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Or, Gems from the Poetry of all Time.
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when called "Mr. Macfarlane," he considered himself disrespectfully referred to: "Mr. Macfarlane (said he) may be applied to many; but I, and I only, am Macfarlane." "Dunlop of that ilk," as the writer adds, "or The Dunlop, are of the same import." (Note to a History of the Counties of Ayr and Wigton, by James Paterson, 1866, vol. iii. p. 131, Cuninghame.)
QUERIES:-Anonymous- Seal of R. le Archer, Norfolk, circa 1366 Rectors of Beaconsfield, Bucks Edmond Brydges and William Gregory, Serjeants-at-Law - Bud
The same note mentions that this title "has never been hitherto defined well"; and the first query we would humbly put, is-Is this title here
dhist Coinages of India - Caroline Matilda, Queen, of truly well, or correctly defined? The second is,
Denmark of the Abbey of Cirencester Coroners' Inquests - Court of France-Croom CastleFlies- Inscription at Castlegough, Cornwall Jewish Observance-John de Koel: Pasquils- The Block Books Pomeroy Family -The Popish Plots and State Trials in the Reign of Charles II. - Reculver - Sanskrit Inscriptions in England - Tinder-Boxes - "Up to Snuff," 224. QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Francis Bancroft - Dr. Raffles's Autographs-The" Myrroure of our Lady"-Ivory, the Mathematician Privileged Regiment, &c.-Blackburn- Bric-a-Brac, 227. REPLIES:- Goldsmith's Epitaph, 228- How Cato was a Paynim and a Christian too, 229-Adverse and Averse, 230
and it is more special: Has Dunlop of Dunlop, or "of that ilk," or, as Latinised by De eodem (loco), had quite the same meaning attached to it as "Dunlop," or "The Dunlop," in past times? These queries will, no doubt, be readily answered by some of your learned antiquarian contributors under whose notice the subject has come.
Variation of Surnames, 231-St. Herefrid, 232 - Daniel Defoe and John Dove, D.D.-Ingulph's "Chronicle "Rough Piety-Pocket Sheriff- Cattern's Day - Double Tower Disembowelment - Sir Ambrose Crowley - Long Family Connection with Church Livings Little Forsters, Egham, Surrey Louth - Opopanax Faith, and Charity Parish Register - Matthew Bacon-Easter, estate, of the same name as the owner,) ever did
One may be made to understand how "The Dunlop" should denote the chief of a family or clan, in the same way as, The Macfarlane, The Macintosh, The Chisholm, The Macpherson, &c., do; but there is more doubt surely, whether "of that ilk" (ilk referring to a place, land, or an
Esther- Noble of Edward III., &c., 232. Notes on Books, &c.
properly and certainly import chieftainship. At the same time, it may be doubtful whether the person in full right of the lands, say of Dunlop, although of the name of Dunlop, yet not being the representative of the ancient family, taking their name originally from these lands, could be properly designed "of that ilk," although virtually or legally the Laird.
NOTES:-" Of that Ilk": Hunterstoun, 217 - Transposi-
"OF THAT ILK": HUNTERSTOUN.
