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ion I cannot imagine. Such, how- was somewhat ostentatiously parever, is the plan. Drunkenness aded in the debate, and members is to be repressed by making it vied with each other in declaring impossible. “Did it never occur how often they dined out without to the honourable gentleman, that meeting a drunkard in the company. all legislative enactments whatever This is very gratifying and reassurwork not by enforcing what is ing; but I am not aware that anygood, but be punishing what is body ascribed the happy change to evil? No law that ever was made the paucity of the decanters, and the would render people honest and difficulty of getting the bottle; or true to their engagements; but we whether it was that four-fifths of arrive at a result not very dissimi- the party had declared an embargo lar by making dishonesty penal. on the sherry, and realised the old
The Decalogue declares: “Thou proverb by elevating necessity to shalt not commit a murder." Hu- the rank of virtue. man law pronounces what will come Let me ask, who ever imagined of it if you do. It is, doubtless, very that the best 'way to render a solimperfect legislation, but there is no dier brave in battle was to take help for it. We accept such cases, care tbat he never saw an enemy, however, as the best defences we can and only frequented the society of find for our social condition, never Quakers? and yet this is precisely for a moment presuming to think what Mr. Lawson suggests. If his that we are rendering a vice impos- system be true, what becomes of sible by attaching to it a penalty. all moral discipline and all self-re
Mr. Lawson, however, says, There straint? It is not through my own shall be no drunkenness, because convictions that I am sober; it is there sball be no liquor. Why not through no sense of the degradation extend the principle-for it is a that pertains to drunkenness, and the great discovery-and declare that, loss of social estimation that follows wherever four-fifths of the rate- it, that I am temperate. It is because payers of a town or borough are four-fifths of the ratepayers declare of opinion that ingratitude is a that I shall have no drink nearer than great offence to morals, and a stain the next parish; and this reminds of to human nature, in that district another weak point in the plan. where they reside there shall be no The Americans, who understand benefits conferred, nor any act of something of the evils of drink, on kindly aid or assistance rendered the principle that made D. ctor Papby one man to his neighbour! I gloss a good man, because he kuew have no doubt that, by such legis- what wickedness was, lately passed lation, you would put down in a law in Congress forbidding the gratitude. We use acts in the moral use of fermented liquors on board world pretty much as in the phy- all the ships of war. It was one of sical; and it is entirely by the im. those sweeping pieces of legislation possibility of committing the offence that men enact when driven to do that this gentleman proposes to something, they know not exactly prevent its occurrence. But, in the what, by the enormity of some name of common sense, why do we great abuse. Now, I have taken inveigh against monasteries and non- considerable pains to inquire how peries ?-why are we so severe on a the plan operates, and what success system that substitutes restraint for bas waited on it." From every offireason, and instead of correction sup. cer that I have questioned I have plies coercion? Surely this plan is received the same exact testimony: based on exactly the same principle. so long as the ships are at sea the Would it, I ask, cure a man of lying inen only grumble at the privation; -I mean the vice, not the practice - but once they touch port, and boats' to place him in a community where crews are permitted to go ashore, no party was permitted to talk ? drunkenness breaks out with tenThe example of the higher classes fold violence. For a while all real
discipline is at an end; parties are things, and even they who, so to despatched to bring back defaulters, say, "liked their wine" too well, who themselves get reeling drunk; were slow to disparage themselves petty officers are insulted, and by an indulgence which good taste scenes of violence enacted that give declared to be ungentlemanlike. the unhappy locality wbere they Is it completely impossible to have landed the aspect of a town introduce some such sentiment as taken by assault and given up to pil- this into other orders of society? lage. I am not now describing alto- We see it certainly in some foreign gether from hearsay; I have wit- countries-why not in our own? nessed something of what I speak. Radical orators are incessantly tell
As drunkenness, when the ship ing us of the mental powers and was at sea, was the rarest of all the intellectual cultivation of the erents, and the good conduet of the working classes, and I am well-dismen when on shore was the great posed to believe there is much truth object to be obtained, this system in what they say. Why not then may be, so far as the davy is cori- adapt, to men so highly civilized, cerned, pronounced a decided failure. some of those sentiments that sway Whatever may be said about the pol- the classes more favoured of foricy of sowing a man's wild oats, no- tune? The French artisan would body, so far as I know, ever hinted deem it a disgrace to be drunkthat the crop should be perennial. so the Italian; even the German
Legislation can no more make would only go as far as a sort of men temperate than it can make Beery bemuddlement that made him then cleanly or courteous. If Par- a more ideal representative of the liament could work miracles of this Vaterland : why must the Englishsort, it would make one really in man, of necessity, be the inferior in love with constitational government. civilization to these! I am not willBut what a crotchety thing all this ing to believe the task of such a reforamateur law-making is! Why did mation hopeless, though I am perit bot occur to this well-intentioned fectly convinced that no greater folly gentleman to inquire how it is that could be committed than to attempt črunkeudess is unknown, or nearly it by an Act of Parliament. toknown, in what are called the When legislation has led men to better classes? How is it that the be agreeable in society, unassumorgies our grandfathers liked so ing in manners, and gentle in deWell
