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Floyd."

. Also, the letter from the Mayor'öfche city of New pension to the Widow of an officer na die hout

county seat of Madison county, and for semi-weekly ser- the money; and he now prays the action of Con- rogative of the pardoning power vested in her hand, her sice in two-horse coaches thereon.

gress for his relief. I move the reference of the Catholic Majesty, the Queen of Spain, has deemed it both Also, the petition of Aaron s. Johns, of Polk county,

merciful, politic, and wise, to commute the sentence of loca, asking for a law authorizing the correction of memorial and the accompanying documents to the

punishment, to knock the shackles from the bound, and to 2 error in the location of a military bounty land warrant. Committee of Claims.

set the prisoners free. By Mr. HASCALL: The petition of Jacob Coe, of Mi- The memorial was so referred.

Therefore, with a full knowledge of the destitute sitiidisaa, for compensation for property lost in the late war

ation of these brave and gallant, but unfortunate men, (the

Mr. SUMNER presented the petition of citiWu Grat Britain.

most of whom are known to be gentlemen in their own inBy Mr. TAYLOR: The petition of John Madeira, and

zens of Boston, Massachusetts, praying that the dividual personal right, and of highly reputable relationship oder eitizens of Pope county, Ohio, praying Congress expenses incurred by American contributors at in the United States,) and in view of that devotion to libpettend the time for locating Virginia military land war- the World's Fair in London may be defrayed by

eral republican principles by them herein exhibited, and of pot in the Virginia Military District, in the State of Ohio. BF ME. HIBBARD: The petition of Betsey Whipple and Congress; which was referred to the Conmittee of

the action of your honorable bodies in behalf of refugees

driven from their homes on the continent of Europe in conCatrin Whipple, praying for leave to surrender patents for Claims.

sequence of similar espousals of the cause of liberty, your tanda in Arkansas, and take other land.

Mr. BRODHEAD presented the memorial of petitioner does most earnestly and urgently pray the taBy Mr. PERKINS: The petition of Selden Brown, of Benjamin Holbrook, and the memorial of Char- | king such immediate steps by your lionorable bodies as will

anthorize and command the Executive head of the nation By Mr. MILLSON: The petition of Ro. Owens, asking lotte B. Holtz, administratrix of Peter Holtz,

to furnish a vessel with all necessary supplies for the transthe difference of pay between that of a chief boatswain's praying the appointment of a Board to review the

portation, in comfort and health, of these pardoned and reDate and a hoatswain.

decision of the late Board of Commissioners for leased soldiers of liberty's army back to the shores of their Also, the petition of Solomon Cherry, asking a pension, settling claims against Mexico; which were or- own free and happy land; for which your petitioner in all ca account of inability from wounds received in the milidered to lie on the table.

good faith, must ever pray: WM. SCOTT HAYNES. tary service of the United States during the last war with

WASHINGTON, D. i., January 5, 1852.
Great Britain.
Mr. RUSK presented the petition of Charles

On motion of Mr. CLEMENS, the memorial By Mr. DAVIS, of Massachusetts: The petition of Man- Uhde & Co., praying the return of duties paid on

was referred to the Committee on Foreign Rela508, Brothers, and others, of New York, that an appropri- certain cotton goods shipped by them at New Orava be made to reimburse advances made by George

tions. Peabody, Esq., and others, for the protection of American leans for Point Isabel, in Texas, and lost at sea;

RECONSIDERATION OF VOTE. interests at the World's Exhibition. which was referred to the Committee on Com

Mr. BRIGHT. Yesterday the Senate passed By Mr. FOWLER: The petition of Wm. A. Crocker, merce. and other citizens of Jaunton, Massachusetts, praying Mr. FISH presented the memorial of the heirs

a bill entitled “ An act granting a pension to Sally that a sum be appropriated sufficient to defray their unavoidable expenses in preparing their goods for exhibition of Charles Oakley, praying compensation for the

T. Floyd, widow of Lieutenant George R. C. services of said Oakley in the revolutionary war; a tbe Crystal Palace, in London.

I see that the bill was introduced by the By Mr. WEIGHTMAN: The memorial of a citizen of which was referred to the Committee on Revolu- honorable Senator from Kentucky (Mr. UNDERNew Mexico, praying the enactment of a law authorizing tionary Claims.

wood.) As a general rule, I should defer greatly extra session of the Legislative Assembly of said Terri

Also, a memorial of the heirs of Jacob Latting,

to his judgment in such matters, but on looking praying indemnity for spoliations by the French over the papers of this morning, particularly with By Mr. HAVEN: The petition of O. B. Evans, of Buf- prior to 1801; which was referred to the select

reference to this bill, I find that it contains what I falo, New York, asking that Congress appropriate money

the granting of a to pay the charges on goods sent to the World's Fair.

Also, the petition of W. D. Allen, and 90 other citizens of Buffalo, New York, asking Congress to make suitable York, communicating a resolution of the Board of | side of the service. I desire to move the reconsidprovisions for extending a telegraph from Fort Independ- Aldermen and Assistants, tendering to the United eration of the vote by which this bill was passed; ence to the Pacific, by the passage of a law that will pro- States a plat of land within that city for the erec

and as I observe that the Senator is not in his seat, tect and encourage. Also, the petition of Elizabeth E. N. Field, of Milton, tion of a Mint; which was referred to the Com

I will make the motion, and consent that it lie on Massaetrusetts, widow of the late Captain George P. Field, | mittee on Finance, and ordered to be printed.

the table till I may have an opportunity to examine for a continuance of her pension.

Mr. DOWNS presented a petition of citizens of the papers relating to the subject. By Mr. FITCH: The meinorial of Thompson Barnet, of

Caldwell Parish, Louisiana, residing on the “ Mai- The motion was accordingly laid on the table. Indiana, asking compensation for services in transportation mail.

son Rouge Grant," praying an amendment of the PAPERS WITHDRAWN AND REFERRED. By Mr. INGERSOLL: The memorial of Hon. Charles J. late act of Congress for the relief of purchasers of On motion by Mr. GEYER, it was Irgersoll, of Philadelphia, in relation to a claim for contest- land in that grant: which was referred to the Coming his seat in Congress.

Ordered, That the memorial of the heirs of Herman mittee on Private Land Claims. By Mr. KUHNS: The petition of Sarnuel Slick, (not the

Blannerhasset, on the files of the Senate, be referred to the Ferilske Sam Slick, of Slicksburg, down East, but) of

Also, the petition of Evariste Blanc, praying the Committee of Claims. Bedford county, Pennsylvania, the son of a revolutionary confirmation of his title to a certain tract of land; On motion by Mr. MILLER, it was sire, praying for a pension. which was referred to the Committee on Private

Ordered, That the petition of Eliza M. Evans, on the Land Claims.

files of the Senate, be referred to the Committee on RevoIN SENATE.

lutionary Claims.
Mr. GWIN presented the memorial of L. M.
WEDNESDAY, January 7, 1852.

