlements bad he not complied with their wishes ? by the Indians previous to the prisoner's arrival Answer. I do not know.
ai Ocklocknee? Question. Do you believe the prisoner was Answer. None, except one murder at Fort compelled to write the Indian communications ? Gaines, which was before or about the time of Answer. He was not compelled.
the prisoner's arrival. William Hambly, a witness for the prosecu
Question. How long have you resided among tion, being duly sworn, and commencing a state. the Indians ? State to the court whether you are ment of what he heard the chiefs say, and the acquainted with the Indian language, and how prisoner objecting to hearsay evidence of that long since you learned it? kind, the court was cleared in order to take the Answer. I have resided among them fourteen question ; when they decided that the prisoner's years, and have understood their laoguage twelve objection was not valid. The witness was there years. fore recalled, and stated that, fifteen or twenty Question. Do you believe the Seminoles would days after the prisoner arrived at Ocklocknee, have commenced the business of murder and the Seminole Indians began to steal horses from depredalion on the white setilements had it not the United States' settlements, and committed been at the instigation of the prisoner, and a promurders on the Satilla river, which, he was in mise, on his part, of British protection ? formed by them, was at the instigation of the Answer. I do not believe they would without prisoner. The chiefs of the Little Villages, in they had been assured of British protection. witness's neighborhood, then desired him to write Question by the court. What was the light ia a few lines to the prisoner, stating those reports, which the prisoner was viewed by the hostile and that he did not know that those Indians he Seminoles ? Was it that of an authorized agent was exciting had long been outlawed, and cau- of the British Government ? tioned him against such proceedings, or he might Answer. The different chiefs always reprebe involved in their ruin. This the witness did; sented him to me as such. The witness recogwhen the prisoner wrote him a long and insult- pised the letter marked G, and signed A. Arbuthing letter, which was lost, upbraiding the witness not, as being a copy of the one alluded to in his for calling those Indians outlaws, and accusing testimony as lost. him of exciting the Indians to cruel war. The Question by the prisoner. Are you acquainted witness was told by chiefs and Indians, who had with the prisoner's handwriting ? seen the prisoner, that he advised them to go to Answer. I have seen it, but cannot say I am war with the United States, if they did not sur- acquainted with it. render them the lands which had been taken from Question. Is that which you have just seen, them, and that the British Government would and say is the copy of the one you lost, the pris. support them in it.
oner's handwriting? The Indians that took the witness and a cer- Answer. It looks to be his handwriting, but I tain Mr. Doyle prisoners, which happened on the cannot say positively. 13th of December last, told them it was by the Question. Was the prisoner considered as the prisoner's order; and, on their arrival at the agent of the Seminoles at the time those murders Mickasaky, (as prisoners,) King Hijah and all were committed ? his chiefs told them it was by the prisoner's or- Answer. I had not seen the prisoner at that ders they were taken and robbed. On their arri- time. The Indian chiefs told me that the prisval at Suwany, they were told by the Indian and oner had reported himself to them as an English negro chiefs, who sat in council over them, that agent. the prisoner had advised he should be given up Question. Where did you understand the pristo five or six Choctaw Indians, who were saved oner to be when you were taken prisoner? from the negro fort, who would revenge them- Answer. The Indians told us that he had gone selves for the loss of their friends at that place. over to Providence, but was expected back by the On their return from Suwany, the chief King, time we should arrive at Suwapee. Hijah, told them that he had got the prisoner to Question. Did you not request King Hijah lo write several letters for him; one to the Governor prevail upon the prisoner to give you a passage of Providence, one to the British Minister at in his schooner to Providence ? Washington, one to the Secretary of State in Answer. Yes, but was told that the prisoner London, and one to the American agent for In-1 resused it; stating that, if we were forced upon