In a note enunciating some curious views which came under our observation recently, this is said to be an ancient and noble title, and peculiar to the Scots; and to denote, not the gentleman alone, but also "the chief of all the clan of his own surname." It is added, that it does not necessarily or essentially refer to the estate, because many chiefs parted with their original estates, and afterwards used that title long -as for example, Porterfield, Ralstoun, Whitefurd, &c. of that ilk. This title gives, as it is further stated, the party entitled to use it the right of supporters in his armorial arms, and is characterised as "a nobility really patriarchal, venerable, and ancient." It is also said, that the King of Great Britain at one time offered a title of nobility to the chief of the Grants, who declined to receive it; asking, as showing a reason for his refusal, “And wha would be the Laird of Grant?" in the event of his acceptance. Dr. Johnson, in his Tour to the Hebrides in 1773, mentions that the chief of a clan is addressed by his name simply, as the Laird of Dunvegan, who was called "Macleod"; while other gentlemen of the same surname and family were designated by the names of their estates or residences, as Raasa and Talisker. It is also mentioned regarding the Laird of Macfarlane, the antiquary and genealogist, that
We are told that some of the old Scottish lairds (domini or barones) were wont to subscribe even legal documents by writing their Christian name, and that of their estate, only; as Robert Huntar of Huntarston subscribed "Ro Huntarston," and Patrick Huntar of Huntarston, "Pa Huntarston"; as did Blair of Blair, an ancient family also in Ayrshire, subscribe "Blair of yt Ilk"-which last, in a court of law, was found a legal and binding mode of subscription. The present Laird of Huntarston (West Kylbride, Ayrshire) has, as it would appear by this History of Ayr and Wigton, adopted a more doubtful course. He has changed the name of his estate from Huntarston to Hunter, and called himself "Hunter of Hunter," or "of that ilk," as if Hunter was the name of the land, while unquestionably it was not, but that of an employment or office-a hunter. An "Aylmere le Huntere" (not "de la Huntar," as we find it mentioned), who swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296, he assumes as one of his ancestors (Ragman Rolls, Ban. Club, p. 148); but whether he was so or not, does not satisfactorily appear, as his estate, or residence is not mentioned in the roll, and is not otherwise known; and the roll only bears that he was "del Counte de Are." This Aylmere
was "the hunter" ("le huntere"), the designation having no application whatever to land, and only to the party's calling or employment. At an after period, in 1375, when a William Hunter acquired the lands now called Hunterston, upon the resignation of Sir Andrew Campbell, they were called Arnele, as appears from a charter in favour of William granted by Robert II. Some time after this, they came to be called "Arnele-Huntar," in order to distinguish them probably from some part of Arnele owned by another party; and latterly they are called "Huntarston," that is, "the dwelling-place of Huntar"-from some successor of this William Huntar, or from William himself, fixing his seat thereon. Thereafter, the property was truthfully called "Hunterstoun" a designation which it has borne invariably for some centuries; but to call it now Hunter, seems not less than a misapplication of language; and better it would seem to be for the laird to change his own surname to Hunterston, and then he would be "of that ilk." For this, he has the precedent of some of his own ancestors mentioned above; and there is Fowlertoun, and Hawkerstoun, both "of that ilk," besides Eglintoun, and Ralphstoun (Ralstoun)."
Appearing in the Ragman Rolls, besides Aylmere already mentioned, there were John Hunter, designed "de la Foreste de Passeley," "Huwe le Hunter de Stragrif," and "Richard le Hunter," also "de Stragrif"; and all "del Counte de Lanark," the barony of Renfrew not being in 1296, nor till about 1406, separated from Lanark and erected into a separate sheriffdom. Renfrew, of which Stragrif is part, at that time belonged to the High Stewarts of Scotland; and it is more than probable that all these three Hunters were, at the time of their submission, under the employment of James the sixth high stewart; while as to "Aylmere le Huntere," whose residence was in Ayrshire, he was probably hunter to some of the successors of the De Morevilles, who possessed all Cuninghame, the northern division of Ayrshire, as the De Baliols or De Rosses; the latter of whom, a very potent family before the end of the thirteenth century, held Arnele, of which Hunterstoun is part, as well as Dunlop, Stewartoun, and various other large tracts in Cuninghame, until, being adherents of the Baliol-Cumyn faction, they were forfeited by "The Bruce," King Robert I., after Bannockburn, and their estates bestowed on others. Hunthall, shortened possibly from Hunter's hall, and called now Dunlop, on the territory of Dunlop, is said to have been the residence of the hunter of the famous Sir Godofred de Ros, Sheriff of Ayr (Ponts Cuninghame); and it is not at all improbable that there this Aylmere le Hunter may have dwelt in the exercise of his office for there is no evidence whatever, let us say with some confidence, of a Hunter having had
any connection with Arnele until the year 1375, when part, if not the whole, of that property, was resigned by an Andrew Campbell, Knt., to be given out to William Huntar as before mentioned. The charter by Robert II., proceeding upon this resignation, is still in good preservation at Hunterstoun, and is the earliest which the family possess regarding these lands. The lands were to be held under the king, as the charter declares, in feu or in fee and heritage by William and the heirs male lawfully procreated, or to be, of his body, for payment annually of one penny of silver only, at the land of Arnele, at the Feast of Pentecost, in name of blench ferm; and that in satisfaction of all wards, reliefs, marriages, and other feudal services whatsoever. In consequence of this blench ferm return, reckoned a base holding, John, laird of Huntarston, produced this charter to the king's justices in Itinere or Eyre, sitting at Ayr in 1505, June 13, and was excused from giving further suit and service in their courts: a duty which then by law only devolved on those holding land by the then reckoned much more honourable service of ward and relief-otherwise called military service, and knight service. An instrument taken of the above decision, by the king's Justiciars, is also preserved at Huntarston.