Goldsborough, S. J. Van Brunt, and S. F. Blunt, On.motion by Mr. FELCH, it was
Prayer by the Rev. L. F. Morgan.

naval officers, praying additional compensation for Ordered, That the petition of William Miller, on the files services on special duty to California and Oregon;

of the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Pensions. PETITIONS. which was referred to the Committee on Naval

On motion by Mr. JONES, of Iowa, it was Mr. WADE presented the memorial of Daniel Affairs.

Ordered, That the Committee on Pensions be discharged Sass, representing that there is a variance between Mr. SEBASTIAN presented a memorial of the

from the further consideration of the petition of Mira M.

Alexander, and that it be referred to the Committee of the awards made on his claim by the two Boards First Christian and Orchard Parties of Oneida In- Claims. of Commissioners for the settlement of claims of dians, asking interest on certain moneys improp- Mr. PRATT. My attention has been called to a American citizens against Mexico, and asking the erly withheld from them after the same became pantent of the difference of awards.

memorial of citizens of the District of Columbia, due; which was referred to the Committee on In

which is on the files of the Senate, praying that Also, one of a similar character from Johnson dian Affairs. H. Alford, by his administrator Henry P. Bates;

the United States may purchase a portion of the both of which were referred to the Committee on

CUBAN EXPATRIATED INVADERS. Columbia Turnpike Road, which is in the District Foreign Relations. Mr CLEMENS. Mr. President, I desire to of Columbia, so that it may be made free.

The Senate are aware that the Government have Mr. GEYER presented the memorial of Mary present a petition, which I will ask the Secretary 8. Wetmore, widow of the late Major Alphonso to read.

built a bridge across the Potomac river, now conWetmore, of the United States Army, praying a

The Secretary read it, as follows:

necting the District with the State of Virginia.

Senators are also aware that we have purchased fetsion; which was referred to the Committee on To the President and members of the Senate, and the Pensions.

Speaker and members of the House of Representatives

the bridges across the Eastern Branch, thus conMr. G. I present the petition of Richard B. of the Congress of the United States :

necting the District with the State of Maryland. Lee, an officer in the Army, praying to be allowed

GENTLEMEN : Your petitioner, a resident citizen of the I believe that this turnpike road is the only thor

city of New Orleans, in the State of Louisiana, most re- oughfare through the District which may not the amount of public funds stolen from him, and spectfully

begs leave to represent, that, on the 3d day of which he repaid to the Uisited States.

now be traveled free of expense. I move that The memorialist states that he was ordered by

on board the steamship Pampero, for the Island of Cuba, || the memorial be taken from the files of the Senate

with the only and openly avowed intention of joining the and referred to the Committee for the District of the commander to proceed to the Sandwich Islands Creole population for the purpose, and that alone, of aiding and purchase supplies for that portion of the army

Columbia, and I hope they will give it their early and assisting them in the contest which we were fully con

attention. which was in California and Oregon; that on his

vinced had then commenced for the overthrow of the Span

isb authorities there, and the establishing in their stead The memorial was accordingly so referred. return he employed a vessel which was chartered republican institutions similar in all respects to those gny

NOTICES OF BILLS. by an individual who was in control of it. He erning our own highly-favored and prosperous country, and further states that he deposited eleven hundred dol- in furtherance of their wishes, a debarkation of our force Mr. CLEMENS gave notice that he should ask lars with the charterer, and took a bill of lading.

was effected on the Island on the night of the 11th and 12th leave to introduce a bill for the relief of Thomas On his arrival at San Francisco, this money had of the same month, between the hours of 11 and 2 o'clock;

Snodgrass. but, after undergoing privations and hardships well càlcubeen taken on shore and deposited with some lated to appal as well as to demoralize the stoutest and

Mr. FISH gave notice that he should ask leave merchants there. It appears, however, that this

purest heart, without the commission of a single outrage to introduce a bill to increase the salary of the money was appropriated to the payment of the

either public or private which can cause the blush of shaine judge of the United States district court' for the

to inantle the cheek, or the breath of detraction to justly debts of this individual. He absconded, was pur

southern district of Florida. sully the soldier's escutcheon with the taint of dishonor, sued, overtaken, and searched, but no money was and the having been engaged in several very hotly contested Mr. PEARCE gave notice of his intention to found. The major being without remedy against

battles with her Spanish Majesty's troops, your petitioner, ask leave to introduce a bill for the relief of Sarah

with the entire force under his command, was entirely cut the general orders, sought relief by attaching the

E. McKay, widow of Lieutenant-Colonel Mcto pieces, or dispersed, rendered fugitive and finally capvessel, in which, however, he failed, this being

Kay. tured and conveyed to Havana as prisoners, where 160 to before the admission of California as a State, and 175 of the number were, by order of bis Excellency the

BILL INTRODUCED. there being no tribunal there by which a specific Captain General, Concha, condemned as public malefactors

Mr. BERRIEN, agreeably to previous notice, to ten years' servitude in the fortress of Cento, and were remedy against the vessel could be enforced. Under by him sent to Spain to undergo the infliction of the pun

asked and obtained leave to bring in a bill to prothese circumstances he felt obliged to make good ishment decreed; but, through the exercise of the high pre- vide for the removal of obstructions in the river

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Savannah, in the State of Georgia, and for the lieve, that considerable numbers of the crews of our ships, defatigable industry, to the guardian ministrations improvement of the same; which was read a first on approaching the coast of America in the winter season,

of the lash. To say that men who can make such have retired from their duty, knowing that the commandand second time by its title, and referred to the ers had no legal authority to compel their service by the

voyages, and endure such hardships cheerfully and Committee on Commerce.

prompt and summary infliction of punishment, and that contentedly, cannot navigate their own national

such vessels have been exposed in most inclement weather REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES.

ships without the infliction of ihe infamous lash, to great danger from such abandonment of duty on the part

is a libel. Is their nature changed the moment Mr. DAWSON, from the Committee on Pat- of this portion of their crew. ents and the Patent Office, to whom were referred

Your memorialists would also further state, that the de- they step on the deck of a national vessel? Are

sertion of duty before referred to in all cases had been on the documents relating to the application of John

they less men—less Americans—as soon as the part of the worst portion of the crews of those ships, and

custody of the American flag, or the national Schley for the extension of a patent, reported a ihat it thus imposes upon the better portion of bill to extend a patent heretofore granted to John a duty that their strength may, in the hour of the utmost

honor, is intrusted to their keeping? No, sir; it need, fail ther, and that whilst deserters from duty are en

is a libel. I do not mean to use the word in an Schley, of the State of Georgia.

