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Relations with Spain.
also charged with stimulating the Indians to chief had always been a true and faithful friend their present hostile aspect; but whether he is 10 the British. an acknowledged agent of any foreign Power, The reports of friendly Indians concur in estior a mere adventurer, I do not pretend to de- mating the number of hostile warriors, including termine, but am disposed to believe him the the Red Sticks and Seminoles, at more than iwo latter."
thousand, besides the blacks, amounting to near
four hundred men, and increasing by runaways Extract of a letter from General Gaines to the Sec- from Georgia. They have been promised, as seve retary of War, dated
eral Indians inform me, assistance from the Eng.. CAMP MONTGOMERY, M. T.,
glish at New Providence. This promise, though
made by Woodbine, is relied on by most of the April 3, 1817.
Seminole Indians. I have not a doubt but they I received by the last mail a letter from Archi- will sue for peace as soon as they fiod their hopes bald Clarke, Esq., Intendant of the town of St. of British aid to be without a foundation. Marys, by which it appears that another outrage, of uncommon cruelty, has recently been perpe
No. 51. a. trated by a party of Indians upon the Southern General Gaines to the Secretary of War-with a talk. frontier, near the boundary of Wayne county: HEADQ’rs, Fort Scott, GEORGIA, They have massacred a woman, (Mrs. Garret)
Decenıber 2, 1817. and iwo of her children ; the mother and eldest child were scalped ; the house plundered and ultimo, your commuication of the 3016 October.
Sir: I had the honor to receive, on the 26th burnt.
I am very happy to find that the President ap
proves of my movement, but I much regret that Extract of a letter from A. Culloh to General Gaines, his just expectations as to the effect there was written at Fort Gaines.
reason to believe would be produced on the We are hourly told by every source of infor- minds of the Indians by this movement have mation, by the friendly_Indians, by letters from not been realized. I am now quite convinced William Hambly and Edmund' Doyle, who re- that the hostility of these Indians is, and has side low down on the Appalachicola, that all the long since been, of so deep a character as to leave lower tribes of Indians have imbodied, and are
no ground to calculate upon tranquillity, or the drying their meals to come on to the attack of this future security of our frontier seulements, until post. The British agent at Ochlochnee Sound is the lowns south and east of this place shall regiving presents to the Indians. We have among ceive a signal proof of our willingness to retaliate us Indians who have been down and received for every outrage. It is now my painful dury powder, lead, tomahawks, knives and a drum for to report an affair of a more serious and decisive each town, with the royal coat of arms painted on nature than has heretofore occurred, aod which it. We have at this time at least five hundred In- leaves no doubt of the necessity of an immediate dians skulking in this neighborhood, within three application of force, and active measures on our or four miles of us, who will not act for them. part. A large party of Seminole Indians on the selves, and who are evidently waiting for the 30th ultimo formed an ambuscade upon the Apsignal to strike an effectual blow. They have palachicola river, a mile below the junction of stolen almost every horse belonging to the citi- the Flint and Chatahoochee, attacked one of our zens. They have scared them from the fields boats ascending near the shore, and killed, woundwhich they have cleared, and have taken posses ed, and took the greater part of the delachment, sion of their houses. They are now stealing consisting of forty men, commanded by Lieutenhorses, caule, and hogs, from the Georgia lines, ant R, W. Scoit, of ihe 7th infantry. There and have killed one or two families on the Satilla. were also on board, killed or taken, seven women,
the wives of soldiers. Six men of the detache Extract of a letter from General Gaines to Major They report that the strength of the current at
ment only escaped, four of whom were wounded. General Andrew Jackson, dated
the point of attack had obliged the lieutenant to Fort Scott, GEORGIA,
keep his boat near the shore ; that the Indians November 21, 1817.