The following statement, militating against the above view, and contained in the "Remarks on the Ragman Rolls," by Geo. Crawford, is unquestionably erroneous:
flout," neither of them understanding the passage. Mr. Dyce says, "I am not convinced that any alteration is required.' Now I think that an alteration-and that a very slight one-is required. I thereupon make a transposition and read "O poverty in wit! poor kingly flout!" The Princess is alluding to the parting speech of the King, which contains a poor flout," though a royal one. In my Edition I most heedlessly and reprehensibly adopted the text of Singer, from whose edition I was printing.
"Unhousell'd, disappointed, unaneal'd.” Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 5.
WIDSITH AND VIDFÖRULL.
The following notice is intended as a key to an Anglo-Saxon poem, which certainly requires one. As such, it must stand upon the amount of illustration it supplies, rather than upon any elaborate exposition of detail.
Appendix A. in the First Series of Mr. BaringGould's Curious Myths of the Middle Ages gives a quotation from the Bragda Mágus Saga, an Icelandic version of the Romance of Maugis,' with considerable alterations in the story."
Mágus, having presented himself before Charlemagne, stated that he was called Vidförull; that he was very old; that he had been older, and Here, again, I should be disposed to transpose might be younger; that he had twice cast his and read
"Unhousell'd, unanealed, disappointed;"
for words beginning with un are, I believe, always consecutive; and "disappointed," same as "unappointed"-not furnished, not fitted outevidently refers to the want of confession and absolution indicated in the following lines,-things of such vital importance in the religion of Rome, that in that horrid play of Calderon's, La Devocion de la Cruz, the hero is actually restored, for a short space, to life, that they may be performed.
"Ay, that incestuous, that adulterate beast." Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 5. Here, by transposition, we should get a climax, and thus make a great improvement, perhaps a restoration; but I should hesitate, for the poet at times puts the cart before the horse, as in
"Call up your young master; bid him rise, sir," where we should surely read, "Call your I quote from the only edition I have access to (Moxon's), and it may be that it was in this that the printer made the transposition. I have, however, also observed the two following lines in The Fox, to which transposition alone will give metric melody
"An opiate here, from my own doctor."
It is, by the way, very remarkable that the chief defects in the plays printed by Jonson himself are omissions. Gifford supplied some very well, but others escaped him. I finally would beg of those ingenious persons who undertake the task of emendation of Shakespeare and other poets to remember that emendation also has its laws, and that mere alteration is not correction.
skin; and that he was about to do it for the third time within a few days: which he did, in a manner very strange, but not of much importance in the present notice.
The first time he did so was anno ætatis 130; the second time anno ætatis 215, at Rome, when Hermanric was reigning. "The king then asks him about the heroes of olden time, and Vidförull describes to him their personal appearance, the colour of their hair, eyes, and their stature."
