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cal education on account of certain tant Commissioners, the powers of passages in anatomical books or the Commissioners with respect to anatomical drawings. He must the issuing of general orders, the say, too, that he thought that regulations under which rules and these passages would have re orders should be issued in cases of mained in darkness and obscurity urgency, and a few other points had they not been raked up for affecting the practical working of particular purposes.
He believed the law. Sir James Graham exthat no people were characterized plained that, these clauses being by greater purity of morals than passed, Government would consider the people who dwelt in those during the recess the remaining districts where the priests were in provisions on which legislation was the habit of instituting those in- required, and at the commencequiries, to which an honourable ment of the next Session would Gentleman had taken such ex re-introduce them in a new Bill. ception.
He pressed the House not to After a few words from Mr. interpose further obstacles to the O'Connell and some sharp personal
now limited. The altercation, the grant was affirmed hostility entertained to the prinby 95 to 48.
ciple of the law, however, by some The powers of the Poor-law Members was too strong to allow Commissioners, which in the last of a tacit acquiescence in the proSession had been provisionally con- posals of the Government.
On tinued for one year, required now the bringing up of the Report, to be again renewed by Act of Mr. Escott made a protest against Parliament, and a measure had the rigid exclusion of out-door been announced in the early part relief. He proposed a clause proof the Session by Sir James Gra- viding, “ That it shall be lawful ham which, besides effecting this for all Boards of Guardians of the object, comprised also several other poor in England and Wales to practical alterations in the system; grant such relief as in their judgamong others, the abolition of the ment shall be necessary to poor Gilbert Unions, the formation of persons at their own homes, any districts for the purposes of edu- order, rule, or regulation of the cation, and various minor matters. Poor-law Commissioners notwithWant of time, however, owing to standing." He made some general the pressure of the great financial remarks against the Poor-law; questions, and opposition, which disputing the right of Parliament on this fertile subject usually to establish a Commission and deleassumed a seriously procrastinating gate to it legislative powers. In form, compelled the Government the agricultural district in which to content themselves with carry- he lived, the prohibitory order had ing out the more urgent portion of been productive of the very worst their measure, leaving the rest to consequences. follow in another Session. The He admitted that his amend. first clause of the Bill, re-enacting ment would lead to the payment of the Commission for a period of wages out of the rates: but which five years, after considerable ob was the greater evil, to pay a jection, was carried, as were clauses small sum to keep the labourer out defining the number of the Assis- of the workhouse, or a larger sum
to maintain him in it? in many lieved out of it were 1,108,000. cases, where it would take 25s. to Then with respect to the relative maintain a family in the house, expense of those relieved in the assistance to the amount of 2s. 6d. workhouse and those relieved out or 3s. woul, keep them out. of it, the total sum paid for the
Sir James Graham declared the maintenance of the poor in 1840, clause equivalent to a repeal of the in England and Wales, statute of 1834, and totally incon- 3,739,0001. ; 808,0001. was exsistent with the Bill on which it pended for relief within the workwas proposed to engraft it: nor house, and no less than 2,931,0001. was it true that the Guardians was given to the poor at their were without a discretionary own homes. So again in the year power.
1841: the gross sum expended was There was a general order, which 3,884,6001. ; of this sum 892,0001. gave to the Board of Guardians was expended for relief in the the largest possible discretion ; and work house, and no less a sum even the prohibitory order also than 2,992,0001. was distributed in gave a large discretionary power England and Wales among the with respect to affording relief to poor, not in the workhouses, but at the able-bodied. They were em their own homes. powered to give relief either in or Mr. Escott had admitted that out of the workhouse, in money or his clause would bring about a food, in clothes or in medicine, to return to the payment of wages all able-bodied paupers in the case out of the Poor-rates :
" What of sickness, either of the head of was that system of paying wages the family, or of any member of out of the rates, but the exaction it, or in any case in which the ne of a sum of money from the ratecessity of relief was certain and payers by the employers of laboururgent.
ers, to pay for labour from which He defined the principle of the the rate-payers derived no benefit ? Poor-law to be, the local adminis- He could not conceive a system, if tration of relief controlled by the they viewed it only in the light of authority of a central administra- abstract justice, more iniquitous, tion. Mr. Escott seemed to think more intolerable, or more indefenthat the workhouse system was
sible, as related to the rate-payers; rigidly enforced : how stood the while as it related to the labourers facts ?
