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Liberia, and as a compliment to the College with which I am connected in that country. I need not say, sir, how deeply interested I have been in the two reports which have been read this afternoon; and for the zeal which has been manifested in behalf of my brethren in your Southern States. I am an American negro; and I feel the deepest interest in every thing which pertains to the welfare of my race in this country. A citizen of that infant Republic which has been planted by American beneficence on the west coast of Africa, my heart and all its sympathies still linger with the deepest regards upon the welfare and progress of my brethren who are citizens of this nation. More especially am I concerned just now by the great problem which comes before you in the elevation and enlightenment of the 4,000,000 of my brethren who have just passed from a state of bondage into the condition of freedmen. The black population of this country have been raised by a noble beneficence from a state of degradation and benightedness to one of manhood and citizenship. The state upon which they have entered brings upon them certain duties and obligations which they will be expected to meet and fulfill. But in order to do this they must be trained and educated by all the appliances which are fitted to the creation of superior men. The recommendations which have been suggested in the report just read are the best and most fitting. Colored men are, without doubt, the best agents for this end. Teachers raised up from among themselves—men who know their minds men who have a common feeling and sympathy with themthese are the men best adapted to instruct, to elevate, and to lead them. And it is only by such teaching and culture that the black race in this country will be fitted for the duties which now devolve upon them in their new relations. These people are to be made good citizens. It is only by a proper system of education that they can be made such citizens. The race, now made freedmen among you, owes a duty to this country-a duty which springs from the great privileges which have been conferred upon them. Some, perhaps, would prefer to use the word “right" instead of privileges, and I have no objection to that word; but I am looking at the matter rather in the light of the Divine mercy and goodness. As a consequence of receiving such a large gift and boon as freedom, my brethren owe great obligations to this country, which can only be met by becoming good, virtuous, valuable citizens, willing and able to contribute to the good and greatness of their country. For this is their home. Here they are to live. Here the masses will likely remain for ever. For no reasonable man can suppose it possible to take up four millions of men as you would take up a tree-one of your old oaks or an old elm, stem, roots, stones, and earth-tear it up from the sod and transplant it in Europe or Asia. The black race in this country are to abide; and to meet the obligations which will forever fall upon them in this land, and to prove themselves worthy of the privilege to which they have been advanced, they need schools, instruction, letters, and training. But not only do the black race in this country owe duties to this country; they owe a great duty to Africa likewise. Their fathers were brought to this country and placed in bondage; and their children, in subsequent generations, notwithstanding all the evils they have endured, have been enabled to seize upon many of the elements of your civilization. Fourteen thousand of my brethren, American black men, have left this country and carried with them American law, American literature and letters, American civilization, American Christianity, and reproduced them in the land of their forefathers. We have gone out as emigrants from this Republic to the shores of heathen Africa, and re-created these free institutions and a nation modeled after your own.”
“Sir, I might stand here and speak of wrongs and injuries, and distresses and agonies, but I prefer rather to dwell upon those adjustments and compensations which have been graciously evolved out of Divine Providence; and which have fitted them to a great work for good, not only here in this country, but likewise in Africa. The black race in this country, as they increase in intelligence, will have to think of Africa ; will have to contemplate the sad condition of that vast continent; will have to consider their relation to the people of Africa ; must per force do something for Africa. And thus it will be that, while you are educating my brethren for their duties in America, you will be benefitting Africa. The black men in America are an agency in the hands of the American people, by whom they are enabled to touch two continents with benignant influences. For not only through them will they be shedding intelligence and enlightenment abroad through this country, but they will also in this manner raise up a class of men as teachers and missionaries, who will carry the gospel and letters to the land of their forefathers; and thus the American people will be enabled to enlighten and vivify with the influence of Christianity the vast continent of Africa.”
At the close of the remarks, there was loud, long and enthusiastic applause.
Professor Crummell is just from Liberia, where he has been as Professor of Liberia College for thirteen years. He is a minister of the gospel. He will return to that country shortly.
His manner is easy and earnest, and his address very pleasant and graceful. While he spoke I felt that half the great problem of our present difficulties with that race was sclved. Educate the negro and he will make a good citizen. Our country, in the hands of such men, is in less danger than in the hands of those who think the normal condition of such men is slavery. The evening was spent in bearing short speeches from teachers of different States, giving the progress of education in their States. The feeling seems to be to obliterate State lines, and call themselves citizens of this great Republic.