had formed along the banks of the river, and The first brigade arrived at this place on the were not discovered till their fire bad com19ih instant. I had previously sent an lodian menced, in the first volley of which Lieutenant runner, to notify the first town chief, E-me-he- Scott and his most valuable men fell. mant-by, of my arrival, and, with a view to as- The lieutenant and his party had been sent certain whether his hostile temper had abated, from this place some days before to assist Major requesting him to visit me. He replied that he Muhlenberg in ascending the river with three had already said to the commanding officer bere vessels laden with military stores brought from all he had to say, and he would not come. Montgomery and Mobile. The Major, instead Among the articles found in the house of the of retaining the party
to assist him, as I had adchief was a British uniform coal (scarlet) with a vised, (see enclosure No. 2,) retained ooly about pair of gold epaulets, and a certiticate signed by twenty men, and in their place put a like numà British captain of 'marines, “Robert White, in ber of sick, with the women, and some regimen. the absence of Colonel Nicholls,” stating that the tal clothing. The boat, thus laden, was detached
Relations with Spain.
alone for this place. It is due to Major Muhlen-chiefs that I should communicate to them my berg to observe that, at the time he detached the views and wishes. I felt authorized to say but boat, I have reason to believe he was not apprized litile, and I deemed it necessary, in what I should of any recent hostilities having taken place in say, io endeavor to counteract the erroneous imthis quarter. It appears, however, from Lieuten pressions by which they have been misled by ant Scoul's letter, received about the hour in which pretended British agents. he was attacked, (see enclosure No. 3,) that he I hope the President will see in what I have had been warned of the danger. Upon the re- said nothing to disapprove. I feel persuaded a ceipt of this letter, I had two boats fiited up with report of the various talks which I received from covers and port-holes for defence, and deiached the chiefs would show the propriety of what I Captain Clinch with an officer and forty men, have said to them ; such a report I have not a with an order to secure the movement of Lieu moment's time now to make.' The lodians are tenant Scott, and then to assist Major Mub- at this moment firing at our camp from the oppolenberg.
site side of the river. This detachmentembarked on the evening of the I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your 30th, and must have passed the scene of action obedient servant, below at night, and some hours after the affair
EDMUND P. GAINES, terminated. I have not yet heard from Captain
Major General commanding. Clinch. I shall immediately strengthen the detachment under Major Muhlenberg with another
Talk enclosed in 51 a, (No. 1.) boat, secured against the enemy's fire. He will,
CHIEFS AND WARRIORS : The President of the therefore, move up with safety, keeping near the United States has been informed of the murders middle of the river. I shall moreover, take a and thefts committed by hostile Indians in this position with my principal force at the junction part of the country. He has authorized General of the river, near ihe line; and shall attack any Jackson to arrest the offenders, and cause justice vessel that may attempt to intercept our vessel to be done. The Indians have been required to and supplies below, as I feel persuaded the order deliver up the murderers of our citizens and of the President, prohibiting an attack upon the the stolen property, but they refused to deliver Indians below the line, has reference only to the either. They have had a council at Micka suky, past, and not to the present or future outrages, in which they have determined upon war; they such as the one just now perpetrated, and such have been at war against helpless women and as shall place our troops strictly within the pale children ; let them now calculate upon fighting of natural law, where self-defence is sanctioned men. We have long known that we had enemies by the privilege of self-preservation. The wound-east of this river; we likewise know we have ed men who made their escape concur in the some friends, but they are so mixed together we opinion that they had seen upwards of five hun. cannot always distinguish the one from the other, dred hostile Indian warriors at different places The President, wishing to do justice to his red below the point of attack. Of the force engaged friends and children, has given orders for the bad they differ' in opinion; but all agree that the to be separated from the good. Those who have number was very considerable, extending about iaken up arms against him, and such as have lisone hundred and fifty yards along the shore, in tened to the bad talks of the people beyond the the edge of a swamp or thick woods. I am assured by the friendly chief that the hostile war-wish to find them together. But all those who
sea, must go to Mickasuky, Suwanee, where we riors of every town upon the Chatahoochee pre
were our friends in the war will sit still at their pared canoes and pushed off down the river to
homes in peace. We will pay them for what corn join the Seminoles as soon as the account of my and meat they have to sell us. We will be their movement from the Alabama reached them. The Indians now remaining upon the Chata-them meat. The hostile parly pretend to calcu
friends, and when they are hungry we will give hoochee, I have reason to believe, are well dis- late upon help from the British-as well look for posed. One of the new settlers, however, has re- soldiers from the moon to help them. Their warcently been killed; but it has been clearly proved riors were beaten and driven from our country by that the murderer had belonged to the hostile American troops. The English are not able to party. The friendly chiefs in ihe neighborhood, help themselves; how, then, should they help the when apprized of the murder assembled a party; old "Red Stick's,” whom ihey have ruined by and sent in pursuit of the offender, and followed him to the Flint river, on the route to Micka. pretended friendship? suky, whither he escaped. Onishajo and several
No. 51 b, (No. 2.) other friendly chiefs, have offered me their ser
General Gaines vices, with their wrrriors, to go against the Sem.