offensive sense, nor shall I to-day use any word Mr. DAVIS, from the Committee on Com-joying themselves in their hammocks, protected from thie

fury of the storm, their exhaustion may lead to the loss of in that sense. It is one of those inconsiderate, merce, to whom was referred the bill for the relief the ship, and the destruction of the lives of all on board of of Charles A. Kellett, reported it without amend- her. Good men, who do their duty, fear no punishment, thoughtless opinions, which mankind seem to think

and it is not inflicted upon them. The good men of the they have a perfect right to express in regard to ment, and submitted a report; which was ordered

service, it is believed, desire the repeal of the late law. It sailors. It was not long since, sir, that I had a to be printed. imposes upon them the duty of bad men, who shelter them

conversation on this subject with a gentleman who Mr. BUTLER, from the Committee on the Ju- selves under it from the performance of their duty. It is diciary, to whom was referred a memorial of not, in the opinion of your memorialists, punishment,

had for several years commanded a fine ship in the whether it be of the lash, the dungeon, or the sword, that members of the Bar of the District of Columbia,

merchant service, but who is now an honorable, disgraces a man. It is the offence which merits such pun- active, and efficient man of business in one of our reported a bill to make the salary of the judge of inliment that disgraces him. Lafayette was not disgraced i large cities, and to whose integrity, generosity, the criminal court of the District of Columbia by incarceration in the dungeons of allm.unor cheerren and humanity, I would intrust anybody but equal to that of an assistant judge of the circuit

Apostle to the Gentiles by the repeated infliction on his sailor. After he had heard my views on this subcourt of said District; which was read and passed person of the Mosaic law of " forty stripes save one.” ject, he instantly replied, "Why you mean to treat to the second reading.

If a sailor be so lost to a sense ot duty, feeling, and honor,

them like human beings." The theory that the He also, from the same committee, to whom as to desert bis post, or to commit crime, there is little danwas referred a bill amendatory of an act entitled ger to be apprehended of his feeling disgraced by the inflic

Navy cannot be governed, and that our national “An act to provide for holding the courts of the

tion of punishment by the lash, the chain ball, or the tread- ships cannot be navigated without the use of the mill.

lash, seems to me to be founded in that false idea, United States in case of the sickness or other dis- And your memorialists would further add, that the neability of the judges of the district courts,” apcessary power of moderate and prompt punishment for

that sailors are not men—not American citizenspetty offences committed on board ship has been, and still

have not the common feelings, sympathies, and proved July 29, 1850, reported it without amend

is, conferred on commanders of British vessels, and was honorable impulses of our Anglo-American race. ment.

so upon commanders of American vessels until the last On motion by Mr. JONES, of Tennessee, it session of the Congress of the United States; and will nodig history of the sailor, at the prevalence of this

I do not wonder, when I look back on the past refer, in addition to the foregoing statements, to the high was state of discipline and efficiency attained by these great

idea. His life has been a life of habitual, I will Ordered, That the Committee on Military Affairs be dis

maritime powers as a vindication of that practice, and an not say of systematic, degradation. The officers charged from the further consideration of the documents

argument in favor of its reenactment. relating to the clain of the State of Rhode Island for ad

who command him—the oldest, the bravest, and

And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. vances to volunteers in the late war with Mexico.

the best-have been accustomed from their boy. On motion, also, by Mr. J., it was

Mr. STOCKTON. Mr. President, the sub- hood to see the sailor lashed about the ship's deck Ordered, That the Committee on Military Affairs be dis-ject of this memorial, in my judgment, is equal in like a brute. He who by the laws of the service charged from the further consideration of the petition of importance to any which is likely to occupy the in which he is engaged is treated, or liable to be Nathan Weston, Jr.

attention of Congress. It was, therefore, sir, that || treated, like a brute, soon comes to be thought of TONNAGE OF VESSELS.

I asked the Senate, on its first presentation, to per- as at least but little better than a brute. Who in Mr. DAVIS submitted the following resolu

mit it to lie on the table for a few days, that I social life respects a man whose back has been tion; which was considered by unanimous consent

might have an opportunity to examine it. At the scarred at the whipping-post? Into what depth and agreed to:

same time I promised the Senate, when it next of contempt does such a punishment sink its vicResolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury be in

came up, that I would express my views in rela- | tim? And here is one of the worst evils of the sysstructed to communicate to the Senate the following in

tion to it. It is my purpose now to redeem that tem. It destroys those feelings of respect and kindformation, to wit: promise.

ness which officers ought to entertain for the sailors First. The number and tonnage of American and foreign The memorial upon the table presents for the under their command. But this is only one of vessels which have arrived annually in the United States

consideration of the Senate nothing less than the the worst evils of the system. from foreign ports after 1814, designating the countries to

It destroys those which such vessels belonged, and that from which they

whole foundation of our naval structure-the hu- feelings of regard and respect which the sailors last, before their arrival, cleared.

man material by which your ships are worked and should entertain for their officers. The truth is, Second. The number and tonnage of such vessels which fought, your guns leveled, and their thunders there are no relations of affection and regard behave arrived, during the same period, annually, in the ports of Portand, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, pointed at your foes. Good ships, well built, well

tween them. The one is the oppressor, the other Mobilc, and New Orleans, respectively.

rigged, and fully equipped, are magnificent and the oppressed. Sir, a man may fear or hate; but Third. The number and tonnage of such vessels which perfect specimens of human science and art. But

he neither loves nor respects his tyrant. The have arrived in the United States during the same period unless they are manned by good men they will sail from foreign ports on the lakes, classifying in all cases

worst government upon earth is that of fear; the such vessels in the usual manner.

only to become prizes to your enemies. If you best, that of love and affection. These senti

do not desire to build ships for your enemies, you || ments, by a law of our nature, must be mutual FLOGGING IN THE NAVY.

must give them crews worthy to defend them. sentiments. Bonaparte was the idol of the solMr. GWIN. As I believe the morning busi- || Sir, the difference between sailors is as great as dier, because the soldier was his idol. They ness is concluded, I hope the memorial introduced the difference between other classes of different na

loved him because they supposed he loved them. some time since by the Senator from Pennsylva- tions. There is as much difference between the There is nothing that gallant and brave men will nia, (Mr. BRODHEAD,) relating to flogging in the American sailor in our whaling and coasting ser- not do and suffer for a commander whom they Navy, which has been laid upon the table, may be vice and the sailors of other nations, as there is be- love. Difficulties and dangers and death have no now taken up. Its consideration is due, as a mat- tween the raw European emigrant and the sturdy terrors for such men. In great battles, where the ter of courtesy, to the honorable Senator from

son of one of our frontier pioneers. The emi- contest has been doubtful, those soldiers have New Jersey, (Mr. Stockton.)

grant will, in some cases, almost starve, while the always fought most desperately whose devotion The motion was agreed to.

pioneer is building his log house, enclosing his to their commander was the greatest. It has Mr. BERRIEN. Let the petition be read. cornfield, and making himself an independent and always been considered as an essential element in The Clerk read it, as follows: useful man.

the character of a successful commander, that To the honorable the Senale of the United States of I am of opinion that the nation whose service is he should be able to excite and encourage the America:

supplied with the best common sailors, will excel confidence and affection of the men under his The memorial of the subscribers, citizens of the United States, beg leave respectfully to represent to your honor

in naval warfare, as well as in all maritime pursuits. | command. But what confidence or regard can able body, that at the last session of the Congress of the I am further of opinion, that in versatility, educa- be expected under the government of the lash? United States an important change was made in the regu- tion, courage, and industry, our sailors in the But more than this: this punishment destroys Jations by which the discipline of the Navy and of the commercial marine of the United States was enforced, and

whaling and coasting service excel those of all the sailor's own self-respect. What has honwhich, in the opinion of your memorialists, if it be not

other nations. I am furthermore of opinion, that or-what has pridewhat has patriotism to do modified or repealed, will lead to the most disastrous re- the superiority of the American sailor has decided with a man who may be, at the caprice of sults to that great arm of the national defence and welfare. the battle in our favor in many a bloody conflict, another, subjected to an infamous punishment,

