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Relations with Spain.

der General Gaines, and five hundred under Lower Creek nation to represent the state of another General, were at Prospect Bluff, where their nation to your excellency, that you may be they are rebuilding the burnt fort; that one thou- pleased to forward the same for the information sand Indians, of different nations, were at Span- of His Majesty's Government, to whom alone ish Bluff, building another fort under the directhey look up for protection against the aggrestion of American officers; that, so soon as these sions and encroachments of the Americans, I beg forts were built, they intended to march-they leave to submit to your excellency the enclosed have commenced. Yesterday morning advice representations, humbly praying that your excelwas received that they had appeared near — lency will be pleased to take an early opportuand taken two of the sons of McQueen and an nity of forwarding the same to Great Britain. Indian. Late in the afternoon three schooners came to anchor at the mouth of the river, and this morning the American flag is seen flying on the largest.

I am also instructed by Boleck, chief of Suwanee, to make the demand herein enclosed, he never having had any share of the presents distributed at Prospect Bluff, though he rendered equally eesential services as any of the other

I am blockaded here; no Indians will come with me; and I am now suffering from the fa-chiefs to the British cause while at war with tigue of coming here alone.

Humbly submitting the same, I have the honor to remain your excellency's most humble servant, A. A.

The humble representations of the chiefs of the Creek

America, and was at New Orleans with a part The main drift of the Americans is to destroy of his warriors. His frontiers being more exthe black population of Suwanee. Tell my posed to the predatory incursions of the back friend Boleck that it is throwing away his peo-Georgians, who enter his territory and drive off ple to attempt to resist such a powerful force as his cattle, he is obliged to have large parties out to will be down on Suwanee; and, as the troops watch their motions, and prevent their plunderadvance by land, so will the vessels by sea. Ea-ing; and being now deficient of ammunition, he deavor to get all the goods over the river in a prays your excellency will grant his small deplace of security, as also the skins of all sorts; mand. the corn must be left to its fate. So soon as the Suwanee is destroyed, I expect the Americans will be satisfied, and retire; this is only my opinion; but I think it is conformable to the demand made by General Gaines of Kenhagee sonie nation to His Excellency Governor Cameron. months since. In fact, do all you can to save all you can; save the books particularly. It is prob- First, we beg leave to represent that Edmund able the commandant will receive some commu- Doyle and William Hambly, late clerks at Prosnication from the vessels to-day, when he will pect Bluff to Messrs. Forbes, and who still reside know more certainly what are their motives in on the Appalachicola river, we consider as the coming off the fort. I think it is only to shut up principal cause of our present troubles and uneathe passage to the Indians. Twenty canoes went siness. Hambly was the instrumental cause of down the river yesterday, and were forced to rethe fort at Prospect Bluff being destroyed by the turn. The road between this and Mickasuky is Americans, by which we lost the supplies iasaid to be stopped. Hillis Hadjo and Homathle-tended for our future wants. Since then both mico were here late last night to hear what vessels; they will remove all their cattle and effects across St. Mark's river this morning, and perhaps wait near thereto for the event.

I have been as brief as I can, to give you the substance of what appear facts that cannot be doubled; to enter into details in the present moment is useless. If the schooner is returned, get all the goods on board of her, and let her start off for Mannatee creek, in the bottom of Cedar Key bay; you will then only have the skins to hide away. But no delay must take place, as the vessels will, no doubt, follow the land army, and perhaps even now some are gone round. I pray your strictest attention, for the more that is saved will be eventually more to your interest. Let the bearer have as much calico as will make him two shirts, for his trouble; he has promised to deliver this in three, but I give him four days. I am yours, affectionately, A. ARBUTHNOT.


From A. Arbuthnot to Charles Cameron, Governor of Bahamas.

