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the king made a penny of the finest gold, was called in and copper renewed. George which weighed two sterlings, and willed that III. coined pieces of a penny and two pence it should pass for twenty pence. Three spec- in copper, but they did not answer their pur. imens are still found in England, and two out pose, and were soon discontinued. The penof the three are in the British Museum. They ny pieces still remain in circulation. Of the are from different dies. But with Edward money struck in France by English princes, III. the series of English gold coin really we have account of the deniers of Eleanor, commences. That prince in 1344 struck flor- wife of Henry II., as duchess of Aquitaine, ins, — the half and quarter florins were struck with deniers and half deniers of Henry II., at the same time. The circulation of the flor- and pennies and half pennies of Aquitaine, in was doubtless very limited, and it seems to and pence of Poitou and Rouen of Richard I. have been soon withdrawn, as none have as Also of a lion of billion of Edward I., coined yet been found, while a few quarter-florins auring the lifetime of his father, after he had and one half are preserved in English cabi- received Gascony, a series of silver and billion nets. In the same year, the noble was pub- coins of Edward III., Edward the Black lished of 6s 8d value, forming half a mark, Prince, Richard II., and of Henry IV., V., then the most general ideal form of money. and VI. The obverse represents the king standing in a The denominations of the silver were the vessel asserting the dominion of the sea. The hardi, double hardi, groat, half groat, penny noble was attended by its half and quarter. and half penny. In this class are the Calais Charles II. coined the guinea, half-guineas, groats and half groats of the sovereigns of double guineas and five guinea pieces ; so England, from Edward III. to Henry VI., called from Guinea gold from which they and the Tournay groats of Henry VIII. Ed. were first struck in 1663. George I. and ward III. was the first of the English princes George III. issued quarter-guineas, and who struck gold money in France. The deGeorge III. pieces of seven-shillings in 1797. nominations were guiennois, leopard, chaise, In 1815 sovereigns and half-sovereigns of 20s and mouton. To these Edward the Black and 10s each were coined, and the guinea and Prince added the hardi of gold, and the pahalf-guinea gradually went out of circulation. vilion ; and Henry V. salutes and half salutes.

The present copper coinage of England Henry VI. coined salutes, angelots, and francs arose a thousand years later than its silver. in gold. The equivocal specimens of silver Queen Elizabeth had a great aversion to cop-coins, supposed to hate been struck by Marper money, although the necessities of her garet of Burgundy for Perkin Warbeck, are people for small change was obvious. She al- usually classed with the Anglo Gallic series. lowed a pattern struck, as the PLEDGE OF A

In our next article we intend to treat of Half Penny, and James I. and Charles I. is- ||

arles 1. 18- | early American currency, giving the inscripsued farthing tokens as pledges, but no au

tions of some of those that bring down to us thorized coinage of copper was struck till

the spirit of the age in which they were coined. 1672, when half pence and farthings of that metal were first made public money. In 1684, tin farthings were coined with a stud of cod- LEAVE your grievances, as Napoleon did per in the centre. Others, as well as half his letters, unopened for three weeks, and it is pence, of the same metal were struck by James astonishing how few of them, by that time, II, and William and Mary. In 1693 the tin' will require answering.

now.

For the Schoolmaster.

in the spiritual world, the rich, choice gems To-Day and To-Morrow.

of the heart are shrouded in grief and per

plexity, in order that they may be drawn out Now is the accepted time. Seize and im.

and polished by the stern contact of the prove the present moment. This alone is

world, that thus by the arduous struggle, we thine. Thou canst not in this world claim

may be able to estimate nightly their intrinsic any future time. As time rolls on his cease

value. less course and sweeps away the moments that be, it is true that other moments will ar

Thou must not expect all blessings, for rive. But how knowest thou where thou

trials will cluster around thee. Thy life will shalt be when those moments come. That

not be all sunshine and no shade. Were it which thy hand findeth to do, it should do

so, of what value would it be to thee? It would be as worthless as an unshaded picture.

| The harmonious blending of light and shade But, alas ! how often is the case far different. How often does the exclamation grate

gives to the artist's work its value and renders harshly on the ear, To-worrow will be time

the effect of the performance pleasing to the enough. To-morrow is the Almighty's, he

taste. So it is with the soul of man. A life

| all sunshine would produce very little effect. will dispose of it. Be wise. There is time enough now and it is safe to use it. Why

But a life where sunshine and shadow

blend in harmonious proportions, would be then dangerously delay what can be done now

similar to a finished picture, grateful and as well, if not better, than at any future time. To-morrow after to-morrow glides into to

pleasing. The rich, deep shade would give a day and still the delayed work is unaccom

glory to the mellow light. plished ; and, finally, the last to-morrow Let not the clouds that overshadow, overcomes and the spirit is ushered into the glo- power thee. Remember that the clear sky rious to-day of another world and the pro- and bright sun are beyond and above posed work is not done, is not even begun. them. The sorrow and grief of to-day are