Major Muhlenberg. inoles. I have promised to give them notice of
FORT Scort, November, 1817. the time that may be fixed for my departure, and Sir: The waters having risen sufficiently high then to accept their services. The enclosure No.1 to enable you to ascend the river with all the contains the substance of what I have said to the vessels, I wish you to do so, though it should take chiefs who have visited me; several of whom longer than I had anticipated. You can avail reside south of the Spanish line, and west of yourself of the aid of Lieutenant Scott's detachAppalachicola river. It was expected by the ment to erpedite your movement hither. Keep Relations with Spain.
your vessels near to each other; and, should you of the 9th. On the evening of the 10th I was meet any insuperable obstacle, eudeavor to apo joined by the rear of the Tennessee volunteers, prize me thereof, and you shall have additional also by the Indians under General McIntosh,
relief. Wishing to see you soon, with your fleet, whom I had left at Mickasuky to scour the coun! I remain, with great regard, your obedient servant, try around that place. Although the weather
E. P. GAINES. has been dry aod pleasant, and the waters had To Major MUHLENBERG,
subsided in a great degree, our march might be Commanding United States troops. said to have been through'water, which kept the
infantry wet to the middle; and the depth of the No. 51 c, (No. 3.)
swamps, added to the want of forage, occasioned Lieutenant Scott to General Gaines.
the horses to give out daily in great numbers.
On the morning of the 12th, near Econfionah, or SPANISH BLUFF, November 28, 1817.
Natural Bridge, a party of Indians were discovo SIR: Enclosed you will receive Major Muh- ered on the margin of a swamp, and attacked by lenberg's communication, which he directs me General McIntosh and about fifty Tennessee vol. to forward to you by express from this place. unteers, who routed them, killing thirty-seyen Mr. Hambly informs me that Indians are assem- warriors, and capturing six men and ninety-seven bling at the junction of the river, where they in women and children; also recapturing a white tend to make a stand against those vessels coming woman who had been taken at the massacre of up the river. Should this be the case, I am not Scott. The friendly Indians also took some able to make a stand against them. My com- horses and about five hundred head of cattle from mand does not exceed forty men, and one-half the enemy, who proved to be McQueen's party. sick and without arms. I leave this immediately. Upon the application of an old woman of the I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, prisoners, I agreed that if McQueen was tied
R. W. SCOTT, and carried to the commandant of St. Mark's, Lieut. 7th Infantry, coin'g detachment. her people should be received in peace, carried
there Note.-The bearer of this is entitled to three to the upper tribes of the Creek nation, an ! dollars on delivering this letter. The Indians provisioned until they could raise their own
have a report here that the Indians have beaten crops. She appeared 'much pleased with those the while people.
terms, and I set her at liberty, with written in
structions to the commandant of St. Mark's to No.51 d.
that effect. Having received no further intelli
gence from McQueen, I am induced to believe General Gaines to Captain Clinch. the old woman has complied with her part of the HEADQUARTERS, Fort Scott,
obligation. November 30, 1817.