SIR: Being empowered by the chiefs of the

these men have kept emissaries among us, tending to harass and disturb our repose, and that of our brethren of the Middle and Upper nations; they spread among us reports that the Cowetas, aided by the Americans, are descending to drive us off our land; they equally propagate false.


From A. Arbuthnot to Benjamin Moodie, Esq., enclosing letters to Charles Bagot, Esq., British Minister at Washington.

SUWANEE, IN THE CREEK NATION, January 27, 1818. SIR: The enclosed containing matter of serious moment, and demanding the immediate attention of his excellency the British Ambassador, I trust he will, for this time, forgive the trifling expense of postage, which I have endeavored to prevent as much as possible by comprising much matter in one sheet of paper. Should you, sir, be put to any trouble or expense by this trouble I give you, on being made acquainted with the will instruct Bain, Dunshee, & Co., to order payment of the same. I have the honor to be, &c.,



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Relations with Spain.

From A. Arbuthnot to the Hon. Charles Bagot. SIR: It is with pain I again obtrude myself upon your excellency's notice; but the pressing solicitations of the chiefs of the Creek nation, and the deplorable situation in which they are placed by the wanton aggressions of the Americans, I trust your excellency will take as a sutficient apology for the present intrusion.

In August last, the head chief of the Seminole Indians received a letter from General Gaines, of which I have taken the liberty of annexing your excellency the contents, as delivered me by the chief's head English interpreter, with Kenhagee's reply thereto.

This letter appears to have been intended to sound the disposition of the chief, and ascertain the force necessary to overrun the nation, for from then until an actual attack was made on

ished and passed, if you will come about any of my people, you will see your friends; and if you see me, you will see your friend. But there is something out in the sea, a bird with a forked tongue; whip him back before he lands, for he will be the ruin of you yet; perhaps you do not know who or what I mean-I mean the name of Englishmen.

I tell you this, that if you do not give me up the murderers who have murdered my people, I say I have got good strong warriors with scalping knives and tomahawks. You harbor a great many of my black people among you at Suwanee. If you give me leave to go by you against them, I shall not hurt anything belonging to you. GENERAL GAINES.

(No. 2.)

Fowl Town, the same General, with General From Kenhagee to General Gaines, in answer to the Jackson, seems to have been collecting troops and settlers in various quarters.

If your excellency desires to have further information respecting the situation of this country and its inhabitants, I can, from time to time, inform your excellency of such facts and circumstances as are stated to me by chiefs of known veracity, or which may come under my own observation; and your excellency's orders addressed to me at New Providence will either find me there, or be forwarded me to this country. With great respect, I have the honor to be, &c.,

A. A.

[The following memoranda were on the back of the foregoing letter.]

Kenhagee, 1,000; Boleck, 1,500; Oso Hatcho, Choctawhatchy, 500; Himashy Mico, Chatahoochee, 500;-at present with Hillis Hadjo. At present under arms, 1,000 and more, and attacking those Americans who have made inroads into their territory.

A quantity of gunpowder, lead, muskets, and flints, sufficient to arm one thousand to two thousand men.

Muskets, 1,000, more smaller pieces, if possible; 10,000 flints, a proportion for rifle put up separate; 50 casks gunpowder, a proportion for rifle; 2,000 knives, six to nine-inch blades, good quality; 1,000 tomahawks; 1000 pounds vermillion; 2,000 pounds lead, independent of ball for muskets.

(No. 1.)


From General Gaines to the Seminole Chiefs. TO THE SEMINOLE CHIEFS: Your Seminoles are very bad people; don't say whom; you have murdered many of my people, and stolen my cattle; and many good houses, that have cost me money, you have burnt for me; and now that you see my writing, you will think I have spoken right. I know it is so-you know it is so; for now you may say I will not go upon you at random; but just give me the murderers, and I will show them my law; and when that is fin


You charge me with killing your people, stealthat have cause to complain of the Americans. ing your cattle, and burning your houses. It is I While one American has been justly killed while in the act of stealing cattle, more than four Indians have been murdered while hunting by those lawless freebooters. I harbor no negroes. When the Englishmen were at war with America, some people to settle those things among yourselves, took shelter among them; and it is for you white and not to trouble us with what we know nothing about. I shall use force to stop any armed Americans from passing my towns or on my lands. KENHAGEE. To General GAINES.


