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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
pré, on account and at the risk of Don Benigno United States and merchant at New Orleans. Garcia Calderon, at Pensacola, and to be deliv. In testimony whereof we give the present certifi. ered to him there, viz:
cate at the desire and request of the aforesaid C.-No. 3 to 12.
Captain Calderon, at Pensacola, this 18th day of Ten sacks, containing one hundred and thirty- May, 1818. one coats, at ten rials
- $163 75
HENRIQUE MICHELET, Sacks, sewing, and transportation
4 00 VINCENTE DE ORDOZGOITTI,
167 75 Commission, at five per cent.
No. 2.' Amount to the debit of Don B. G. Cal
PENSACOLA, May 14, 1818. deron
$176 13 Instructed, by your letter of yesterday, of the
points treated of by Major General Jackson in P. DALHASTE Y CLAVERIA.
his letter of the 27th ultimo, and on 'which he New ORLEANS, May 29, 1817.
founds his positive assertions, that the Indians
not only received succors at Appalachie, but that New ORLEANS, July 29, 1817. they were excited to commit their outrages On the receipt of yours, the caps were already against them, [the United States,] were advised agreed for with some other articles of clothing, of his movements, &c. I have, in answer, to amounting, as per invoice annexed, to $317 161, express the astonishment this affair has caused and which is charged to you in account. I me, and which has solely arisen from the im poshave suspended the purchase of the hats, which cure employed, by some malicious person, to ran at from eight to ten dollars, until furiher or asperse the parties criminated by the letter of ders. Account of cost and charges of the follow the said General. His excellency states, that, ing articles, shipped in two hogsheads, three bar- from the papers and other proofs taken at St. rels, two cases, and one sack, on board ihe schoon-John's, the detention of American cattle found er Jalouse, Jose Medina, master, bound to Pen- at St. Mark's, and purchased of the commissary sacola, on account and at the risk of Don Benigno there, and the intercourse carried on between Garcia Calderon, and to be delivered to him on that place and the hostile Indians, it is evident his order, viz:
ibat they were inspirited and excited to this Twenty-five pairs of cotton pantaloons,
cruel war by the Spaniards. To this I have to at fifty rials
$12 50 reply, that it has never come to my knowledge Two hundred and thirty-six flannel
that any person belonging to the fort had any waistcoats, at three hundred and sev
intercourse, directly or indirectly, with St. John's; enty-two rials
and although I wrote two letters to Mr. Arbuch: Two hundred and fifty-three caps, at
not, an English merchant, one of them was 18 rials
47 43% merely to thank him for the three copies [exemA parcel of leather gaiters and coyars
15 00plares] he sent me from thence or Savannah, Twenty Russia vests or jackets, fifty
and for the information he gave me of the inone pairs of pantaloons, thiriy-five
lection of the insurgents at Amelia Island, and cotton shirts-106 pieces at one dol
of Captain Woodbine, who I informed you by 106 00
express was one of the two chiefs hung on the Twenty-nine cotton shirts, at seventy day I left Appalachie, or on the preceding ope; five rials
and the other was to request him to come or Cooperage and transportation
send as speedily as possible for the effects which,
at the request of the Indian chiefs, and to avoid
302 067 increasing their suspicions, I permitted to be de. Commission, at five per cent.
posited in the fort on the departure of O'Kelagne,
who had them in charge; and although by this Amount to the debit of Don B. G. Cal.
step I ran some risk, from the state of excitement deron
of both parties, it was one which does not appear to me to give any just ground for suspicion.