The meeting adjourned to the State-Capitol Hotel, where the citizens of Harrisburg had prepared a feast of good things for us, which we enjoyed to the edification of the inner man. We had speeches from Governor Curtin, Simon Cameron, and other distinguished persons of Harrisburg; we had songs, and wit and humor generally; it was truly a “ feast of reason and flow of soul.” About midnight we closed, wondering when we should have another so good time. Such occasions are refreshing and inspiring, and should be enjoyed by all teachers.
The officers elected by the two bodies whose proceedings are given in the foregoing sketch are as follows:
Normal-School Association.— President, Richard Edwards, of Normal, Illinois ; Secretary D. B. Hagar, of Salem, Massachusetts.
National Teachers' Association.-President, J. P. Wickersham, of Millersrill, Pa. Secretary, Samuel H. White, of Chicago, Illinois ; Treasurer, Samuel P. Bates, of Harrisburg, Pa.; together with twelve Vice-Presidents and seventeen Counselors.
Of the 109 schools for boys, in Paris, 46 are kept by, members of the religious fraternities; and of the 111 for girls, as many as 56 by the sisters of Catholic communities. Forty-four new educational establishments have been authorized within the present year.
QUESTIONS FOR WRITTEN EXAMINATIONS.
1. I paid $579.621 for 100 cords, 3 cd. ft. and 100 cw. ft. of wood, and sold the same for $637.584. What was my gain per cent. ?
Ans. 10. 2. Three cents is what per cent. of 25 cents ?
Ans. 120. 3. One mill is what per cent. of one dollar.
Ans. one-tenth. 4. A, B, and C started from the same place and travelled in the same direction. If one-fourth the distance A travelled be added to the distance B is in advance of C, it will equal one-half the distance A walked. How far did each walk if the space between C and B is equal to that between B and A, and if A by walking 25 per cent. faster, would have travelled 100 miles ?
Ans. A, 80 miles ; B, 60 miles; C, 40 miles. 5. I paid $540 for a bale of cotton. What must I ask for it that I may fall 10 per cent. and still make a profit of 163 per cent. ?
Ans. $700.00. 6. I sold goods at an advance of 15 per cent., thereby making $304.50. What sum was received for them?
Ans. $2,334.50. 7. One and one-half yards is what per cent. of 3 rods?
Ans. Nine and one-eleventh. 8. The motion of the hour-hand of a clock is what per cent. as rapid as that of the second-hand ?
Ans. Five thirty-sixths. 9. How much currency must be given for forty dollars in gold when gold is at a premium of 448 cents ?
Ans. $57.85. 10. How many dollars in gold and how much postage currency must be given for a fifty dollar greenback, when gold is selling at an advance of 40 per cent. ?
Ans. $35.00 in gold, $1.00 in currency.
1. John takes at the rate of 20 steps of 2 ft. 6 in. each, a minute, and walks fivesixths of a minute; and William walks 12 yards in 30 seconds. John walks what part as fast as William ?
Ans. Twenty-five thirty-sixths. 2. What number is that to which if you add its third, its sixth, and 19, the sum will be 100?
Ans. 54. " 3. The current of a river flows at the rate of 4 miles an hour; how long will it take a vessel propelled by a force that moves it 8 miles an hour in still water, to sail 12 miles down the river and return to the starting point?
Ans. 4 hours. 4. A, B, and C share $244. A has $15 more than C, and C has $8 more than B. How many has each?
Ans. A, $94; B, $71; C, $79. 5. At what time after 6 o'clock do the hands of a watch first point in opposite directions ?
Ans. Five and five-elevenths m. past 7 o'clock. 6. What number is that to which if you add itself, twice itself, one-fourth itself, three-fifths itself, seven. tenths itself, and 29, one-third the sum will be 46% ?
7. What is the time, when three-fourths the time past noon is three-eighths the time to midnight?
Ans. 4 o'clock P. M. 8. Divide 44 into two such parts that shall be to each other as three-sevenths is to five-fourteenths ?
Ans. 24 and 20. 9. John bought an apple, orange and melon for 32 cents ; he paid for the melon four times as much as for the orange, and for the orange three times as much as for the apple. What was the cost of each?