From St. Mack's I marched with eight days
rations, those that joined me having but five; Sir: You will embark with the party assigned this was done under the expectation of reaching you on board the covered boats; descend the this place in that time, founded on the report of river until you meet with Lieutenant Scott; de- my faithful Indian guide, which I should have liver to him a cover for his boat, and give him accomplished but for the poverty of my horses such assistance as, in your judgment, shall be ne- and the continued sheets of water through which cessary to secure his party, and expedite bis we had to pass. On the morning of the 15th movement to this place. You will then proceed, my scouts overlook a small party of Indians, with the residue of your command, down the killing one man and capturing the residue, conriver, until you meet with Major Muhlenberg ; sisting of one man and woman and two children, report to him, and act under his orders. You and on that evening I encamped, as my guide will, in po case, put your command in the power supposed, within twelve miles of Suwanee. I of the Indians near the shore. Be copstanily on marched very early on the 16th, under the hope the alert. Remember that United States troops of being able to encompass and attack the Indian can never be surprised by Indians without a loss and negro towns by one o'clock, P. M., but, of honor, to say nothing of the loss of strength much to my regret, at three o'clock, and after that might ensue.
marching sixteen miles, we reached a remarkaTo Col. CLINCH, 7th Infantry.
ble pond, which my guide recollected, and re
ported to be distant six miles from the object of No. 52.
my march; here I should have halted for the General Jackson to the Secretary of War.
pight, had not six mounted Indians, (supposed to HEADQ'RS, DIVISION OF TAE SOUTH,
be spies,) who were discovered, 'effected their
escape: this determined me to attempt, by a Bowlege's Town, Suwanee river, forced movement, to prevent the removal of their April 20, 1818.
effects, and, if possible, themselves from crossing SIR: My last communication, dated Camp the river, for my rations being out, it was allbefore St. Mark's, 8th April, and ihose to which important to secure their supplies for the subit referred, advised you of 'my movements and sistence of my troops. Accordingly, my lines of operations up to that date, and, as I then advised attack were instantly formed and put in motion, you, I marched from that place on the morning and about sunset my left flank column, composed
Relations with Spain.
of the second regiment of Tennessee volunteers, southern frontiers, (if the Goveroment have not commanded by Colonel Williamson, and a part active employment for me) I shall relurn to of the friendly lodians, under Colonel Kanard, Nashville to regain my health. The health of having approached the left Bank of the centre lhe troops is much impaired, and I have ordered town and commenced their attack, caused me to the Georgia troops to Hartford to be mustered, quicken the pace of the centre, composed of the paid, and discharged; the General having comregulars, Georgia militia, and my volunteer Ken-municated his wishes, and that of his troops, to tucky and Tennessee guards, in order to press be ordered directly there, and reporting that they the enemy in his centre, while the right column, have a plenty of corn and beef io subsist them to composed of the first regiment of Tennessee that point. I have written to the Governor of volunteers, under Colonel Dyer, and a part of the Georgia to obtain from the State the necessary friendly Indians, headed by General McIntosh, funds to pay General Glasscock's brigade when who had preceded me, were endeavoring to turn discharged, and that the Government will prompthis left and cut off his retreat to the river; they, ly refund ii. I am compelled to this mode to have however, having been previously informed of our them promptly paid, Mr. Hogad, the paymaster force, by a precipitate retreat soon crossed the of the sevenih infantry, (for whom I received from river, where, it is believed, Colonel Kanard, with Mr. Brent an enclosure said to contain $50,000,) his lodians, did them considerable injury. Nine not having reached me. negroes and iwo lodians were found dead, and From the information received from Ambrister two negro men made prisoners.