So much for Vidförull. Now Widsith, as is well known to the readers of Anglo-Saxon poetry, is the first word of a very remarkable poem, which, sometimes called "The Traveller's," sometimes "The Gleeman's" Song, has nothing about it so definite as the fact of its beginning with the word under notice. Sometimes it has been translated (in which case it means something equivalent to the wide-wayfarer); and sometimes it is treated as a proper name, or as a name given to the bearer for the extent of his travels. It begins thus in Thorpe's translation:
his word-hoard unlocked,
travel'd through many nations:
Began then much to say:
Of many men I have heard,'" &c.
Then comes a list of royal names, Hwala, Alexander, and, with a short notice of each, the following list:
"Atla ruled the Huns, Eormanric the Goths,
In the praise of Queen Ealhhild he had a partner, Skilling; and this is the nearest approach to a piece of personal history in the poem.
Whatever else this may be, it is no piece of real biography. Hermanric, Gunther, Attila, Theodoric (whether the Frank or the Ostrogoth), Audoin and Albion (? the Eadwine and Elfwine of Italy in the poem), Offa and others being all seen by one person. Hence (though it is not denied that able men have treated the composition as so much actual experience of a wandering gleeman), it is here submitted
1. That the likeness in form and import between the words Vidförull and Widsith is not accidental.
2. That the hypothesis that Widsith's narrative is essentially the same as Vidförull's gives a better view of the nature of the poem than any one at present before the world.
This is what the present writer suggests. Mr. Baring-Gould's doctrine, however, that in the story of Vidforull we have that of the Wandering Jew, is one which he wholly assents to.
Disraeli Road, Putney.
R. G. LATHAM.
IRISH FOLK-LORE AND "YANKEE DOODLE."
In "N. & Q." (4th S. i. 262) MR. O'CAVANAGH has an interesting note on the Dubh-dael and Dara-dael-a creeper which I have seen boys and women kill in Ireland, with the imprecation: "Ma shocht paca agus ma paca morriv urth!" i. e. "My seven sins and my deadly sin upon you!"
The Dubh-dael is one of the most significant words in the glossary of the ancient world. It represents, or represented, what Rachel stole from
the tent of her father Laban. The etymology of it is (I must get over it rapidly) from the Tau= the crux ansata (tuyau in Fr. vagina in Lat.), and Tauth (Heb.)="obscene image." Tor and Tar="generation" in Irish and all old languages. Doodhol and Tardhal have the same sacrosanct and execrated old meaning.
I must here say something which I believe has never yet been stated by any writer on the old worships and mythologies of men: Every known name for temple is taken from the human body.
Doodhal, in Irish, is "temple": so is cearog (hearge, Anglo-Saxon, "kirk"); so is "beetle" (Bethel, Beitulla, a name for the Caaba); so is tordhal (Tor high place, tower; Dairi in Japan). Cearog is Irish for "beetle"-it is literally our words "earwig" and "cockroach." Every one of these quoted words means "woman" also.
But what has that poor creeper to do with those dreadful myths? I shall indicate briefly. All insects, as well as men, beasts, fishes, fowls, and reptiles, were named from the words for "birth" or "issue"; which words belong, in all their forms, to the human body. This fact I can only glance at.
The unhappy cearogs, doodhals, tordhals, bethols, &c. &c., were murdered by paranomasia-the Magi, Druids, and other reformed teachers of religion, cursing and covering up in them the gross nomenclature of men's original worship, which their posterity were slow to forget, and which, even yet, exists in some parts of India. of "woman," has had a treatment still worse than The serpent, whose various names are also those that of the doodhal-as everybody is aware.
These hasty observations are rather offered to the epopts and aporretes of “N. & Q." than to the general readers; who would laugh, I am afraid, at a notion of mine that there was once a Kange doodhal (temple-chorus or altar-dance) coeval with the Hyporchema, the Cordax, the Phallika, the Pyrrhic, the Sikennis, the Fescennine (fesch, to dance), the Farandoul, and the Cambal, and that it is represented in our own age by the light anapastic "anthem" of the great republic, "Yankee Doodle." No doubt it sounds laughable enough, and incredible enough; but I believe the "guess" is a true one for all that. W. D.