"Note of Indian talks.”

In August, Cap had a letter from General Gaines, in substance as annexed, No. 1, and returned the answer as by No. 2. Nothing further was said on either side. The end of October, a party of Americans from a fort on Flint river surrounded Fowl Town during the night, and began burning it; the Indians then in it fled to the swamp, and in their flight had three persons killed by fire from the Americans; they rallied their people, and forced the Americans to retire some distance, but not before they had two more persons killed. The Americans built a blockhouse or fort where they had fallen back to, and immediately sent to the forts up the country for assistance, stating the Indians were the aggressors. One of those letters falling into the hands of General Mitchell, he made inquiry, and found his people were the aggressors, and also settled with Inhimathlo for the loss his people had suffered; at the same time sending a talk to Kenhagee, by a headman, Opony, that he would put things in such a train as to prevent further encroachments, and get those Americans to leave the forts. But no sooner was this good talk given, and before the bearer of it returned home, than hundreds of Americans came pouring down on the Indians. Roused to a sense of their own

Relations with Spain.

danger, they flew to arms, and have been compelled to support them ever since. It is not alone from the country, but by vessels entering Appalachicola river, that troops and settlers are pouring into the Indian territory, and, if permitted to continue, will soon overrun the whole of the Indian lands.

From the talk sent Kenhagee by General Mitchell, I am in hopes that those aggressions of the Americans on the Indian territory are not countenanced by the American Government, but originate with men devoid of principle, who set laws and instructions at defiance, and stick at no cruelty and oppressions to obtain their ends. Against such oppressors the American Government must use not only all their influence, but, if necessary, force, or their names must be handed down to posterity as a nation more cruel and savage to the unfortunate aborigines of this country than ever were the Spaniards, in more dark ages, to the natives of South America.

The English Government, as the special protectors of the Indian nations, and on whom alone they rely for assistance, ought to step forward and save those unfortunate people from ruin; and as you, sir, are appointed to watch over those interests, it is my duty, as an Englishman, and the only one in this part of the Indian nation, to instruct you of the talks the chiefs bring me for your information; and I sincerely trust, sir, you will use the powers you are vested with for the service and protection of these unfortunate people, who look up to you as their saviour. I have written General Mitchell, who I learn is an excellent man, and, as he acts as Indian agent, I hope his influence will stop the torrent of innovators, and give peace and quietness to the Creek nation.