themselves, he knew of nothing In 1839, there were 1,137,000 more calculated to injure them in relieved: of these, 140,000 were their character for independence relieved in the workhouse, and and moral bearing." 997,000 received relief out of the The motion was supported by workhouse. In 1840, the total Mr. Fielden, Mr. O'Connell, Mr. number of persons relieved was Hardy, Mr. Aglionby, Mr. S. Craw1,199,000: of these, 169,000 were ford, and General Johnson ; it was relieved in the workhouse, and opposed by Mr. Ward and Mr. 1,030,000 out of it. In 1841, Hume. the number of persons relieved Mr. Escott's motion was negawas 1,300,000: of that number tived by 90 to 55, and the Bill there were relieved in the work- passed. house 192,000, while those re The proceedings in Parliament
were wound up by one of those re was vain to think that men who trospective reviews of the operations had been so long discussing their of the session, not uncommon of rights and their wrongs, could at late years, wherein all the omissions once go back to the same state of and misdeeds of the Government comparative political slumber to during its progress are summed up, which they were accustomed at with taunting recapitulation, by the breaking out of hostilities. some leading speaker of the Oppo- Nevertheless, there were persons sition, against whom the assailed who indulged in that dream ; but Ministerialists retort, by selecting the delusion was soon dispelled. the most vulnerable points in the Italy, Spain, and Portugal made conduct of their rivals, as a con frequent, though unsuccessful, ef. trast to their own policy,
forts to wrest from their governOn the present occasion, the ments free institutions; which at two great parties were represented length Spain and Portugal, under by two able champions, whose skill the auspices of England, obtained. in this species of intellectual gladia- After the peace, the public mind torship, if it served no more im of this country directed itself with portant end, at least afforded satis great intensity to our own dofaction to the admirers of contro- mestic concerns—to civil and reversial dexterity, and to those who ligious disabilities under which the can relish the collision of acute people laboured ; and in 1829, reasoning, raillery, and sarcasm. Catholic Emancipation was carried,
A motion was made by Viscount mainly through the energy, the Palmerston, on one of the last wisdom, and the firmness of three nights of the session, for a return men,--the right honourable Baroof “ The names and titles of all net opposite, now at the head of the public. Bills that had been Her Majesty's Government; the brought into the House of Com. Duke of Wellington ; and a person mons during the present session of whose name is not often associated Parliament, the date at which the with theirs, the right honourable order for bringing in each Bill and learned Member for Cork. was made ; and also the dates at (Cheers and a laugh.) Lord which the said Bills passed through Palmerston hoped that the Duke their several stages.
of Wellington would add another He embraced the occasion to wreath to the laurels that grace make some observations on the his brow, and attain commercial state of public affairs at home and emancipation for his country. The abroad ; and on the close of the events of 1830 in France, produced first Parliamentary session of that a crisis in this country. The inparty, who had been ten years terval since 1829 was too brief to in active opposition, and twelve allow the resentments which Camonths in power. He went back tholic Emancipation had produced for some of the causes which are among the supporters of Ministers still in operation, to the long war to subside ; and by resigning on a which was closed by the peace of subordinate question, they express1815: “ In that war, all the pas ed their conviction that a time sions, all the feelings, and all the was come when a complete meaa energies of the nations of Europe, sure of Parliamentary Reform must were roused into action; and it take place, although they could not
undertake it. Lord Palmerston's only contrive to dispossess us of colleagues succeeded to power, the power which we heid, and and brought forward a measure place it in the hands of the leaders more extensive than had been be- of their party, they would be safe, lieved possible. The present state and that the system which they of the House, however, proved how had cherished for so long a period, groundless were the fears of anni. would be maintained. They had hilation entertained by Sir Robert a majority, a large majority, in Peel and his party."