, and deemed the great essence portment, it may make them temof hospitality, are no longer heard perate in their liquor, but not of? The three-bottle inan now before. The thing cannot be done could no more be found than the in committee, nor by a vote of the Piesiosaurus. He belongs to a past House. It is only to be accomtotally and essentially irrevocable. plished by the filtering process, by
And by wbat has this happy which the good habits of a nation change been effected ? Sarely not drop down and permeate the strata by withdrawing temptation. Not beneath ; so that, in course of time, only have we an infinitely wider the whole mass, leavened by the same clovice in fluids than our forefathers, ingredients, becomes one as combut they are served and ministered pletely in sentiment as in interest. with appliances far more ta-teful * Four firths of the ratepayers" will sud seductive. It is, however, to not effect this. After all
, Mr. Lawthe bigber tone of society the revola- son is only a second-hand discoverer. tion is owing. Men saw that drunk. His bill was a mere plagiarisin from eness was disgraceful: it rendered beginning to end. The whole text society disorderly and riotvas; it in- of liis argument was said and suvg by tertered with all real conver-ational poor Curran, full fifty odd years ago pleasare; it led to unmanuerly ex- - “My children, be chaste till you are tempted Cests, and to quarrels. A higher
While sobier, be wise and discreet;
and humble your bodies with fasting cultivation repudiated all these Whenever you've nothing to eat."
the education And Training or NAVAL OFFIcers,
ProBABLY at no period of our history—certainly not at any time during the present generation—has the Royal Navy occupied so large a share of public consideration as at present, as may be easily perceived from the close attention bestowed by parliament upon all matters relating to it, from the constant discussions upon naval subjects with which the public press teems, and from the widelyspread and still increasing popularity of this noble service throughout the length and breadth of these Islands. Hence no excuse is necessary for bringing forward any point bearing upon the welfare and efficiency of the Navy; and the particular subject of which we propose to treat in this paper, is one that has not received that general consideration which its importance justifies and requires.
We propose, then, to consider the present system of educating and training officers for the Royal Navy, and to see how far this system meets the requirements of the service.
If we remember the very early age at which it is requisite for a lad to embark in a seafaring life in order to make a good sailor—the age when the mind is most impressionable, and in the most pliable state for being moulded into any form, or trained in any direction—if we bear in mind further the very peculiar and special requirements of the naval profession, we cannot fail to perceive how important it is that a boy intended for the Navy should receive that particular sort of education which is best suited to his future career. It might, with great reason, be supposed that, in this the greatest maritime country of the world— boasting a Navy famous in history and equal in size to all other navies combined—every branch of this great service would be vigilantly watched and tended, so as
to conduce most effectually to the efficiency of the whole. And it would certainly be concluded by any reasonable person, that the careful and judicious training of the young lads destined to become the officers of the Fleet would be one of the first points looked to. Would it be believed, therefore, by any one not conversant with naval affairs, that until these last very few years this important subject has been utterly neglected, and is only now, as it were, beginning to receive that attention and care which its consequence demands? It is not too much to say that in no other country has the training of its naval officers been so disregarded as in England, and we are still far behind every other nation in this respect. It may well be a matter of no small pride and gratification to the officers of the Navy, when they consider the many names distinguished in science which their body has furnished; for these have been in a great measure self-taught, and owe nearly everything to their own exertions and industry, having striven to make up by these means for the absence of advantages which should have been supplied them by the State. The records of the educational branch of the naval service are scanty indeed. The first attempt at anything like a State interference with the training of lads intended for the Navy took place in 1729, when a Royal Naval Academy was instituted in Portsinouth Dockyard for that purpose. The scheme of instruction whieh was framed for this establishment was excellent, and well suited for the require. ments of the service, had it been made compulsory. It included the elements of a general education, as well as mathematics, navigation. French, drawing, fortification, gunnery, and the small-arm exercises together with the principles of ship
building, and practical seamanship This state of matters lasted until in all its branches, for which latter the close of the great war; but in a small vessel was set apart. Had 1816, material alterations were made this arrangement extended to all in the arrangements. A school for those wbo entered the Navy, we naval architecture was added to the probably should not now bave to establishment, and the staff of prolament the backward condition of fessors and masters was altered in the service in this respect; but the consequence. In 1828 the free eril genius of “half measures” education of naval officers' sons-a seemed to wield his baneful influ- boon which had been thankfully ence even in those days, for the enjoyed by them for fifty-five years entrance to the Academy was-was discontinued ; they were now purely voluntary, and the building required to pay at a reduced rate, was only intended to contain forty in proportion to their rank. Moreboys, which was but a small pro- over, the number of appointments portion of those annually entered in open to them according to this ibe service. The voluntary system, scale which had been reduced from moreover, proved a total failure: forty to thirty in 1816—was now the