exertions, had two more of their people killed. The Americans retired some distance and built a fort or block-house to protect themselves until the assistance they had sent for to the forts up the country should arrive. A letter falling into the hands of General Mitchell, the Indian agent, which stated the Indians to have been the ag gressors, he suspected its truth, and, on inquiry, found it was the reverse; in consequence, he made satisfaction to Inhimathlo, the chief of Fowl Town, and his people, for the injuries and losses they had sustained; at the same time he desired a talk to be sent to our head chiefs, stating his wish to see all the Indians friends, and that in twenty days he would send and get the Americans to retire from the forts. But this had no effect on the lawless invaders of our soil, for, before the bearer of the talk could return home, he met hundreds of Americans descending on us; they have also settlers and troops which come from Mobile, and go up the Appalachicola river. Thus, seeing no end to those inroads, necessity compelled us to have recourse to arms, and our brethren are now fighting for the land they inherited from their fathers, for their families and friends. But what will our exertions do without assistance? Our sinews of war are almost spent; and harassed as we have been for years, we have not been able to lay by the means to provide for our extraordinary wants; and to whom can we look up to for protection and support, but to those friends who have at all former times held forth their hands to uphold us, and who have sworn, in their late treaty with the Americans, to see our just rights and privileges respected and protected from insult and aggression? We now call on your excellency, as the representative of our father, King George, to send such aid in ammunition as we are absolutely in want of, as our brother chief, Hillis Hadjo, was informed, when in England, that, when ammunition was wanted to enable us to protect our just rights, your excellency would supply us with what was necessary. We have applied to the Spanish officer at the fort of St. Mark, but his small supply preFrom Cappachimico and Boleck to Governor Cameron. vents his being able to assist us, and we have It is with pain we are again obliged to obtrude only on your excellency to depend. We likeourselves on your excellency's notice, in conse-wise pray your excellency would be pleased to quence of the cruel war we have been forced into by the irruption of the Americans into the heart of our lands. It will be first necessary to state to your excellency that one head chief, Kenhagee, received a letter from General Gaines in August last, a copy of which is enclosed, with the answer returned thereto. This letter only appears to have been a prelude to plans determined on by the said General and General Jackson, to bring on troops and settlers to drive us from our lands and take possession of them; for, in the end of October, a party of Americans surrounded Fowl Town during the night, and in the morning began setting fire to it, making the unfortunate inhabitants fly to the swamp, and who, in their flight, had three persons killed by the fire of the Americans. Our Indians, rallying, drove the Americans from the town, but, in their

I pray you excellency will pardon this intrusion, which nothing but the urgency of the case would have induced me to make.

I have the honor to be, &c.


A. A.

send an officer or person to lead us right, and to apportion the supply you may be pleased to send us agreeably to our proper wants.

In praying your excellency will lend an ear to our demand, and despatch it without delay, we remain your excellency's most obedient friends and servants,


For ourselves and all the other chiefs of the Lower Creek nation. His Exc'y Governor CAMERON.


Letter from A. Arbuthnot to Colonel E. Nicholls.
NASSAU, N. P., August 26, 1817.
SIR: Especially authorized by the chiefs of the

Relations with Spain.

the nation, which it was his intention to do. Of the money received of Governor Cameron, he had only given him eighty dollars, by Captain W., a barrel of sugar, a bag of coffee, and a small keg of rum; and the interpreter, Shugert, informed me that when Hillis Hadjo asked for an account, Captain W. refused, it, saying it would be useless to a man who could not read. He also misses two cases, one of which contained, he thinks, crockery; I have made inquiry of His Majesty's ordnance storekeeper, and he informs me the whole were delivered to Captain W.; they are therefore lost to Hillis Hadjo.