and a Mr. Cook, who was captured with him, On the 17th foraging parties were sent out, thal A. Arbuthnol's schooner was at the mouth who found a considerable quantity of corn and of this river, preparing to sail for the bay of some calle. The 18th, having obtained some Tampa, my aid-de.campLieutenant Gadsden, small craft, I ordered General Gaines across the volunteered his services with a small detachment river with a strong detachment and two days' to descend the river and capture her. The improvision to pursue the enemy. The precipitancy portance of this vessel to transport my sick lo St. of their flight was soon discovered by the great Mark's, as well as to destroy the means used by quantity of goods, corn, &c., strewed through the the enemy, induced me to grant his request; he swamps, and convinced General Gaines that puro sailed yesterday, and I expected to have heard suil was in vain. Nine lodians and five negro from him this morning. I only await his report prisoners were taken by our Indians. The evi: to take up the line of march on my return for St. dence of haste with which the enemy bad filed Mark's. "The Georgia brigade, by whom I sead induced the General to confine his reconnoissance this, being aboạt to march, com pels me to close 10 search for catile and horses, both of which it without the report of Lieutenant Gadsden. were much wanted by the army. About thirty I have the honor to be, &c., head of cattle were procured ; but, from the re.
ANDREW JACKSON, poris accompanying General Gaines's, which will
Major General commanding. in due time be forwarded to you, and the disobe. Hon. John C. CALHOUN, dience of his orders by the Indians, not one pound
Department of War. was brought into camp. As soon as time will permit, I shall forward a
No. 53. detailed account of the various little affairs with the enemy, accompanied with reports of the com
General Jackson to the Secretary of War. maoding officers of the delachment. Suffice it HeadQ’rs, DiVisioN OF THE SOUTH, for the present to add, that every officer and
Fort St. Marks, April 26, 1818. soldier under my command, when danger ap- Sir: I wrote you from Bowlegs' Town on the peared, showed a steady firmness, which con- 201h instant. On the night of the same day I vinced me that, in the event of a stubborn con- received the expected despatch from my aid-deflict, they would have realized the best hopes of camp, Lieutenant Gadsden, communicatiog the their country and General.
success of his expedition : and, on the nexi day, I believe I may say that the destruction of this as soon as the sick of my army were despatched place, with the possession of St. Mark's, having, down the Suwanee river, to be conveyed in the on the night of ihe 18th, captured the late Lieu- captured schooner to Si. Mark's, I took up the tenant Ambrister, of the British marine corps, line of march for that fort. I arrived at this and, as represented by Arbuthnot, successor to place last evening, performing a march of one Woodbine, will end the Indian war for the pres hundred and seven miles in less than five days. ent; and, should it be renewed, the position taken, Lieutenant Gadsden had reached it a few hours which ought to be held, will enable a small party before me. He communicates having found, to put it down promptly.
among the papers of Arbuthnot, Ambrister, and I shall order, or take myself, a reconnoissance Cook, letters, memorials, &c., all pointing out west of the Appalachicola ai Pensacola point, the instigators of this savage war, and, in some where I am intormed, there are a few Red Slicks measure, involving the British Goveroment in assembled, who are fed and supported by the Gov- the agency. These will be forwarded you in a ernor of Pensacola. My healih being impaired, detailed report I purpose communicating to you as soon as ibis duty is performed, the positions as early as practicable. taken, well garrisoned, and security given to the The old woman spoken of in my last commuRelations with Spain.
nication to you, who promised to use her iniu: foreign or private agents. The outlaws of the ence in haviog McQueen captured and delivered old Red Stick party had been 100 severely conup, has not been heard of. From sigos discov- vinced, and the Seminoles were 100 weak in ered on the opposite shore of the St. Mark's numbers to believe that they could possibly alone river, I am induced to believe that the Indian maintain a war with even partial success against party is still in this neighborhood. A detach- the United States. Firmly convinced, therefore, meni will be sent out to recoonoitre the country, that succor had been promised from some quarter, to receive them as friends if disposed to surrender, or that they had been deluded into a belief that or inflict merited chastisement is still hostile. America dare not violate the neutrality of Spain
I shall leave this in iwo or three days for For: by penetrating to their towns, I early determined Gadsden, and, after making all necessary arrange to ascertain these facts, and so direct my movements for the security of the positions occupied, ments as to undeceive the lodians. After the and detaching a force to scour the country west destruction of the Mickasukian villages, I marchof the Appalachicola, I shall proceed direct for ed for St. Mark's. The correspondence between Nashville. My presence in this conntry can no myself and the Spanish commandant, in which I longer be necessary. The Indian forces have demanded the occupancy of that fortress with an been divided and scattered, cut off from all com. American garrison, accompanies this. It had muoication with those unprincipled agents of been reported to me, direct from the Governor of foreign nations who had deluded them to their Pensacola, that the Indians and negroes unfriend. ruin; they have not the power, if the will re- ly to the United States had demanded of the commains, of again annoying our frontier.