nobility and gentry, for whose to be shared by the sons of military benefit the Academy was instituted, officers; and thus the advantages apparently did not care to send which the Navy had so long detheir sons there-preferring, pro- rived from the Academy were so bably, sending them at once to sea curtailed as to become little more ander charge of some friend or re-than nominal. lative-for the maximum number In order to keep up the number of forty scholars was never attain- of students at the College, it had ed. In 1773, therefore, the numbers been found necessary, from time to having fallen very low, the King de- time, to extend special privileges termined to offer a gratuitous edu- to those young officers who had eation to a certain number of naval joined the Navy through that estabofficers' sons; and, accordingly, fif- lishment; and this produced a disteen boys out of the forty, being cordance between the two classes sons of commissioned officers, were of officers that was found to be educated free of all expense. The productive of great inconvenience stimulus thus given to the Academy to the service. Accordingly, these revived its failing strength, and it advantages were gradually withcontinued on this footing until drawn during the later years of its 1806, when the enormous extent existence; and the College again of oor naval armaments called for languished, and finally terminated a large increase of the number of its checkered career in the year officers; and the Academy was en- 1837. From that date until 1857 larged for the accommodation of no steps whatever were taken to seventy popils, being thenceforward re-establish any sort of training designated the Royal Naval Col- for naval officers, the system under lege. Forty out of the seventy boys which they joined the service durwere now to receive a free educa- ing these twenty years being the tion as the sons of Daval officers; same as that applying previously and the plan of instruction was the to all those who did not pass sarne, with slight modifications, through the College. The age of as that which had been before es- admission into the Navy was from tablished for the Academy. Bat twelve to fourteen; and the only even this increased number of pu- qualification necessary to become pils came far short of the require an officer was, to be able to write ments of the service, and therefore English from dictation, to know the greater part of the young officers the first four rules of arithmetic, joined the Navy without passing Reduction, and the Role of Three. throagh the College.
The writer can never forget his
astonishment, when, as a boy of twelve and a half, he went up tremblingly for his examination— in much doubt and anxiety as to whether his stock of Latin, French, and Euclid would be deemed sufficient to gain him admission into the Navy—he found sums in simple addition and subtraction placed before him However, it is a significant comment upon the mode of educating boys in this country, that the majority of lads who fail in the examination upon joining the Navy, even to this day, break down in writing from dictation, being in some instances quite unable to spell even the easiest words! For the further instruction of the youngsters, after joining the service, naval instructors in all the larger ships were supposed to teach the young gentlemen the mysteries
of navigation; the gunnery officer
instructed him in the great-gun and small-arm drills, and his duties on board in the course of time taught him seamanship. And so, after six years in a midshipman's berth, he faced his examiners with a beating and anxious heart, only too thankful if he passed through the dreaded ordeal, and received the precious document setting forth that he was duly qualified to take upon himself the charge and command of a lieutenant in her Majesty's fleet. The amount of instruction which the young gentlemen received varied exceedingly. In those ships whose captains took an especial interest in the welfare of their midshipmen, and were themselves men of cultivated minds, able to appreciate rightly the inestimable advantage of a good education, the naval instructors were supported and encouraged in their duties. And for the first two years of their service, or until they became midshipmen, the youngsters were excused from all other duty during school hours, the claims of the naval instructor upon their time being considered paramount to all others. Even during the later part of the midshipman's career, when
his services were daily becoming more and more valuable to the firstlieutenant, a captain who had at heart the future prosperity of the young officers under his command, ...; take care that their study hours were interfered with as little as possible. But this was the bright side of the picture. It not unfrequently happened that, from peculiar circumstances, the school hours were unavoidably broken into; the captain's cabin—the usual place of study—might be otherwise occupied; and it was not always easy, or even practicable, to set apart any other place where the studies could be carried on with any degree of satisfaction. And it must be confessed that while many—and those our best officers—took the greatest pains in the improvement of their youngsters, instances to the contrary were unhappily not rare; and the want of interest evinced by the captain produced its effect in the indifference of the instructor, and the consequent backwardness of the pupils. For the effectual carrying out of a system of schoolroom instruction on board a sea-going man-ofwar must, under any circumstances, be a difficult task, and can only produce satisfactory results when encouraged to the utmost by the officer in command. In many cases the studies were suffered to be consid— ered as subordinate to the ordinary work of the ship; and when the naval instructor had, after some difficulty perhaps, obtained a place for his duties, and came to assemble his pupils, he would find that Mr. A. had been sent away on boat duty, Mr. B. was particularly required on deck, and Mr. C. had been given leave to go on shore. And in cases where the naval instructor was left wholly unsupported, as sometimes happened, some of his pupils, preferring a caulk on the lockers of the midshipmen’s berth or the charms of a new novel, would give themselves leave of absence from school, in confident security from any unpleasant consequences.