Lower Creek nation, whose names I affix to the present, I am desired to address you, that you may lay their complaint before His Majesty's Government. They desire it to be made known that they have implicitly followed your advice in living friendly with the Americans, who were their neighbors, and nowise attempted to molest them, though they have seen the Americans encroach on their territory, burning their towns, and making fields where their houses stood, on the Chatahoochee: rather than make resistance, they have retired lower in the peninsula. The town of Ecan Halloway, where Otis Mico was chief, is one instance of the encroachments of I am desired to return Hillis Hadjo's warmest the Americans. This town is situated under the acknowledgments for the very handsome man. guns of Fort Gaines; and Micco was desired to ner you treated him in England, and he begs his submit to the Americans, or his town would be prayer may be laid at the foot of His Royal blown to atoms; rather than do so, he retired, Highness the Prince Regent. I left him and all and is now living in the lower nation; and his his family well on the 20th of June. Old Capfields, and even where the town stood, is ploughed pachimico desires me to send his best respects, up by the Americans. They complain of the and requests that you would send out people to English Government neglecting them after hav-live among them, and all the land they took ing drawn them into a war with America; that from Forbes shall be theirs. At all events, they you, sir, have not kept your promise of sending must have an agent among them, to see that the people to reside among them; and that, if they Americans adhere to the treaty, and permit them have not some person or persons resident in to live unmolested on their own lands. This the nation to watch over their interests, they agent should be authorized by His Majesty's will soon be driven to the extremity of the Government, or he will not be attended to by peninsula. You left Mr. Hambly to watch over the Americans. In the gazettes of Georgia, the the interests of the Creek nation, but you had Americans report the Seminole Indians are conhardly left the nation when he turned traitor, tinually committing murders on their borders, and was led by Forbes to take the part of the and making incursions into the State. These Americans. His letter to me, of which I annex are fabrications tending to irritate the American you a copy, will show you what lengths he could Government against the poor Indians; for, during go if he had the means. It is Hambly and Doyle the time I was in the nation, there was only one who give the Indians all the trouble they experi- American killed, and he, with two others, was ence; they send their emissaries among the Lower in the act of driving off cattle belonging to BowCreeks, and make them believe the Cowetas, legs, chief of Suwanee; whereas three men and aided by the Americans, are arming against a boy were killed last June, by a party of Amerithem: thus both are put in fear; and their fields can cattle-stealers, while in their hunting-camps; are neglected, and hunting is not thought of. I the boy they scalped; and one of Bowlegs' headhave endeavored to do away this fear, by writing men was killed on St. John's river, in July. The the chief of the Coweta towns that they ought back-woods Georgians, and those resident on the to live on friendly terms with their brethren of borders of the Indian nation, are continually enthe lower nation, whose wishes were to be on tering it, and driving off cattle. They have, in good terms with them, and not to listen to any some instances, made settlements, and particubad talks, but to chase those that give them from larly on the Choctowhatchy river, where a conamong them. My letter was answered by them siderable number have descended. rather favorably, and I hope the talk that was sent to the Big Warrior last June will heal the difference between them.

By the treaty with Great Britain, the Americans were to give up to the Indians all the lands that they may have taken from them during the war, and place them on the same footing they were in 1811. It appears they have not done so; that Fort Gaines, on the Chatahoochee river, and Camp Crawford, on the Flint river, are both on Indian territory, that was not in possession of the Americans in 1811. They are fearful that, before any aid is given by the English Government, they will no longer be in possession of any territory.

Hillis Hadjo arrived in my schooner at Ochlochnee Sound last June, and was well received by all the chiefs and others who came to welcome him home. In consequence of his arrival, a talk was held, the substance of which I put on paper for them, and it was sent with a pipe of peace to the other nations. Hillis Hadjo wished to return to Nassau with me, but I prevailed on him to stay in the nation, and keep them all at peace. I regret, sir, to notice this poor man's affairs, though I wrote last January to his excellency the honby his desire: it appears that he arrived in Nas-orable Charles Bagot, respecting the encroachsau a short time after I had left it, in January, and Captain W. being here, took charge of him, his goods and money, prevailing on the Governor to let him stay with him until he went down to

ments of the Americans; as I was informed by the copy of a letter from the right honorable Earl Bathurst, handed me by his excellency Governor Cameron, that His Majesty's ambassador

Relations with Spain.

had possession of you, and, perhaps, with your life made you pay the forfeit for the injuries heaped on them, had not that man, who has been your friend from your early youth, stepped in as your protector. Yet this is the man whom Mr. Hambly presumes to call an outlaw! A pardoned villain, when going to the gallows, would bless the hand that saved his life; but Mr. Hambly blasphemes his saviour!