Nor does the finding of American catile, which P. DALHASTE Y CLAVERIA. his excellency states he purchased at St. Mark's, Don B. G. CALDERON, Pensacola.
afford greater cause of suspicion, as it is notori
ous that, from the time of its establishment, its We, the undersigned, merchants of this place, supplies were obtained from the droves of catile hereby certify that the foregoing copies of para- brought there for sale by the Indians; and that graphs of letters of advice and of invoices are they had many is shown from those found in perfectly conformable to the originals exhibited Mickasukey and its vicinity. Purchases were io us by Captain Don Benigno Garcia Calderon, only occasionally made, because we considered commanding the Grey and Brown companies ourselves sufficiently supplied for some months ; from Havana; and that the signatures thereo and if the cattle were stolen from the Americans, subscribed are in the genuine handwriting of ihe sellers took good care to conceal that fact, and Don Pedro Dalbaste y Claveria, a ciuzen of the I were all of them knowo to have droves, and were
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
in the habit of bringing them for sale; and very interest prevailed in the fort, he did not obtain it; seldom was it that the American commandant in consequence of which we were considered as or magistrate, within whose district these ex. American partisans to the last, were reproached cesses were committed, was known to complain with it, and had even to put up with some imof them to the commandant at St. Mark's, and pertinences from them. Ishall, however, in strict send him the marks of the cattle, that it might adherence to truth, and because the circumstance be seen from whence they came, and the purchase may have given rise to these suspicions, state that of them be avoided. Nor does the iniercourse the chief Petisacho, who was hung, received, between the fort and the Indians, complained of | among other things, at the fort, from Mr. Arbuch. by General Jackson, afford any better evidence not, an English merchant, when he came from of what he asserts, that from this it is inferable Savannah to request aid against the negroes from that they were inspirited and excited to this cruel him on account of their molestation, a small barwar by the Spaniards. Such intercourse and rel of powder, which might contain from twenty good understanding were at all times recom- to twenty-five pounds, and which was kept with mended by the Government, and never more ne the other effects brought from O'Kelagne's, and cessary than in the circumstances in which we which he had in charge. What he did with it I were placed in the fort; and on this, amongst know not, but I well know that the chief occaother reasons, General Jackson, in his first letier, sioned me much fear and anxiety, by being so founded his demand that it should be occupied near the fort with four or five hundred Indians of by his troops, and added, that on this account his party. I never had an idea that he employed such a course could not fail to be approved by it against the Americans, but supposed that they His Catholic Majesty. In the same letter he used it in the purchase of peltry for the said Ar. stated to me, that he had been informed by an In- buthnot, which was his avowed object, and in dian woman, a prisoner, that the Indians and ne- which he was engaged on the arrival of the groes had received large supplies of munitions Americans. The idea that the officers of St. from the fort. I thought I had convinced him of Mark's lent themselves to aid and excite the la. the contrary in my answer, in which I repre. dians, by giving them information of the movesented to him that no one could better remove ments of the Americans, is highly ridiculous; from his mind any unfavorable impressions on for how, or from whence, could their movements this point, than the bearer of it, Mr. William be better known at the fort than from the InHambly, who, during his stay here, repeatedly dians themselves? Thither they passed, and interpreted to me the anxiety of the chiefs to ob- from thence repassed, incessantly, and their retain such supplies; and that he could also inform ports were so various that they deserved very him, that I uniformly counselled them to avoid little attention; as a proof of which, nothing ceribe destruction which has overtaken them, and tain was known of the operations of the Ameriwhich I foresaw from the first. But as it appears cans until the different columps of their troops be is not yet satisfied, and persists in his charge, appeared. At the mouth of the Pinar, although a reference to the returns of the public storekeeper their three vessels were at anchor there for three will show that, from the month of May last, and or four days previous, they kept English colors prior to the receipt of your orders, there had been flying until the day before the arrival of the issued to some chiefs and head' men, and that army. My different communications to you are merely from motives of policy, only three pounds pledges that I took no part in the contest between of powder, three pounds of balls, and fourteen ihe Americans and the Indians; nevertheless, my flinis; and the interpreter belonging to the fort, mistrust of the latter evinced to which I gave a Juan Sandoval, and his son Francisco, through