Your memorialists refer to the law by which commanders of vessels are not permitted, for the commission of

when, without that superiority, it might have been worsemaye, sir, in some cases worse a thousand petty offences against the regulation of their ship and the

otherwise. I desire to secure and preserve that su- times—than death? Can nobleness of sentiment, or laws of naval discipline, to inflict a prompt and ready || periority. To that end, and for humanity's sake, an honorable pride of character, dwell with one punishment upon offenders for the commission of such

I am utterly and irreconcilably opposed to the use whose every muscle has been made to quiver under offences. Your memorialists most respectfully represent, that on

of the lash in the Navy, or anywhere else. The the lash? Can he long continue to love his counthe high seas, where ready access to legal civil tribunals longest, the most arduous voyages are made in try, whose laws degrade him to the level of a brute? cannot be obtained for the prompt punishment of offenders the merchant service without the use of the lash. The infamous question” of torture now only against the laws of the naval and marine service, and where it is neither possible to discharge such offenders from the

In the Polar seas-among the icebergs of the remains as a blot on the page of Anglo-Saxon service or to obtain others to occupy their places and per- Arctic and Antarctic oceans, the intrepid New history. The whipping-post, where the worst form their duties, it is of the highest importance that a Englander pursues his gigantic game and hurls his vagrants used to expiate iheir offences, has been power should be conferred upon commanders to compel the harpoon; and after a three years' voyage, returns discarded from society. The worst offences in our service of their crews by means and punishments which,

with the oily spoils of his adventurous navigation. State prisons are no longer punished by the lash. under other circumstances, would not be required.

Your memorialists would state, in illustration of the forc- But he owes none of his success, his patient en- | Why is all this? Why are those punishments going proposition, that they have been informed, and be- durance, his exemplary discipline, and his in- now condemned as the shameful relics of a bar

barous age? It is because the light of a better day sachusetts, beg leave to represent to your honorable bodies, cies of both. But look to your history--that part bas dawned. It is because the precepts of the

that, having had their attention directed, for many years, of it which the world knows by heart and you

to the condition of seamen, abroad and at home, they have Gospel of Christianity have ameliorated our laws. been much impressed with the fact of the sufferings of this

will find on its brightest page the glorious achieveIt is because society has made the discovery, that valuable class of our citizens by sickness and accidents, ments of the American sailor. Whatever his counif a man is fit to live at all, he ought not to be di- and from poverty arising from these circumstances, con- try has done to disgrace him and break his spirit, he rested of all the qualities which make a man, by

nected with their proverbial improvidence for the future,
with their pecuniary means.

has never disgraced her; he has always been ready the infamous mutilation of his body. What is the

The benefits of medical aid and comfort in foreign ports to serve her; he always has served her faithfully and ADSTEr which is given to all this by those who enjoyed by others, are hardly ever obtained by them, and, effectually. He has often been weighed in the balseek to restore this relic of barbarism to the Navy? in consequence, after receiving such comforts and atten

ance, and never found wanting. The only fault ever Wły, they tell us we intend only to apply this

tions as the ships they are attached to, and their officers
can give, they are frequently brought home and placed in

found with him is, that he sometimes fights ahead system of punishment to seamen-we intend only

our marine hospitals, where no seainan can remain beyond of his orders. The world has no match for him, ilog sailors. That is quite true. It is only the time limited by the laws regulating those institutions. man for man; and he asks no odds, and he cares sailors who are to be treated like brutesmaye, It is very often the case that they are dismissed from these

for no odds, when the cause of humanity or the sir, worse than brutes. There is no man who || hospitals, when not sufficiently restored to render them fit for their active service, and, in consequence, they become

glory of his country calls him to fight. Who, in bears me, who would permit his dog to be thus paupers or tenants of public alms-houses, though most of the darkest days of our Revolution, carried your treated. There is no spot on the habitable globe them would rather die than suffer this degradation.' flag into the very chops of the British Channel, known to me, where a man would be permitted to

It is well known to all, observant of seamen, that they bearded the lion in his den, and woke the echoes seize upon a dog, and lash him until he cut the flesh

are always ready to answer the call for their services,
whether it be in the service of the naval, or of the mercan-

of old Albion's hills by the thunders of his cannon from off his ribs, and the blood should be made to tile marine—as ready to fight with valor for their country and the shouts of triumph? It was the American run down from his backbone to bis heels. But, as to aid in its commerce--and so true is this, that very few sailor. And the names of John Paul Jones and sir, it is only the sailor, for whom this punishment seamen, advanced in years, can be found who have not

the Bon Homme Richard will go down the annals is to be reserved.

served in both our public and private ships.
Your attention is respectfully called to the fact, that there

of time forever. Who struck the first blow that Who, O Senators! is the American sailor, that is, at this moment, in the public Treasury, as your inemo humbled the Barbary flag, which for a hundred he is to be treated worse than a dog? He has rialists have been informed, money to the credit of seamen years had been the terror of christendom, drove

who have been attached to the Government marine, and to been my companion for more than a quarter of a

it from the Mediterranean, and put an end to the mercantile marine, announting to more than a million of century-through calm and storm, privations, dollars,

the infamous tribute it had been accustomed to sufferings, and danger. In peace and in war Í This large amount has accrued from unclaimed sums extort? It was the American sailor. And the have lived with him, and fought with him side by due to deceased seamen, from unclaimed prize money be- name of Decatur and his gallant companions will side, by sea and land. I have seen him in the

longing to seamen of private as well as public arined ves.
sels, and to the contributions made by all seamen of twenty

be as lasting as monumental brass. In your war northern ocean, where there was no night to veil cents per month in the name of hospital money:

of 1812, when your arms on shore were covered kis deeds. I have seen him on the coast of Africa, In view of these facts, your memoralists beg leave to so- by disaster-when Winchester had been defeated wurtounded by pestilential disease. I have seen

licit from your honorable bodies, that measures may be --when the Army of the Northwest had sur

taken to ascertain the amount accumulated from these kinn among the West India Islands in chase of

sources in the United States Treasury and chat

, sleeperro min hung like a cloud over the land, who first relit

rendered, and when the gloom of despondency Firates, with his parched tongue hanging almost out of his mouth. I have encamped with him on the United States for the further maintenance of seamen, citi- the fires of national glory and made the welkin the California mountains, and on the plains of the zens of the United States, who are intirm and unfit for ser

ring with the shouts of victory? It was the AmerMesa. I have seen the rays of the morning sun

vice, from sickness, advanced age, or any other cause.
All of which is respectfully submitted.

ican sailor. And the names of Hull and the Conplay on his carbine and his boarding-pike. I have

PRESIDENT AND Trustees, B. M. S. stitution will be remembered as long as we have seen him march one hundred and fifty miles Z. Ring, Esq.-DEAR SIR: I herewith furnish you with left anything worth remembering. That was no through an enemy's country, over mountains and the information desired. During the year 1850 there were small event. The wand of Mexican prowess through rivers. I have seen his feet scarified by 106 deaths of seamen; of which number 45 were buried by was broken on the Rio Grande. The wand of

friends, the balance (61) were taken by the Alms-House to the projecting rocks, as he hauled his cannon over Potter's field; for the latter class the Government allow us

British invincibility was broken when the flag of the bills. I have seen him with no shoes on but 85 each-($3 for coffin, and $2 for ground.)

the Guerriere came down. That one event was those of canvas, made by his own hands, and Not one in ten have money to provide for themselves. worth more to the Republic than all the money with no provision but what he took from the

Very respectfully,

which has ever been expended for the Navy.

