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mother (2 Tim. i. 5.), must have been converted to the Christian faith, H. P. 182, 3., in the city of Lystra.

And here be it remarked, that from the nature of the case there can be no necessity to suppose Timothy more than fourteen years old when now converted : an age which, though far from absolutely required by the later dates on our scheme maintained for the two epistles addressed to him, will yet most happily agree with those texts which there allude to his youth, 1 Tim. iv. 12., ch. v. 1, 2., and 2 Tim. ii. 22. That extent of attain- . ments at the age of fourteen which Josephus, it is well known, records of himself, affords probability enough to any such progress in sacred learning as may here be attributed to Timothy at that early age; especially when we are told, 2 Tim. iii. 15., that the holy scriptures, of the Old Testament, were known to him from a child.

Acts xiv. 8. And there sat a certain man at Lystra, impotent in his feet, being a cripple from his mother's womb, who never had walked :

9. The same man heard Paul speak : who stedfastly beholding him, and perceiving that he had faith to be healed,

10. Said with a loud voice, Stand upright on thy feet. And he leaped and walked. 11. And when the people saw what Paul had done,

up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.

12. And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker.

- by which order of the names (i. e. Barnabas and Paul), the next mention of them also, in v. 14. seems to be influenced.

they lifted

Acts xiv. 13. Then the priest of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice with the people.

14. Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among

the people, crying out,

15. And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things ? We also are

men of like infirmities with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein:

16. Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.

17. Nevertheless he left not himself without witness, in that he did good, and gave us rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with food and gladness.

18. And with these sayings scarce restrained they the people, that they had not done sacrifice unto them.

19. And there came thither certain Jews from Antioch (in Pisidia) and from Iconium, who persuaded the people now in the other extreme, and, having stoned Paul, drew him out of the city, supposing he had been dead.

20. Howbeit, as the disciples (and among these perhaps the young and affectionate Timothy, 2 Tim. iii. 10, 11., H. P. 182, 3.) stood round about him, he rose up, restored at once by divine power to health, and came into the city (of Lystra): and the next day he departed with Barnabas to Derbe.

21. And when they had preached the gospel to that city, and had taught many,

without any hindrance there, H. P. 182., probably aided by the influence of Gaius, himself then

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converted, Rom, xvi. 23., ACTS XX. 4. ; vide Gaius

in the Index, they returned again even to Lystra now without fear, and to Iconium, and Antioch,

Acts xiv. 22. Confirming the souls of the disciples (of Timothy among the rest), and exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God.

23. And when they had ordained elders for them in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they (the two apostles) commended them to the Lord, on whom they had fixed their belief.

24. And after they had thus passed throughout Pisidia, they came to Pamphylia.

25. And when they had preached the word in Perga, — which apparently they had not done, when they

first passed through that place, A. xiii. 13, 14. — they went down into Attalia, that maritime city of Pamphylia, at which they must have landed on their way, A. xiii., from Paphos to Perga :

26. And thence sailed homeward again to Antioch in Syria, from whence they had been recommended to the grace of God for the great work which they had thus wonderfully fulfilled.

27. And when they were come to that city, and had gathered the church together, they rehearsed all that God had done by their hands, and how he had opened the door of faith unto the Gentiles also,

--- as well those who were already proselytes to the law of Moses, as those who had been heathens entirely up to that time, or in one word, idolatrous Gentiles.

28. And there, at Antioch, the metropolis of Gentile Christianity, they abode long time with the disciples.

Thus ends the first apostolic progress of Paul and Barnabas.



During the long time (not less than three years) that Paul and Barnabas abode with the disciples at Antioch, it seems highly probable at least (H. P. 100, 101.), if not demonstrably true, for reasons which will be more fully assigned in another place (APPENDIX A), that they might go up to Jerusalem, and return to Antioch, at some interval before the journey (recorded in A. xv.) took place which produced the apostolic decree.

In that belief, and on the grounds alluded to, the following addition, from the Epistle to the Galatians, is here made to the sacred narrative of the Acts. But inasmuch as the passage in the original confessedly labours under some obscurity from the brevity as well as embarrassed style in which several facts of importance are crowded together; instead of presenting the text alone, and subjoining a comment to it, a free and comprehensive paraphrase is here exhibited, as at once better developing the meaning of the apostle.

GALAT. ii. 1...10.

1. Then fourteen years after my conversion, I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, and took Titus also with me, a young man and a converted Gentile.

– Whatever knowledge of Titus in the first stage of his ministerial connection with Paul can be gained or reasonably inferred from the epistles, will be found elsewhere. Vide Titus in the Index.

2. And I went up directed by especial revelation to announce to the brethren there the wider province of apostolic labour which we had recently undertaken ; and with the view to secure their right understanding

in the matter, I communicated to them that gospel which in its immunity from the Jewish law (H. P. 101.) I preach among the Gentiles. But this communication was made privately (or separately) to them of high rank and repute, and not in a public assembly, for fear of any uproar arising, which might invalidate my past and frustrate my future preaching :

Gal. ii. 3. (but far from being so defeated, when it was afterwards vehemently urged as a point for concession, that Titus should be circumcised, I maintained on principle, and with success, his exemption, as being a Greek, from any such token of bondage.)

4. And the better to insure my great object of apostolical unanimity, I observed that precaution of private address; necessary as it was on account of false brethren (Judaising Christians) unawares intruding, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage of the law :

5. To whom, when they made the attempt to gain their point, we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour; that the truth of the Gospel in its fulness and freedom might continue unimpaired with you and with all the Gentiles.

6. And even from those brethren, on the other hand, who had reputation and consequence in the church - whatsoever they were, it makes no matter to me : God accepteth no man's person - I gained nothing in the way of knowledge or of authority: those persons, I say, of high repute added nothing to me in either way. (See Note.)

7. But on the contrary indeed, having clearly seen, from the whole of my late career as an apostle, that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto ine, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter;

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