Let not thy heart be earnestly on future sufficient for thee, borrow none from the morblessings, but thoroughly enjoy those of the row. Do not envelop thy spirit in thick present. Each hour is fraught with blessings clouds of melancholy, doubt, distrust, and which no future can restore. Take them dark foreboding, for if thou dost, the fear of while they are present, for afterwards thou to-morrow will annihilate the pleasure of tomayst strive for them in vain. Garner the day. Endure all things patiently. Labor golden minutes with a careful hand, let not and pray now, not on the morrow, for that is one remain unstored. Remember the tiny not thine. seconds, also, that each minute may be per-| Oh! trust not the siren whispers of tofect.

morrow, but listen to the stern vcice of to. As the All-wise Father has, in the natural day. Do the duty which to-day assigns thee world, hidden his most precious and costly while the sun shines brightly on thee, ere the gifts in the deep recesses and caves of the shades of evening dim thy vision, and sober earth and in the secret places of the deep wa- midnight locks thine eyes in slumber. Let ters, so that the labor and difficulty through naught tempt thee from the performance of which man obtains them may cause him to that duty ; neither the scorching noontide value them as highly as he ought; so, also, I beams of a summer's sun, nor the chilling

day.

snows and piercing winds of winter. Let no

For the Schoolmaster, visions of the future elude, nor memories of

Geology. the past enthrall thee. But, free and unfet

EVIDENCE IN RHODE ISLAND OF THE GREAT tered, up and do thy great task cheerfully and

SOUTH CURRENT. diligently, for the day wanes and the night shades approach. Then shall thy spirit, puri

EVIDENCE of observation proves that the fied and refined by labor and trial, soar from

surface of New England and the northern this world into that world where there is no

states was at some period long past affected by to-morrow, but all time is one never-ending

an overwhelming current of water from the Rosa.

north, which made its way by the valleys, car

rying with it heavy rocks and other movable For the Schoolmaster.

matter towards the south to the Long Island School Songs.

Sound or Atlantic shore in the eastern, and 1. What they are. — 2. What they ought to be. to the Ohio river in the western states. The

- 3. How they may be improved. action of glaciers has here also been de1. Many juvenile songs are puerile and in- | tected. sipid ; those for older scholars affected by Fragments from a singular and curious natfalse sentiment. Recently, melody has given ural collection of such matter are at this moway to harmony. For the school-room, a ment under the eye of the writer. They are meaningless melody is insufficient even when of granite or sienite, rather finely than coarsethe harmony is skilful.

ly compounded, generally of a reddish tinge 2. The music ought to be simple, expres | where merely fractured, containing little spots sive, melodious and with the words should be of colored mica. The quartz is also of a dark cheerful, enlivening. The language may teach color, the felspar of its usual tint. Its outer moral lessons. Such songs will be sung with surface as generally is darkened and moss pleasure. What little one is not pleased to covered. lisp “ Lightly row," « Little drops of water,"| The rocks whence these specimens were or “Haste thee, Winter"? Who tires of taken are called Cat Rocks. They are in lat. “Sweet Home,” “ I know a kindly angel," 4140 N., lon. 54° E., on Wood river, a branch “Now Winter's gone,” “ When the day with of the Pawcatuck, in this state. rosy light," “ Night is stealing," or “ Auld That ledge of rocks in Johnston, whence Lang Syne"?

those beautiful pillars in the Arcade, at Prov. 3. Let the next writer of school songs, lidence, were brought, is of entirely different first knowing and loving children, imagine material; being of light color and partaking himself again a child, communing, an honest, I more of the nature of sienite. The ledges in free, childlike spirit, with Nature and Nature's the vicinity of Cat Rocks are generally of this God. Let him sing songs of joy or praise and order of material; quartz and felspar without then write his song and simple melody, or let mica or with homblende. Smithfield abounds him write with birds and trees and sky around in limestone ; the stationary rocks of Attlehim. Such songs, written in a right spirit boro' are also of light color, with one or two will be loved.

ledges of red rocks; Red Rock Hill, for in

stance. For thirty miles, therefore, north and SAYING and doing do not dine together. northeast of the Cat Rocks, no instance, as I am aware, of similar rock to these have been

The Names of States. found. An inference is that the boulders

Maine was so called as early as 1623, from which form them are from some ledge further

Maine in France, of which Henrietta Maria, north.

Queen of England, was at that time proprieFour or five years ago this phenomena at

tor. tracted my notice. The theory of currents

New Hampshire was the name given to the was then almost unknown to me. The object

territory conveyed by the Plymouth Company of my study was to detect, if possible, the

to Captain John Mason, by patent, November cause of the phenomena.

