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MESSAGE.

To the Legislature of Kansas:

Section 5, Article I, of the Constitution provides that the Governor "shall, at the commencement of every session of the Legislature, communicate, in writing, such information as he may possess in reference to the condition of the State, and recommend such measures as he may deem expedient." In pursuance of this provision the following is submitted:

Our State has now completed its first decade. We were admitted into the Union in 1861, after a long conflict on our own soil, and just as the arena of that conflict was becoming as wide as the Federal Union. While the National war lasted, Kansas contributed more largely of her sons than any other State in the Union, but never forgot to grow. The first full reports made by our State officers were for the year 1862, and it will be instructive for us to make a brief comparison between the statistics of that year and the year which has just closed.

The total value of all the taxable property in the State, in 1862, was $19,285,749. In 1872, it was $127,690,937.13. In 1862, there were 534 organized school districts; in 1872, there were 3,418. In '62, the number of children of school age was 13,976; in '72, the number was 165,982. The number of teachers in the former year was 319; in the latter 3,795. The amount paid to teachers, in '62, was $14,009; '72, it was $596,611. The amount raised by district tax, in '62, was $10,381; in '72, it was $822,644. The total value of

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our school houses, in '62, was $10,432; in '72, it was $2,845,262. The whole number of votes cast, in 1862, was 15,418; in '72, the number was 101,488. In 1862, we had no Asylums for the Deaf and Dumb, none for the Blind and none for the Insane. We had no State University, no Agricultural College, no Normal Schools, no Penitentiary, and no State Capital. In 1862, not a mile of railroad was in operation in the State. Now we have 2,039 miles in actual operation, while several new roads are in process of construction. Kansas has more miles of railroad than either of the twenty-six States named below: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, California, Oregon and Nevada. Of all the southern States which opposed the admission of Kansas into the Union, only one, Georgia, has more miles of railroad. She exceeds us but sixty-nine miles and will not lead us many weeks longer.

The vote of 1870, and the census of that year, taken several months prior to the election, establish that our population averages at least six persons to each voter. Our last vote was 101,488, which makes our present population 608,928; an increase since 1862 of half a million of people. When the Republic is one hundred years old, in 1876, our population will exceed one million.

Our vote at the late election was larger than the vote of either of the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Nebraska, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, West Virginia, California or Minnesota-larger than the vote of any New England State except Massachusetts, and larger than the combined vote of Nebraska, Delaware, Nevada, Rhode Island and Oregon.

It is to be observed that while every county in the State exhibits a healthy and rapid growth, the largest accessions have been made in new counties open to actual settlers, but not to the speculators in real estate. Congress, in opening

the Osage lands for settlement, wisely provided that they should be sold only to actual settlers. It is less than three years since the Indian title was extinguished, and there is now a farmer on nearly every quarter section in that portion of our State. As instances of rapid growth, Montgomery and Howard counties may be cited. The vote of Montgomery county at the late election was 3,247, indicating a population of 19,482. The vote of Howard county was 2,670, showing a population of 16,020. In the western part of the State where the land has been open to settlement under the very just provisions of the homestead law, our growth has also been very rapid, and the new counties are fast becoming populous and strong.

The policy of granting land only to actual settlers is now almost universally admitted to be the only wise and just course, and it is believed that we have seen the last of the attempts to create a monopoly in land.

The progress of the State in the different branches of manufactures is not less a subject for congratulation. Our immense coal deposits are being opened and used in building up manufacturing enterprises within our own borders. Advantage has been taken of the water power afforded by many of our rivers, and mills driven by that power are now found in various parts of the State. All of these enterprises are now in their infancy, but it is already manifest that the time is near at hand when most of the articles used by our citizens, and now manufactured elsewhere, will be produced here, and by home industry.

FINANCES.

The bonded indebtedness of the State is $1,336,675. The outstanding State warrants amount to $201,109.04. There is also outstanding of territorial warrants $7,142.73. These three items comprise the total indebtedness of the State. The sinking fund in the treasury at the end of the fiscal year, for the payment of the bonded debt, amounted to $135,527.34, of which $119,800 is invested in the bonds of the State. There was in the treasury on the thirtieth of November, for general purposes, $371.59. The total tax levied for

revenue last year was $1,085,372.95, of which $829,991.08 was for general purposes. The payments into the treasury during the present month will probably furnish a sufficient amount of money to redeem the outstanding State warrants and to meet current expenses.

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A frugal administration of the affairs of government is urgently demanded. The great scarcity of money makes this demand imperative. I urge upon you a careful examination of the laws, with a view of doing away with every unnecessary expense, and you should rigidly scrutinize all measures requiring the expenditure of money.

With proper economy the levy of this year, for general purposes, need not exceed three mills on the dollar.

OUR PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

The report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. continues to be one of our most valuable and important public documents. The schools of the State are in a very flourishing condition, and the interest of the people in the cause of education suffers no abatement. The schools of Kansas are as great an attraction to the immigrant, and furnish as strong an inducement for him to settle here as the cheapness of our land, the fertility of the soil and the salubrity of the climate. Our people take pleasure in placing upon their shoulders the burden of building good school houses and sustaining the best schools. It is the one tax which all Kansans pay without objection. The permanent school fund of the State now amounts to $759,095.99. This fund is mainly derived from the sale of school lands, and is invested in Kansas State bonds and in school district bonds. The increase of school districts during the year has been 772; of the number of children of school age 23,624; of teachers 717; in the number of school houses 669; in the value of school houses $820,668. The total amount received from various sources for the public schools is $1,701,950.

In disposing of our school lands, would it not be well for us to set an example for the general government and make sales only to actual settlers?

STATE UNIVERSITY.

The report of the Chancellor shows that the State University is in a prosperous condition. The number of students last year was 253. The estimated cash value of the property of the institution is $224,000, exclusive of 46,080 acres of land donated by the general government for an endowment fund. The amount expended on the new building is $138,500. This structure is believed to be the best college building which has ever been erected in our country. The money appropriated has been wisely and economically expended. The addition of a law and medical department is now in contemplation, and it is evident that our university will soon take rank with the first institutions of learning in the Union.

AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.

The president reports a rapid increase in the number of students, the whole number being 447, against 293 for the previous year. Twenty-seven counties of the State have been represented during the year. Students have also been present from Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio and Texas. The president states as among the immediate wants of the college, a new building, the cost of which will be $100,000.

The treasurer of the college reports interest bearing securities in his hands amounting $80,298.56; cash on hand, $7,545.19. These sums are realized from the sale of land donated by Congress and belonging to the endowment fund of the college.

The reports of the different officers of the institution, accompanying the report of the board of regents, are unusually instructive and valuable.

NORMAL SCHOOLS.

The number of students enrolled within the year in the State Normal School at Emporia, was 190. The president reports the completion of the new school building provided for by the appropriation of last year. It is a commodious and elegant structure and well adapted to the wants of this popular institution of learning.

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