the House of Lords; all they There was this difference be- wanted was a majority in this tween Parliamentary Reform and House. They set to work, steadily Catholic Emancipation—the one and systematically labouring in was complete in itself, the redress the Registration Courts; and graof a specific grievance; the other dually they rose upon us, until it was a means to a further end : became obvious, from session to
“ It was idle to suppose, when session, that their numbers were you admitted into this House a due increasing, and that the time would proportion of direct Representa- probably come, when they would tives of a great manufacturing and have the command of this House commercial community, that those as well as the other House of Par. Representatives would not state iament. The last session of the so eftectually and with such force late Parliament brought matters the various evils under which that to a crisis. Their numbers were, community laboured by reason of at all events, equal to, if not your prohibitory and restrictive greater than ours; and the measystem, that in the course of a sures which we announced, those short period of time, Parliament great measures of Commercial Rewould be induced to make great form--some of which we actually and important changes in that sys- brought forward, showed that the tem. But there were many who time had at length arrived when did not look deep enough into the they must give us battle, and they course of things to be convinced of prepared vigorously for the fight. that. The large party who ho. They fought the battle in this nestly and conscientiously-for I House and in the country. Their will not attribute improper motives victory was, undoubtedly, comto them--think that the system, plete; and our defeat, I am ready which we call monopoly and re to acknowledge, amounted almost striction, is not only calculated for to a rout. (Laughter.) Great their own benefit, but for that of was the triumph, loud was the the country, believed that these note of exultation. But, alas! great stages of social improvement how vain is human wisdom--how depended not upon the action of short the foresight of even the great and wide-spreading causes, wisest men! when a few months but on the accidental opinions of passed over their heads, the songs particular men, who happen from of triumph were changed into cries time to time to be in possession of of lamentation. The
very parties power. They thought, therefore, whom they had selected to be their when from time to time we an- chosen champions—the very guarnounced improvements of one sort dians whom they had armed with and another, that if they could power for their defence-turned
their weapons upon them, and a former occasion, of too much most inhumanly, and with un assurance: now I am going, not to relenting cruelty, struck blows, retort that charge, but to complain which, if they have not already of his over-modesty. I complain proved fatal, must in all proba of the over-modesty of the right bility, lead sooner or later to their honourable Baronet and his colutter extinction."
leagues, in this, that upon many The triumphant party had been occasions when, they being out of deceived ; but by whom? by them- power, matters came under discusselves. It was not to be supposed sion in this House, to which the that the late Ministers had so im- principles they have lately avowed pregnated the air of Downing were fully and plainly applicable, Street with Free-trade principles, their modesty-for it was that, no that their successors caught the in- doubt-prevented them from doing fection, as they would an epidemic; themselves full justice, inasmuch still less that those recently pro as, by practising an over-scrupulous pounded doctrines and opinions reserve, they really concealed from were the result of studies since the the public the progress they had present Ministers had entered upon made in their studies. (Laughter office, when it was known that and cheering.) For instance, when every hour of a Minister's day we proposed a moderate reduction must be devoted to the current of the Timber-duties, they obbusiness of his office :
jected to the measure upon mere “ It is not to be supposed, that grounds of technical form. It is Her Majesty's Ministers applied true that they did not enter much themselves between the 3d of Sep- into the question ; but they did tember, when they entered office, injustice to themselves; for they and the 3d of February, when left people to imagine that their Parliament met, to the study of objection to the measure was, that Adam Smith, Ricardo, M'Culloch, it diminished too much the protecMill, Senior, and other writers of tion to British timber, whereas we the same kind. (Laughter.) No; now know from subsequent expeit is clear that the opinions which rience, that their objection was, that they have so well expounded in the measure did not go half far the present session, must be the enough. (Laughter.) When we result of long meditation-of stu announced our intention of making dies deliberately pursued during a material reduction of the Cornthe ten years of comparative leisure, duty, they took an objection ; not, which even the most active oppo- indeed, because they disliked the sition affords; and that they must introduction of foreign corn at a have come into power fully imbued duty of 8s., provided that duty with all those sound principles, the were arrived at by means of a enunciation of which has excited sliding-scale, but because, as we so much admiration on this side of supposed, the duty was to be fixed the House. In one respect, the and unvarying. They did not let conduct of right honourable Gen us into the secret, but confined tlemen opposite, before they en their objection to that point; and tered office, is open to animad every one supposed them to be version. The right honourable acting on the old country gentleBaronet opposite accused me, upon man's adage of down corn down