7, 1629, with reference to the patentee, who These rocks can best be described by imag- I was Governor of Portsmouth, in Hampshire, ining or observing the appearance of the bed Enolond of a brook of swift running water. It will be

Vermont was so called by the inhabitants seen that while the bottom is sandy or gravel- l in their Declaration of Independence, January ly, numerous small pebbles are disposed on | 16. 1777, from the French verd mont, the its sides. By noticing carefully, it may be loreen mountains. discovered that these pebbles are generally

Massachusetts was so called from Massaregularly arranged, the smallest where the chusetts Bay, and that

chusetts Bay, and that from the Massachu. collection begins and the largest near the setts tribe of Indians, in the neighborhood of place of termination, down stream. The Boston. The tribe is thought to have derivstones at the top and bottom of the deposi-led its name from the Blue Hills of Milton. tion are smaller than near the middle of it. I had learnt.” says Roger Williams, " that In the same manner are these great boulders the the Massachusetts was so called from the arranged. The side of the hill leading west | Blue Hills." into the valley is completely covered with Rhode Island was so called in 1665, in referratic rocks, large and small, some as great erence to the Island of Rhodes, in the Medas twelve or fourteen feet in diameter. The literranean. valley, perhaps a mile wide, is filled with Connecticut was so called from the Indian small hummucks of dift, flanked at their name of its principal river. Connecticut is a south margin by great boulders. Detatched Nocheakannew word, signifying long river. rocks of twenty or thirty felt in diameter and

New York was so called in 1674 in referheight lie in the open fields, some of them

ence to the Duke of York and Albany, to split from top to bottom, by apparent collision

whom this territory was granted by the King with rocks which lie south of them. So plain

of England. is the evidence of a north and south current News

New Jersey was so called in 1664, from the here that an attentive study of these phenom-reland

Island of Jersey on the coast of France, the ena certified it, before I learned the fact from

residence of the family of Sir George Carteret, Hitchcock's work.

P. F.

to whom the territory was granted.

| Pennsylvania was so called in 1681, after The newspaper is a law book for the in- / William Penn. dolent, a sermon for the thoughtful, a library Delaware was so called in 1703 from Delafor the poor. It may stimulate the most in- ware Bay, on which it lies, and which receivdifferent - it may also instruct the most pro-ed its name from Lord de la War, who died found.

in this Bay.

BY J. SWETT.

If the teacher knew what he was about, intellectual in life. They will be too wise to and took a vital interest in his calling, plac- be led away from their legitimate calling into ing it before his own ease, he himself would courses and pursuits you would tremble to be the one to object to this studying at home, see them entering. They would always be which has a most pernicious influence upon guided rather by good sense and good nature, the pupil, as has been shown. She contracts than by inflamed imaginations and sickly fanall manner of bad habits. Mothers who have cies, – A. L. 0., in New York Independent. small children, and their housekeeping duties to care for, have not, of course, the time to in

For the Schoolmaster. form themselves of all it is necessary to know,

The Miner's Song. in order to give their daughters the best habits of mental activity. There is another reason for abol'shing the

The eastern sky is blushing red, present arrangement.

The distant hill-top glowing, School hours are usually from nine until

The river o'er its rocky bed two, and surely five hours of the hardest kind

In idle frolics flowing ; of work — mental application — are all that

'Tis time the pickaxe and the spade should be required of young, tender, feeble Against the rocks were ringing, girls, when adults, men, clamor to rest after And, with ourselves, the golden stream ten hours of manual labor. They think — A song of labor singing. and are right — that they cannot sustain more

The mountain air is fresh and cold, without injury. Five hours to delicate stud

Unclouded skies bend o'er us, ents is more than twelve to men.

Broad placers, rich in hidden gold, Bulwer has spoken strongly against too Lie temptingly before us. long mental application. He gives but three We need no Mida's magic wand, hours a day to it, and says that to apply him Nor wizard rod divining, self a longer time is to lessen the degree of The pickaxe, spade, and brawny hand his power.

Are sorcerers in mining ! Children's muscles need play. They must When labor closes with the day, have it, or they grow perverse, and distort the To simple fare returning, bones they act upon. Their blood needs sun We gather in a merry group light and air, and will have them, or it be Around the camp fires burning ; comes pale and diseased. If you want your

The mountain sod our couch at night,

The stars shine bright above us, daughters to grow up into beautiful, graceful

We think of home and fall asleep women, who will have good health, long life,

To dream of those who love us. and happy tempers, you must, mothers, let|

FEATHER RIVER, California. school be school, and play hours be play hours. Then, if they really strengthen their minds by hard work in the morning, and their Who is rich? Diogenes in his tub was bodies by hard play in the afternoon, they rich in the wealth and warmth of the sun. will be prompt, practical, and efficient in their It is he who has much and wants more who important tasks as housekeepers, teachers, is poor, and he who has little and is therewith mothers, and patronesses of the beautiful and content is rich.

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