Ans. Melon, 24 cents; orange, 6 cents; apple, 2 cents. 10. A, B, and C are to share $606. A is to have 3 times as much as C, and B is to have s as much as A and C together. What is the share of each ?
Ans. A, $303; B, $202 ; C, $101.
RESIDENT EDITORS' DEPARTMENT.
SCHOOL REPORT OF CRANSTON.
We have perused with much interest the above report of Superintendent William A. Mowry, and find that it contains just such sensible, practical and wise remarks as we expect from his head, heart and pen. With men of his energy and knowledge as to the wants of our schools, our State will not long remain second in its educational work. We insert for the good of the teachers of the State his remarks on
TEACHERS' MEETINGS. “ During the year past the teachers have met the superintendent twice each term, for mutual conference and consultation. The meetings have been held in the school houses, in South Providence, Elmwood, Spragueville and Knightsville. The time has been on Friday afternoon, two weeks after the commencement, and two weeks before the close of each term.
These meetings have been found of much profit, and it is quite evident many improvements have been made in the schools through their influence. The best methods of teaching Reading, Spelling, Writing, Arithmetic, and other studies, have been discussed ; questions asked and answered ; particular difficulties relating to the several studies, the best methods of discipline, general rules for the schools of the town and many other topics have been considered ; and existing evils have been so presented as to lead to the correction of them.
The results of these meetings have been so favorable that the school committee have directed their continuance the coming year, and it is ordered that every teacher in the town attend them. If any teacher be absent for any reason, an excuse in writing is to be presented to the superintendent at the meeting, or as soon after as may be convenient. These excuses are placed on file, and may be referred to afterwards.
The school committee and trustees of the several districts, and citizens, are invited to be present at these meetings.
It is impossible to bring our schools up to a proper and reasonable degree of excellence without an earnest and devoted spirit in the teachers. This spirit it is difficult to attain, or maintain, without frequent professional meetings.
It is therefore earnestly recommended that all the teachers in the town attend the meetings of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction, and as many of them as can make it convenient, attend the annual meeting of the American Institute of Instruction, and the National Teachers' Association.
I have noticed, during the year past this fact, that, with no exception, those teachers who have attended the meetings of the Rhode Island Institute, and have read the Rhode Island Schoolmaster, are the best teachers in the town, and their schools have exhibited the inost marked improvement; while of those who have failed to attend these meetings, and to obtain the benefit to be derived from our Educational Journal, in scarcely a single instance, can they be justly ranked among our best teachers, but are generally the least successful of all.
Miss Mary H. WILLARD.—It is a painful duty to announce the death of promising youth. Not often does it fall to our lot to record the departure of one from the ranks of the teacher's profession who gave such promise of success and excellence as Miss Willard. Assuming the teacher's responsibility at an early age in her father's school, (Rev. George A. Willard, of Warwick,) she commanded the respect and affection of her pupils, while at the same time she associated with them in the family on terms of equality. As an assistant in the public school in her native district, she gave entire satisfaction to the principal and to the district. Her next school was in Cranston, where, for nearly a year, in one of the finest schools in the town, she filled a responsible position,-following one who is certainly one of the best teachers in the State,-with entire success, and to the complete acceptance of committee and people. Her next, and last work, was as an assistant to her brother, in the Academy at Bridgewater, Mass. In the Bridgewater Banner, the editor, in noticing her death, says: “ There never have been more popular teachers in charge of the Bridgewater Academy than Mr. and Miss Willard. The latter had especially endeared herself to all the scholars by her kind and winning ways.” She had been there one year, and her future prospect was bright and hopeful. Possessed of a good mind, an intellect more than ordinary, a heart kind and sympathizing, full of gentleness and love, her mind well stored and disciplined for one of her years, and a character, moral and Christian, of the highest type to be found on earth, filling a position at once arduous and responsible,-her future was certainly as hopeful and as flattering as her past had been cheering and successful. Thus early cut down, her friends sincerely mourn her loss. But she is only transplanted to the garden above. We desire to assure her father and family, of the true and heartfelt sympathy of a large circle of teachers and friends who had enjoyed a more or less extended acquaintance with her, and who had observed with pleasure her excellent qualities of mind and heart.
LIBERAL.-The City Board of Education of San Francisco has subscribed for one hundred and fifty copies of their State journal, to be supplied free to the female teachers of the city. Why don't the committees of our schools awake to the real wants of teachers in their work? Will some one tell us ?