preference. How, then, is it possible to believe whom I communicated with the Indians, can also ihat I gave them the aid of which General Jacktestify to the truth of this statement, whose evi- son complains, or how can such aid be recondence I request of you to have taken, in refuta- ciled wiih the tenor of my letters and the steps tion of General Jackson's charge against me. He I took to liberate Messrs. Edmund Doyle and cannot but know that, a short time before the William Hambly, by which I exposed myself Negro fort on the Appalachicola was blown up, and my garrison to the vengeance of the Inall the chiefs of the tribes in its immediate vi- dians ? Or, lastly, with the fact of my having cinity went there and supplied themselves with ransomed, at a most critical moment, an Ameripowder and ball left for them by the English; can soldier, whom they declared to me they would and that at Mickasuky, and the houses in the otherwise put to death? I leave it to the most peighborhood, there was a great quantity. Havo impartial to decide, if these be not proofs of the ing thus obtained so large a supply of the kind of existence, at St. Mark's, of a bias in favor of the powder and ball they most esteemed, what value American interest; and of this, I am persuaded, could they set on ours, which they in fact view General Jackson will be convinced on deliber: with such indifference and contempt, that only erately reflectiog on the subject. I shall not those hunters, of whom now and then one comes deny ihat I have observed towards those barbato the fort to supply us with venison, geese, &c., rians a policy which had the appearance of a will use it; and although, as I stated in my com warm friendship, and by which I have incurred munication to you, some was repeatedly requested considerable expenses. If, however, all the cirof me by the chief Kinache, for the purpose of cumstances attendant on my situation be duly showing, by the refusal of it, that the American weighed, it will be seen that all this was neces.
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
sary to restrain them from doing what they had exposed to all the horrors of a cruel and savage at one time premeditated, on the pretext I have war. A party of outlaws and refugees from the just alluded io, and on others suggested to them Creek nation, negroes who have fled from their by some persons who had gone hence to those masters, citizens of the United States, and sought parts of ihe country. Although I have, as I an asylum in Florida, and the Seminole Indians, conceive, given satisfaction on all the points em inhabiting the territory of Spain, all uniting, bare braced by Major General Jackson in his letter, I raised the tomahawk, and, in the character of beg leave to request that, for fuller evidence of savage warfare, have neither regarded sex nor what I allege, you will be pleased to give orders age; helpless women have been massacred, and for having ihe iestimony taken of the interpreter the cradle crimsoned with the blood of innocence. and his son, of the subaltern Don Miguel Ordo- The United States, true to their own engagenez, of Don Anastasio Montes de Oca, the mili- ments, and confiding in the faith of Spain to en. tary storekeeper, and of surgeon Don Diego de force existing treaties, never entertained a doubt Barrias, as these persons have some knowledge but that these atrocities would early attract the of the subject in question. God preserve, &c. attention of the Spanish Government, and that
FR. CASO Y LUENGO. speedy and effectual measures would have been Don Jose Mazot.
adopted for their suppression. Under this per
suasion, a cordon of military posts was establishPensacola, May 23, 1818.
ed to give immediate protection to such of our It having come to my knowledge that you
frontier settlers as were peculiarly exposed, and bave passed the frontiers with the iroops under strict injunctions issued to the American officers your command, and that you are within the ter- to respect the territory of Spain, and not to at. ritory of this province of West Florida, which tempt operations within its limits. These in. is subject to my government, I solemnly protest structions were most scrupulously observed ; and, against this procedure as an offence against my
notwithstanding the inactivity of the American Sovereign, exhorting you, and requiring of you, troops bad encouraged the Indians to the most in his name, to retire from it; as, if you do not, daring and outrageous acts of violence against and continue your aggressions, I shall repel force our citizens, the Government of the United States by force.
was still disposed to respect the territory of Spain, The consequence in this case will, doubtless, and confide in the ability of the Spanish Govern be the effusion of blood, and also an interruption ment to execute existing treaties, until advised of the harmony which has hitherto reigned be through you that, with every disposition, the iween our respective nations,
but, as the repeller Spanish authorities had not the power of conof an insult has never been deemed the aggres- trolling the Indians in Florida ; that their acts of sor, you will be responsible, both to God and late were viewed as equally hostile to the interman, for all the fatal consequences which may
ests of Spain as those of the United States; that result. God preserve you many years.