had received orders to watch over the interests eause of their troubles, would have long ere this of the Indians. Since my return here, I have received of Mr. Moodie, of Charleston, an extract of a letter from the honorable Charles Bagot, stating that the expense of postage is so considerable, that any further communications of the same nature must be sent him by private hands. Now, sir, as no person goes direct from this to Washington, how am I to be able to comply with his desire? Thus he will be kept ignorant of the real situation of the poor Indians, and As Mr. Hambly's generous friend is the printhe encroachments daily made on their lands by cipal cause of my being in this country, as an American settlers: while he may be told by the honest man I shall endeavor to fulfil my promise American Government that no encroachments to him and the other chiefs. The guilty alone have been made, and that the forts they still hold have fear; an honest and upright man dreads no are necessary to check the unruly Seminoles. danger, fears no evil, as he commits no ill; and Thus the person appointed to watch over the in- your arm of justice ought to be applied where it terests of the Indians having no other means of would rightly fall-on the heads of the really information than from the parties interested in guilty. Your mean and vile insinuation, that I their destruction, and seeing from time to time, have been the cause of thefts and murders, comes in the American gazettes, accounts of cruel mur-ill from him who has been the cause of the murders, &c. committed by the Indians on the frontier der of hundreds. Though your usage was made settlements of the United States, he apprehends | villainous at the fort, yet your revenge was too the Indians merit all the Americans do to them. But let His Majesty's Government appoint an agent, with full powers, and to correspond with His Majesty's ambassador at Washington, and his eyes will then be opened as to the motives that influence American individuals, as well as the Government, in vilifying the Indians. The powers given me and the instructions were to memorialize His Majesty's Government as well as the Governor General of Havana; but if you will be pleased to lay this letter before His Majesty's Secretary of State, it will save the necessity of the first; and I fear that a memorial to the Governor General would be of no use. Referring you to the answer,* I am, most respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,




From A. Arbuthnot to William Hambly.

OCHLOCHNEE SOUND, May 3, 1817. SIR: On my return here this day, I received a letter signed by you, and dated the 23d March. As you therein take the liberty of advising me, as you say, by order of the chiefs of the Creek nation, I am glad of, and shall embrace this opening you give me, and reply to you at some length. First, sir, let me premise that, when you lived at Prospect Bluff, a clerk to Messrs. Forbes & Co., you did not consider Cappachimico, McQueen, or any other of the chiefs of the Lower Creek nation, as outlaws, nor have they ever been considered as such by the English Government, who are the especial protectors of the Indian nations; and it ill becomes Mr. Hambly to call Cappachimico an outlaw-that man who has ever been his friend. and by his authority has prolonged his life. Yes, sir, the young chiefs and warriors of the Creek nation, considering you as the chief

* See the unsigned paper, No. 71.

savage and sanguinary. If your conduct, sir, to the Indians were guided by as pure motives as mine, you would endeavor to influence them to esteem and respect each other as brothers, and live in harmony and friendship; cultivating their lands in Summer, and taking their diversions of hunting in Winter; respecting their neighbors, and making yourself respected by them. If thus, sir, you would act, (and by your knowledge of their language you have much more in your power than any other man,) you would then be the true friend of the Indians. Were I an instigator to theft and murder, would I hold the language I have done to the chiefs and others who have called on me? Ask the lieutenant commanding at Fort Gaines if my letter to him breathed the strains of a murderer; ask Opony Hatcho, or Dany, his interpreter, if the recommendatory note I sent him by order of Opony could be written by an instigator to murder; ask Opony himself if my language to him was that of a murderer; ask Mappalitchy, a chief residing among the Americans on Ockmulgee, if my language and advice to him savored of that of a murderer. All those, and every Indian who has heard my talks, will contradict your vile assertions.

But Mappalitchy has given me a clue by which I can unravel from whence the aspersions come: not from Opony Hatcho, or any of the chiefs of the upper towns, but from him who endeavors to lead them to mischiefs and quarrels with each other. Did not the chiefs hear my note read with respect, and perfectly accord with my sentiments of being all as brethren, uniting in the bonds of friendship and love? Did not they agree to smoke the pipe of peace with their brethren of the lower nation, and live in future as brothers? What made some of them alter their minds afterwards? The interference of a humane man, who caused them to write a letter to me demanding my removal from a band of outlaws, and which letter is signed "William Hambly."

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