Join L. ROOME, eseny. I have seen him plunge into the Rio

Superintendent of City Hospital, N. Y.

Since that day the Navy has had no stain upon its Can Gabriel, and drag his guns after him in the

POTTER'S FIELD.--The grand jury for the Septeniber

escutcheon, but has been cherished as your pride face of a galling fire from a desperate foe. And terin examined 276 complaints, and found 133 bills of indict

and glory. And the American sailor has estabinally, I have laid beside him on the cold ground, ment. They visited the various public institutions, but lished a reputation throughout the world—in peace shen the ice has formed on his beard. Sir, his made no presentment. Previous to being discharged by the

and in war, in storm and in battle—for unsurheart has beat close to my own. I ought to know

court, the foreman, Henry Erben, Esq., at the request of
the grand inquest, stated to the court that the jury had visit-

passed heroism and prowess. him. I do know him. And this day-now, be- ed Potter's Field, and found it in a horrible condition. One Mr. President, I am no painter. I cannot draw fore the assembled Senate of the Republic, I stand pit was about half filled. The coffins were exposed to the with artistical skill the scene I would have you up to speak in his behalf. I hope he will find an sun. The stench from them was very great. They directed Mr. Webb, the keeper, to come before the grand-jury on

look upon. But it requires no artist. Picture it to asla s voeate. Nay, I am sure he will find ableradthe following day. On the 19th he made the following affi

yourself, sir. See the gallant bold sailor who has vocates on the floor. But, nevertheless, hear me. davit:

served his apprenticeship with Hull in the ConstiMr. President, the American sailors, as a

GRAND-Jury Room, September 19, 1851. tution, or one who helped to drag the guns across class, hare loved their country as well, and have William 0. Webb, being duly sworu, saith, that he is the the San Gabriel, stripped and lashed worse than a doce more for her in peace and war, than any

keeper of Potter's Field ; that the ground on Randall's
island, used for a burying-place, is not at all suited for il;

dog. Can you stand it, sir? Yet your laws have other equal number of citizens. Passing by for a

is full of rocks; pits are dug for the dead, where

authorized it to be done—it probably has been moment their antecedent glorious achievements, they are put in layers of six deep. The bottom of the pits done. And now it is proposed to give authority let me remind you that he has recently gained for

being solid rock, when decomposition takes place, the to do it again. Will the American people stand it? his country an empire. Through perils by land

liquid, not being able to go in the ground, passes through the
top, causing a horrible stench, which can be smelt for more

Will this more than Roman Senate long debate and perils by water he has gained a golden em

whether an American citizen, as he is—the sailor pire, which has added to his country's renown and There is no earth between the layers of coffins, and there shall be entitled to all his rights as an American greatness, and perhaps saved his fellow-citizens are only about eighteen inches of earth over the top layer citizen or not; whether, freeman as he is, he shall from almost universal bankruptcy, and ruin. heavy rains, the water gets into the pits, so that the coffins of coffins—that it frequently happens that at high tides and

be scourged like a slave? Cicero's climacteric, in And what has his country done for him? When are floating. He further saith that in less than three weeks his speech against Verres, is, that though a Rothe fighting was over, the battles won, the con

there will be no room left in the yard to bury another per- man citizen, his client had been scourged: And quest achieved, you sent a band of Mormons to

He also states that the south end of Ward's Island is a suitable place for a Potter's Field, the soil being good and

shall an American citizen be scourged? Forbid California to drive him to his ship, and rob him free from rock.

it, God of humanity, forbid it. For my own part, of his glory. And historians too have done more to Sworn this 19th day of September, 1851.

I would rather see the Navy abolished, and the prove that history is a lie. You refused to give

Henry ERBEN, Foreman. stars and stripes buried with their glory in the him "bounty lands," which you gave to the sol- Mr. STOCKTON. Mr. President, to whom depths of the ocean, than that those who won its dier-his comrade fighting by his side—and you in time of peace are intrusted the lives of the thou- | glories shou be subjected to a punishment so hare neglected to give him even your thanks. sands who traverse the ocean? Whose energy and ignominious and brutalizing. Sir, if I had the And now, to cap the climax of his country's in- | skill, and hardy self-denying toil, carry the prod- | power vouchsafed to others, to impress iny own gratitude, these memoralists would have him ucts of your soil through the world, and bring feelings upon the hearts of those who hear me, I scourged. They would scourge him for drunk- i back the rich return? It is the American sailor. would rouse in the minds of Senators such a sense enness, when they put the bottle to his mouth. By his superior qualities as a man he has enabled of national pride and human sympathy that they They would scourge him for inattention to his you to rival in commerce the boasted mistress of would with one voice demand that the memorial duly, when injustice and wrong have made him for the ocean. Where is the coast or harbor in the which seeks to rob the American sailor of his an instant discontented and sullen. Shame! Shame! wide world accessible to human enterprise to which rights as an American freeman, should be thrown You would scourge him while living, and when he has not carried your flag? His berth is no sine- || under your table and trampled beneath your feet. dead consign him to a felon's grave. That I may

cure. His service is no easy service. He is ne- Mr. President, the object of all our legislation not be supposed to have drawn upon my fancy, i cessarily an isolated being; he knows no comforts || for our seamen should be to elevate them as a or to have exaggerated his country's inhumanity, of home, and wife, and children.