mandant of St. Mark's a supply of ammunition, I remain, &c.
munitions of war, &c., threatening, in the event ANDREW JACKSON. of a noncompliance, to take possession of the fort.
The Spanish commandant acknowledged the deNo. 54.
senceless state of his fortress, and his inability
to defend it; and the Governor of Pensacola ex. General Jackson to the Secretary of War. pressed similar - apprehensions. The Spanish HEADQ’RS, DIVISION OF THE SOUTH, agents throughout the Floridas had uniformly dis
Fort Gadsden, May 5, 1818. avowed having any connexion with the Indians, SIR : I returned to this post with my army on and acknowledged the obligations of His Catholic the evening of the 2d instant, and embrace an Majesty, under existing treaties, to restrain their early opportunity of furnishing you a detailed outrages against the citizens of the United States. report of my operations to the east of the Appa. Indeed, they declared that the Seminole lodians lachicola river. In the several communications were viewed as alike hostile to the Spanish addressed to you from Hartford, Fort Scout, and Goveroment, and that the will remained, though this place, I have stated the condition of the army the power was wanting, lo iodici meriled chason my assuming the immediate command, the tisement on this lawless tribe. It was, therefore, embarrassment occasioned from the want of pro- to be supposed that the American arıny, impelled visions, the privations of my troops on their by the immutable laws of self-defence to penemarch from the frontiers of Georgia, and the trate the territory of His Catholic Majesiy, lo circumstances which compelled me to move di- fight his battles, and even to relieve froni a cruel recily down the Appalachicola river to meet with bondage some of his own subjects, would have and protect the expected supplies from New Or been received as allies, bailed as deliverers, and leans. These were received on the 25th of March, every facility afforded to them to terminate and on the next day I was prepared for active speedily and successfully this savage war. Fort operations. For a detailed account of my move. St. Mark's could not be maintained by the Spanments from that period to this day you are respect-ish force garrisoning it. The lodians and cefully referred to ihe report prepared by my adju. groes viewed it as an asylum, if driven from tani general, accompanied with Captain' Hugh their towns, and were preparing to occupy it in Young's topographical sketch of the route and this event. It was necessary to anticipate their distance performed. This has been principally a movements, independent of the position being war of movements. The enemy, cut off from deemed essential as a depot, on which the suctheir strongholds, or deceived in the promised cess of my future operations measurably dependforeigo aid, have uniformly avoided a general eo- ed. In the spirit of friendship, therefore. I degagement. Their resistance has generally been manded its surrender to the army of the United feeble; and in the partial rencontres into which States until the close of the Seminole war. The they seem to have been involuntarily forced, the Spanish commandant required time to reflect. regulars, volunteers, and militia, under my com. It was granted. A negotiation ensued, and an mand, realized my expectations; every privation, effort was made to protract it to an unreasonable fatigue, and exposure was encountered with the length. In the conversations between my aid. spirit of soldiers, and danger was met with a de- de-camp, Lieutenant Gadsden, and the Spanish gree of fortitude calculated to strengthen the commandant, circunstances transpired convictconfidence I had reposed in them.
ing him of a disposition to favor the Indians, On the commencement of my operations, I was and of having taken an active part in aiding and strongly impressed with a belief that this lo. abetting them in this war. I hesitated. theredian war has been excited by some unprincipled fore, no longer; and as I could oot be received