Spanish subjects were not exempted from the JOSE MAZOT.
evils of which we complained, and that the negro The COMMANDER of the U, S. troops.
establishment on the Appalachicola, and St. Juan A copy of this protest was addressed to Gene the will of Spain. Those representations deter
rivers, were founded by British agenis, contrary to ral Andrew Jackson, and sent by a Spanish offi- mined the President of the United States to adopt cer, meeting the American army, shortly after it effectual measures to restore tranquillity to the had passed The Escambia river. J. GADSDEN, Aid-de-camp.
Southern frontier of the American Republic; and, pursuant to his orders, justifiable by the im.
mutable laws of self-defence, I have penetrated HEADQ'RS, DIVISION OF THE South, into Florida, reduced to ashes the Seminole vil
Pensacola, May 24, 1818. lages, destroyed their magazines of provisions, Sir: The enclosed communication was for- beaten their warriors whenever they hazarded a warded to you by my aid-de-camp, Captain Gads. contest, dispersed some, and expelled others across den, last evening; not finding you, however, in the river. Pensacola, its delivery was delayed.
In the course of my operations, it became neI have entered Pensacola io provision my cessary to visit the Spanish fortress of St. Mark's. troops. I have only to add, that an immediate Entering the territory of Spain to fight her batcompliance with my demand is expected. Re-lles, to relieve from bondage her subjects, and to sistance on your part would be a needless sacrifice chastise an Indian tribe whom she acknowledged, ANDREW JACKSON,
under existing treaties, she was bound to preserve Major General commanding. at peace with the United States, I had every rea. Don Jose Mazot,
son to expect that the American army would Fort St. Charles, Barancas.
have been received as friends, and every facility afforded to insure success to operations so inter
esting to both Governments. HeadQ'RS, DivisiON OF THE SOUTH,
My expectations have not been realized. It On the line of march, May 23, 1818. had been reported to me, direct from you, that SIR: The Southern frontier of the United Fort St. Mark's had been threatened by the InStates has, for more than twelve months, been dians and negroes, and you expressed serious ap
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
prehensions, from the weakness of the garrison, tain, and agents disposed to enforce, existing and defenceless slate of the works, for its safety treaties. From other sources, to be relied on, the same in-l. This is the third time that the American troopsformation had been furnished me. It became have been compelled to visit Pensacola from the necessary, therefore, to anticipate the movements
Twice had the enemy been expel.: of the enemy, and amicably io get possession of led, and the place left in quiet possession of those a work, the dislodging the enemy from which who bad permitted the irregular occupancy. This might cost me much precious blood.
time it must be held until Spain has the power or On entering St. Mark's, evidence of the dupli- will to maintain her neutrality. city and unfriendly feelings of the commandant This is justifiable on the immutable principles evinced itself. I found that the gates of his fort of self-defence. The Goveroment of the United had been thrown open to the avowed savage ene. States is bound to protect her citizens; but weak mies of the United States. That councils of war would be all its efforts, and ineffectual the best bad been pernitted to be held within his own advised measures, if the Floridas are to be quarters by the chiess and warriors. That the free to every enemy, and on the pretext of Spanish store houses had been appropriated to policy or necessity, Spanish fortresses are to the use, and were then filled with goods belonging be opened to their use, and every aid and comfort to the hostile party. That cattle, knowingly afforded. I have been explicit, to preclude the plundered from ihe citizens of the United States, necessity of a tedious negotiation. My resolution had been contracted for and purchased by the is fixed, and I have strength enough to enforce it. officers of the garrison, from the Spanish thieves. My army now occupies the old sort St. Michael, That foreign agents had free access within the commanding Pensacola. If the town and the walls of St. Mark's, and a Mr. Arbuthnot, con- Barancas are peaceably surrendered, an inventory demned and executed as the instigator of this war, of all the property, ammunition, arms, &c. shall an iomate in the commandant's family.