He reaps no class, and not to degrade them. In proportion as I ask the Secretary of the Senate to read these golden rewards for the increase of treasure which you do this, and teach the sailor to respect himdocuments.

he brings to you. When on shore he is among self, you will bring him to the performance of his The Secretary read them as follows:

strangers and friendless. When worn out he is duty with cheerfulness and alacrity. You best To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representa- scarcely, provided for. Making many rich, he appeal to his patriotism by showing him that he tices in Congress assembled :

lives and dies poor; carrying the arts of civiliza- || is honored and respected by his country. You The andersigned, President and Trustees of the Boston tion and the blessings of the Gospel through the best appeal to his sentiment of native pride by Marine Society, of the city of Boston, in the State of Mas- world, he is treated as an outcast from the mer- presenting motives to his emulation. You can do

that

than a mile.

son.

infinitely more with him by rewarding him for his unwilling to admit that he can abuse it. Its safest and in all the elements of character which constitute faithfulness than by flogging him for his delin- depository he considers is his own hands. For valuable public servants, they have no superiors. quencies. Whatever the peculiarities of the sailor these and similar reasons, I think that the opinion | But however much respect I may entertain for may be, he is still a man, with all the impulses, of the officers of the Navy on this subject should them as a class, it is my duty, which I shall en. wishes, and hopes of a man. And if there is one be taken with many grains of allowance. I find deavor to perform, to deal without reserve or trait more peculiar to him than another, it is the no fault with the independent expression of their false delicacy with their arguments, and the errors sentiment of gratitude. He never forgets a kind- opinions. It is the opinion itself which I propose which disgrace and paralyze the service to which ness, and would take his heart out of his bosom to combat. Their argument is as brief as it seems they belong. It does appear to me, Mr. Presito save a friend. Let him only see that he is hon- to some minds formidable. They declare the lash | dent, that the argument, from necessity, has reored and respected by his country, and her honor to be necessary and indispensable. If they are solved itself simply into this: that the lash is an and interest will always be safe in his hands. right in this opinion, there is an end to the mat- easy and short way to settle a trifling difficulty

I believe that many of the officers of the Navy ter. Necessity has no law. But I beg leave to with a sailor. And so were the thumb-screw and have fallen into the error of supposing that sailors inquire into this alleged necessity.

the rack an easy and short way to get a confesare more influenced by their fears than by their And first, I ask for what offences has this lash sion, and the inquisition settled matters of faith affections. They do not rightly appreciate his been so freely used? Has it been' inflicted for easily and readily. But, sir, there has been a character. If they would take more pains to think serious or atrocious crimes, which involve the great change in the opinions of mankind on this for him to keep him out of temptation to attend honor of our flag or the safety of our national ves- subject, and I hope the change will go on until the to his wants—to see that he was fairly and justly sels? Or rather, let me ask, has it not been in- last relic of barbarism shall be banished from the dealt by—and properly to consider the fair állow- flicted for offences which, if they had been entirely | world. ance which ought to be made for him, they would loverlooked, would not have injured the proper But I care very liule for the details of this argufind it much less difficult to enforce discipline, to discipline of the Navy? Has the lash ever been ment, and will not detain the Senate any longer m gain his confidence, and find him much more used in the hour of battle, or in that of prepara- | relation to them. There is one broad proposition tractable. It is not by the severity of discipline | tion for battle? Is it reasonable to suppose that a upon which I stand. It is this: That an Amerias much as it is by a firm, just, and generous coward or traitor would face a cannon-ball to can sailor is an American citizen, and that no government, that he is to be controlled. It is so avoid the lash? It would seem, then, without | American citizen shall, with my consent, be subamong men everywhere. It is rather by humane multiplying words, that so far from the lash being | jected to this infamous punishment. Placing myand judicious laws, than by the severity of penal | necessary for the maintenance of discipline in the self upon this proposition, I am prepared for any enaciments, that good government is established most important duty of a ship-of-war, it never has consequences. I love the Navy. When I speak and maintained. Again: in the training and gov- and never will be used. How is it, then, in re- of the Nary, I mean the sailor as well as the offerning those men who are to fight your battles, gard to the next most important matter concerning || cer. They are all my fellow-citizens, and yours; and face every danger with courage, their fear the discipline of a man-of-war? Has it ever been and come what may, my voice will ever be raised should seldom be appealed to. You ought not to used for the suppression of mutiny? No, sir; the against a punishment which degrades my country. cultivate the emotions which make men cowards, law has provided for that offence, as well as for men to the level of a brute, and destroys all that and teach them habitually to shrink from the fear cowardice, the punishment of death. Having thus is worth living for personal honor and self-reof personal suffering. You ought rather to teach briefly stated what the lash has not been used for, || spect. them to despise an honorable suffering. True | let me inquire, what are the offences for which it Mr. President, reference has been made by these heroism is an intellectual quality. It is moral in- is deemed so absolutely necessary? We may memorialists to the example of the British Goptrepidity that makes the man of true and reliable derive some information in this particular from the ernment. With what propriety such an appeal is courage. And this can only coexist with a proper published reports of the offences and punishments made by the citizen of a free republican Go vernsense of personal honor and self-respect. Degrade which have actually occurred on board our ships- | ment to the institutions of monarchy, let others á man by an infamous punishment, which de- | of-war. By reference to the report of the Secre- || determine. But, sir, I am not aware that the Britstroys his personal' honor and self-respect, and tary of the Navy on this subject, you will perceive | ish Parliament has ever by statute expressly auyou do all that human ingenuity can to make him that one of the offences for which it has been used thorized the use of the lash. There is no doubt cowardly.

is that of suspicion of theft. One would hardly that it is used in the Navy of Great Britain, and But it is said that the Navy cannot be governed say it was either necessary or proper in that case. has been so used since the restoration of the monwithout the lash. As a general proposition, I || The offence for which, however, there seems to archy under the Stuarts; but there is no evidence express my utter dissent to it. I admit that have been more lashes inflicted than for all other that the practice of flogging prevailed in the reamong sailors, as among other classes, there will offences, is that of drunkenness. Now, sir, the publican fleets of the English Commonwealth; and always be found some who are vicious and trou- Government furnishes the liquor for the sailor, it is doubted by the best authorities that it ever blesome. That is the case in the Army as well and if he gets

drunk upon his allowance, the Gov- was tolerated prior to the act of 13th Charles as in the Navy; and they have abolished the lash ernment itself is responsible, and the sailor ought || II. We have copied it from their practice, and in the Army. It is as easy to get other and less not to be flogged. If he procures it on board of a not from their statute-book. But our Congress offensive punishments for the Navy as for the ship by theft or bargain, it is evidence of a laxity did what no British Parliament ever did: they Army; and if those punishments will not answer, of discipline, for which others are responsible, and sanctioned it in express terms by the laws of the the refractory person had better be driven in dis- for which the sailor ought not to be flogged. The United States. And here, Mr. President, you grace from the Navy. He is not fit to be trusted || lash, therefore, is not necessary to prevent drunk- must permit me to call the attention of the Senate in the hour of peril-he is unworthy to have the enness, not only for the reasons just stated, but to a most singular fact, which is this: Our law of honor of the flag confided to him. Sufficient in- because it must be universally admitted that it || April, 1800, was principally copied from the statducements should be offered to the better classes never has and never can prevent the offence of ute of Charles II., and is openly and avowedly to enter the Navy; and a part of those inducements | drunkenness, if he who is habituated to it is per- more severe and arbitrary than the British act, should always be good treatment. A free use of mitted to have liquor:

even under the Stuarts, and has remained so until the lash-nay, its probable use, its permission by The offence of disobedience of orders will be last year, although flogging, as a punishment, was law-has always been an objection urged by the found frequently in this report. But we are not tolerated during the whole of that time, and up to better classes to entering the Navy. They prefer informed of the precise nature of the offence. the present moment, on land in England. the merchant service, where they can at least select Whether it is actual or constructive disobedience The act of Charles II. alluded to, was passed their own commander, while in the Navy they | of orders; whether it is a serious or trifling matter; when the Duke of York, afterwards James II., know not into whose hands they may fall. Thus whether it is for accidentally spitting on the deck, was Lord High Admiral of England, and may be you see that the very necessity which is pleaded or neglecting to clean the bright works of a ship, I supposed to have been done at his instance. The creates, in a great degree, the circumstances out or not mending his clothes, or leaving his bag on English historian, the Earl of Clarendon, tells us, of which it is supposed to spring. You flog be- || deck; or whether it was a positive refusal to do that when that prince entered on his duties, he cause there are bad men in the Navy, and the his duty. We are, therefore, left to infer its seri- found the Navy too republican for his taste or purfact that you do flog excludes the better class of ousness by the punishment inflicted for it. I will poses, and set about reorganizing it by getting rid sailors from entering the service; so that the mis- | hazard the opinion, judging by that standard, that of the republican officers. In pursuance of this chief is self-perpetuating. But again, it is said that | stopping the offender's allowance of tobacco, or policy, he procured the passage of the act of a large majority of the officers of the Navy are of rum, tea, sugar, and coffee, would have been, in 13th Charles II. Although that act does not, opinion that the lash is necessary and indispens- | every case, a much more reasonable and a more in express terms, authorize the use of the lash, able. Well, there are differences of opinion about efficient punishment. And now, sir, what has be- yet by virtue of a clause contained in it, the it. We all know, however, that old notions and come of this plea of necessity ?-I will not call it in Lord High Admiral, or the commissioners for exopinions are hard to be rooted out, and that men this connection the tyrant's plea; the officers of the ecuting his duties, issued instructions authorizing are very apt to love arbitrary power when they are Navy do not deserve such a reproach from any the use of the lash in the British Navy; and cer, to exercise it, and not be subject to it. All his- | one, and especially from myself, because I did when tainly it may be cited to justify any tyranny. I tory shows this, and the experience of all reform- in the service execute, and permit to be executed, would not have noticed the reference of the memoers confirm it. Lord Denman, late Chief Justice the law of the lash as I hope I did all other laws ralists to the practice in the British Nary, but that of England, in a letter on the subject of legal of the service, which I had sworn to obey and to I desire, on this subject, not to leave a peg to hang reform, complains that everywhere he met the enforce. And this should be a sufficient' answer a doubt upon. But, sir, the example of the Britobjection that the judges were opposed to it. And to those who expect to escape from the grasp of ish Government, such as it is, is no justification Lord Brougham, in a speech delivered in Parlia- | argument and facts by indulging in individual re- for the United States. The infliction of corporal ment on the same subject, expresses a similar crimination, and will be sufficient to remind them punishment for certain offences has always, as far sentiment; yet it was not long before the judges that there is some difference in the position of those as I know, been sanctioned by British laws. The and the bar and the people concurred in opinion who are called upon to make the laws and those sailor in the British Navy receives the same punas to the beneficial effects of the same reforms. It | whose duty it is to execute them.

ishment that is inflicted upon land in England; would seem, sir, that it is a part of man's nature The officers of the Navy, in my judgment, are || whereas, in the United States it has been almost to yield with great reluctance the smallest atom of | entitled to high commendation. They are, as a universally abolished, and certainly has never power with which he may be invested. He is class, brave, noble, generous, and patriotic men; || been sanctioned by the laws of the United States,

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except in the Army and Navy. Justification it In the view I take of the subject, then, the ar- broad and deep the foundation of your naval has none; and if palliation is to be looked for, || gument derived from a low and degraded estimate greatness in the character of the COMMON SAILOR. it could only be found in its infliction by the judg- of the Navy, is unfounded in any of the charac- The bone and sinew of every Navy is the common ment of the sailor's peers. But the trial by jury i teristics belonging to the common sailor. Has it sailor. You require the commanding intellect of is unknown to the naval service. Those great any foundation in the incapacity of the officers to scientific officers to direct him, and you require conservative safeguards, so dear to the freemen-excite and cultivate those feelings of honor in a good ships. But after all, the common sailor is the straignmeni and trial before a jury of his peers sailor which make him obedient and tractable? I the working power which enables the captain and indiferenty selected, counsel and defence, are hope not. If there be any such, they should not the ship to gain laurels. 'Tis the sailor who works noknown to the everyday discipline of a man-of- be intrusted with any command. They are desti

and sails and fights the ship; and in proportion as war. Much less has the sailor any appeal. The tute of the faculty of commanding. They have he is superior or inferior, will be the success of process by which he is tried is a short process, not the necessary qualifications. They are not the captain and the ship. Sir, in all the best traits and the punishment follows immediately on judge safe depositaries for such absolute power, or for of character which distinguish sailors, no nation ment. Where the power to punish is so absolute, i the security of our public ships. How can they | excels the United States. The American sailor is

rouse the sailor's sense of honor in time of battle, | bold, intelligent, hardy, and enterprising, and in ir famous punishment for a petty offence, which who have proved themselves incapable of believe nautical skill is unsurpassed. He shrinks from no may disgrace and ruin him for life. If when a ing in its existence at all other times. I appre- | danger, he dreads no foe, and yields to no supealizen enters into the service of his country, he hend, if the restoration of the lash be made to rior. No shoals are too dangerous, no seas too is to forego the protection of those laws, for the hinge upon the question, whether the sailor is boisterous, no climate too rigorous for him. The preservation of which he is willing to risk his life, destitute of honor, or the officers of capacity to burning sun of the tropics cannot make him effemhe is entitled in all justice, humanity, and grati- successfully appeal to that honor, that we should | inate, nor cun the eternal winter of the polar seas tade, to all the protection that can be extended to not be troubled with many importunate demands paralyze his energies. Foster, cherish, develop him in his peculiar circumstances. He ought cer- for its restoration. If the desire to restore the lash ihese characteristics by a generous and paternal mainly to be protected from the infliction of a pun- to the Navy is evidence that the standard by government. Excite his emulation, and stimulate ishment which stands condemned by the almost which the Navy is judged is low and degraded, it his ambition by rewards. But above all, save universal sentiment of his fellow-citizens; a pun- is also evidence, to my mind, that the Navy has him, save him from the brutalizing lash, and inishment which is proscribed in the best prison-gov- not kept pace with the moral improvement of the spire him with love and confidence for your serernment; proscribed in the school-house; and pro- | age. If it be the general opinion in the Navy | vice; and then there is no achievement so arduous, scribed in the best government on earth-that of that the lash is necessary and indispensable for no conflict so desperate, in which his actions will parental domestic affection. Yes, sir, expelled the preservation of discipline, then, I say, we are not shed glory upon his country. And when the from the social circle, from the school-house, the now just where public sentiment stood in 1660, final struggle comes, as soon it will come, for the prison-house, and the Army, it finds defenders during the infamous reign of Charles II. Then

empire of the seas, you may rest with entire conand" champions nowhere but in the Navy. To the thumb-screw and the rack were in vogue, fidence that victory will be yours. say that no laws can be devised for the govern- And if we are to go back to the lash, I do I move you, sir, that it is inexpedient to grant ment of the Navy which do not tolerate the lash, not see why we should not retrograde likewise to the prayer of the petitioners. is an acknowledgment of imbecility which this the boot, the rack, and the torture. What would Mr. HAMLIN. I do not propose to occupy Senate will never make.