be taken by officers appointed by both parties, and From this fort was information afforded the the amount receipted for by me, to be accounted enemy of the strength and movements of my ar- for by the American Government. The property my by the said Arbuthnot, the date of departure of Spanish subjects shall be respected; their reof express noted by the Spanish commissary, and ligion and laws guarantied to ihem ; the civil ammunition, munitions of war, and all necessary Government permitted to remain as now estabsupplies furnished.
lished, subjeci :o the control of the military auOn my return from my operations east, your thority of the Voited States; the ingress and letter was received, positively refusing to permit egress open to all individuals; commerce free to (unless exorbitant duties were paid) any provi- the subjects of Spain as usual ; and the military sions passing up to the American fort on the furnished with transportation to Cuba. Escambia. Connected with this strong indica If the peaceable surrender be refused, I shall tion of an unfriendly disposition on your part, I enter Pensacola by violence, and assume the gove have learnt, from the most unquestionable au- ernment until the transaction can be amicably thority, that the city of Pensacola has, for some adjusted by the two Governments. The military months past, been entirely under the control of in this case must be treated as prisoners of war. the Indians; that free ingress and egress is per The proof supporting the accusation against mitted to the avowed savage enemy of the United your official station will justify this procedure. States; the supplies of ammunition, munitions In reply to your communication of the 22d inof war, and provisions, have been received by stant, I have only to observe that the clothing dethem from thence; thai on the 15th of April last tained will be a subject of future friendly settlethere were no less than five hundred Indians in ment. Pensacola, many of them known to be hostile to How far the Indians, permitted to remain in the United States, and who bad but lately escaped the neighborhood of Pensacola, were friendly my pursuit. The late massacre of eighieen indi- disposed to the citizens of the United States, is viduals on the Federal road was committed by tested by the late massacre committed by tbem Indians, direct from their return to Pensacola, on the Alabama. who were received by you and transported across The Red Ground chiefs, Muldecoxy and Holmes, the bay, to elude the pursuit of the American avowedly hostile to the United States, were but troops." The Americans returning, the savages lately seen in Peosacola, and a body of Indians were permitted to return. An Indian, wounded descried a few days since in the vicinity of Bain pursuit by a party, for having killed a citizen rancas, in presence of several Spanish officers. of ibe United Siates, was opeuly, in the sight of By a reference to my communications of the many Americans, received by you, and every 25th of March, you will see how far I have been comfort administered. Such practices, if author- the aggressor in the measure protested against. ized by the King, would justify me in open hos. You are there distioctly advised of the objects of tilities. Disposed, however, to believe that it was my operations, and that every allempt on your one of the unauthorized acts of agents, I deem it part to succor the Indians, or prevent the passage politic and necessary to occupy Pensacola and of my, provisions in the Escambia, would be ibe Barancas with an American garrison, until viewed in no other light than as hostile acts on the Spanish Government can be advised of the your part. circumstance, and have force sufficient to main You have done both, and exposed my troops to
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. the severest privations, by the detention occasion- tions, and who is the bearer of these.) and I beed by the exaction of duties on my provisions lieve all the military, and of course broke up the and vessels in Pensacola. You have, therefore, seven posts (punta) stationed with the same been the aggressor, and the blood which may be number of officers and two chiefs for the main. shed by a useless resistance on your part to my tenance of the tranquillity of the place. demand will rest on your head. Before God and These facts being incontrovertible, I ask who man you will be responsible.
but your excellency will be responsible for the This will be handed to you by my aid-de-camp, blood that may be shed, as you declare, in your Captain Gadsden, by whom an answer is ex- letter, that you are about to take possession of pected.
Pensacola and Barancas? I protest before God ANDREW JACKSON, and man that my conduct is blameless, and that
Major General commanding. my ardent desires are, as they ever have been, to Don Jose Mazot,
contribute to the peace and tranquillity of our Governor of Pensacola.
respective nations; for, besides the sincerity of
my intentions, I have in view the Message of the FORTRESS OF St. CHARLES, OF BARANCAS,
President to the Congress of the United States on
May 24, 1818. The 25th of March last, and its tenor assured me Most Excellent Sir: I received, at 10 o'clock that no aggressions were to be expected from this morning, the two communications of your the troops of the said States. Such, however, excellency of the 23d and of this day. As I have, this province has unfortunately suffered from the in mine of the 18th instant, satisfactorily answer- operations of your excellency in Appalachee and ed all the charges your excellency alleges in the Pensacola. former, I shall only add, with respect to the In I expect from the generosity of your excellency, dians, that I notice your excellency is greatly first, that you will set the officers and troops misinformed, as the circumstances to which you which garrisoned Pensacola at liberty; and that, refer are, for the most part, unfounded; in proof after supplying your army with provisions, you of which I will state, ihat the only two Indians will shorily evacuate the territory of this prov. I bave found since the peace negotiated by me, ince, and not carry on a partial war against West and the delivery of the eighty-seven 10 Major Florida at a time when our nations are in proYoung, are two who are in the prison, with three found peace. women and children. I ought to inform you that, Lieutenant Colonel Don Lui Piemas, temporalong before the movements of your excellency, I ry commandant of Pensacola, is duly authorized had given orders at Appalachee that the Seminole to exercise my functions, and to receive the com. Indians should not be succored, and even had munications of your excellency, which he will placards posted up in Pensacola for the same pur faithfully remit io me, and to which I will give pose; passing over without notice only some un the promplest answers, to be transmitted to you fortunate beings who, from time immemorial, through the bearer of this, the interpreter, Don had furnished the people with wood, as I have Pedro de Alba. Finally, if, contrary to my hopes, stated.
your exceliency should persist in your intention Your excellency lays to my charge the blood to occupy this fortress, which I am resolved 10 which may be shed by my refusal to deliver up defend to the last extremily, I shall repel force the province, as your excellency requests; which by force; and he who resists aggression can never I shall never do, nor can I, without covering my be considered an aggressor. self with dishonor at the close of my life and of God preserve your excellency many years. my long military career. I am firmly persuaded
JOSE MAZOT. your excellency would, in my case, do ihe same, His Ex'cy ANDREW Jackson, as you would not venture to stain ihe honorable Major General com'g U. S. Army. laurels with which you are adorned. No nation, whatever may be its motives, can violate the territory of another, especially when no demands
HEADQ'Ry, DivisiON OF THE SOUTH, have previously been made of its Government.
Pensacola, May 25, 1818. Your excellency has violated the Spanish terri. Sir: The accusations against you are founded tory in Appalachee, by taking possession of that on the must unquestionable evidence. I have the fori, and pulling down its flag, when you could certificales of individuals who, on the 231 instant, have adopted more conciliatory measures, which at or near the little ba you, counted seventeen lowould more and more have cemented and strength-dians in company of several Spanish officers. ened the good understanding existing between our I have only to repeat that the Barancas must respective Governmenis.
be occupied by an American garrison, and agaio On the 21st of the present montb, by your ex 10 tender you the terms offered, if amicably surcellency's order, Don Pedro Philibert, and other rendered. Resistance would be a wanton sacriinhabitants, remained prisoners in their houses, fice of blood, for which you and your garrison on their parole of honor. To-day, at 11 o'clock, will have lo atone. You cannot expect to defend before Captain Gadsden arrived at Pensacola, yourself successfully, and the first shot from your your excellency's army entered, and made prison- fort must draw down upon you the vengeance of ers on parole Don Pedro de Alba, the interpreter, an irritated soldiery. I am well advised of your (who iranslated your before named communica- strength, and cannot but remark on the inconsis