be thought of the man who should propose to in- the time of the Senate. It is known probably to The difficulty in regard to this matter has been, troduce into our penal code those horrible and bar- | Senators, that the Senator from Louisiana Mr. that in framing articles for the government of the barous punishments of which ! have spoken? | Downs] has been for several days extremely deNary, three things have been overlooked, which What would be thought of the civilized commu- sirous of addressing the Senate upon another subcugtit never to be lost sight of. First, that an nily who would approve such a proposition, | ject. The Senator from California, upon whose American sailor is an American citizen and a free- and reënact punishments in vogue three hundred motion the Senate this morning proceeded to the man, though in the service of his country. Sec- years ago? 'Yet the proposition to restore the consideration of this matter, has been called from sed, that he has yielded no legal right, not incon- lash is of a similar character. It takes for the Senate. He was desirous of submitting the sistent with his obligations of duty. Third, that granted that the sailor has remained stationary, motion to lay it on the table for the present; and naval officers are not infallible, and require as ever since the rack, the thumb-screw, and the in his absence I have risen simply to make that stringent regulations for their government as other | boot were abolished as part of the criminal law of motion. citizens invested with authority.

civilized nations; it takes for granted that of all Mr. BADGER. I wish to make a few remarks And now, Mr. President, I come to the discus- | the light which has irradiated the human mind upon the subject. son of a part of this subject far from being agree-during the progress of the world, none of it has Mr. HAMLIN. I trust the Senator from able. Why is it that naval officers, and even some been poured on the understanding of the sailor. North Carolina will yield, for the benefit of the seamen, as I am told, desire to have the lash re- That he alone has remained stationary. That he | Senator from Louisiana. I therefore move to lay stored to the Navy? It is a symptom of unfavor, | alone has remained ignorant and incapable of im- the subject on the table. able angury. It is an indication, that the moral || provement. That he alone is doomed to remain Mr. BADGER. I hope it will not be done, sir. standard by which the Navy is estimated, is low the victim of injustice and cruelty. Look, sir, Mr. HAMLIN. I submit the motion because and degraded. It argues a preference for the ex- through the various pursuits of human life, and I told the Senator from California that I would Freize of arbitrary power, rather than appeal to wherever your eyes rest, you find that improve | do so. those feelings of respect and sentiments of honor, I ment has advanced with giant strides. You find Mr. BADGER. And because the Senator from which should influence the conduct of honorable that it has elevated and enlightened the plough- California is absent, is that to preclude a member men towards each other in the service of their coun- man in his field-the mechanic in his workshop of the Naval Committee from saying a word on try. The great Montesquieu has said, that while the merchani—the professional man—the daily | the subject? Fire was the principle of a republic, honor was laborer-all have felt the benign influences of im- Mr. "HAMLIN. I wish the Senator from that of a monarchy. Now, the actual government, proved civilization. If the sailor has not felt it in North Carolina to understand my position. I do in peace or war, in your military and naval ser- an equal degree with other classes, it is because not propose, by moving to lay this subject on the vire, is necessarily, in some degree, monarchical. you have degraded and abused him, by treatment table, to preclude all further discussion of it; but Within the limits of his command, and in reference from which other classes have compelled you to only to preclude it so far as to allow the Senator to those immediately subject to him, the captain, relieve them. His voice has not been heard like froin Louisiana to address the Senate to-day upon the colonel, the general, or the commander of a that of other classes in the halls of legislation. another subject, as he is anxious to do, so that he shap of war, is a sovereign-a monarch; and I hold He has no representative in such places. He may leave the city for a time. It is out of kindIbai honor is the principle on which the govern- wields no political influence. He has po resi- ness to him that I make the motion : ment of his subordinates should be founded. Tell dence. His domicil is on the ship: If the inter- Mr. DOWNS. I did desire to address the me not that a sailor's heart is insensible to the ests of the sailor had received a títhe of the atten- Senate to-day; but if the Senator from North dictates of honor. I know better. It is there. Ittion bęstowed by legislators on the interests of Carolina desires to continue this debate, I shall be may indeed slumber and remain passive, and be other classes, we should not now be discussing very willing to wait until to-morrow. almost extinguished by sullen revenge or bitter the question whether or not he should be re- Mr. HAMLIN. Then I withdraw the motion, halred; yet there it is, as real, and in as perfect manded to the tender mercies of these penal atroci- Mr. BADGER. I have no disposition to inflict existence, as in your breast or mine. By properties, from which the progress of modern improve- a speech upon the Senate upon this subject. The appeals to it, by generous treatment, by manly ment has relieved all other denominations of men views that have been submitted to the Senate by and discriminating excitement, it kindles into ac- -we would not now be discussing the question the honorable Senator from New Jersey, have in tivity, and becomes the supreme arbiter of the whether he should be treated like a man or a some respects struck me with surprise; and I think sailor's life and conduct. Sir, if the officers would brute.

that as they have been delivered to the Senate upon only believe in the existence of this sentiment of Mr. President, a word or two more and I am an occasion when it is not usual for us to go into honor, and appeal to it as an instrument for the || done. We hear a great deal of the delinquencies | discussions or investigations of this kind, as I am preservation of discipline, we should not be asked of sailors. There are delinquencies of officers, as a member of the Naval Committee, to whose cusio restore the lash. A requisition for the lash well as of sailors. There are officers in the Navy, I tody, long ago, according to my view, this memoproceeds on the supposition that there is no honor as well as sailors, who ought not to be there. If | rial should have been intrusted; and as I entertain in a common sailor. Now, so far from that you desire to prepare the Navy for the exigencies a very different opinion upon the subject of this dogma having any foundation in fact, it must of war--if you desire to preserve your ancient | petition from thai which has been so forcibly and be known to all who appreciate the character of a renown as a naval Power, you must, in my judg- eloquently expressed by the honorable Senator true-hearted sailor, that honor is almost the only | ment, abolish the lash, and adopt a system of from New Jersey, I could not think it right that principle by which nine tenths of them are gov- rewards and punishments in its stead. You must remarks of this kind should go forth to the country erned. When an unsuccessful appeal is made to abolish the liquor ration; you must alter the whole without an instantaneous notice from some gentlethe honor of a sailor, it is not because he is desti- system of the recruiting service; in one word, you man who belongs to that committee. In the abtute of the principle, but because the appeal has must purge the Navy of all its foul stuff, in high sence of the chairman, I have assumed that duty not been properly made.

places as well as low places; and you must lay ll myself.

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