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a just opinion whenever I ain required to do so.

LETTER II. Yet you are indulgent enough to grant that I may be unconsciously guilty of acting thus : I finished my last by remarking how difficult this is dealing with me with more mildness than it was to give an exacı definition of physiognomy, I am accustomed 10; but from you I expect it, 1 according to the ideal have formeil of it ; I know and demand that you should not rely upon mere that it is generally said, that whatever we underpromises, but not shut your eyes to conviction, stand perfectly we can easily explain ; yet it is not when I am able to inake good all I have advanced. now the case. I see plainly the object I want to At all events it will then be time enough to brand || describe, but find no words to express myself. me with the epithet of inad, and to feel the sen, It often happens that a skilfal artist descries in a* riment of pity, which the sight of mental work beauties and defects, which he strives in derangement always produces. Yet every une vain to expose to the view of others. It is ne. falls into some kind of folly, and if we were to cessary to be in some degree acquainted with scrutinize with impartiality into the generality of an ant before we can understand the language of mankind, we should find that the follies of men those who are proficient in it; whilst we seize are sometimes the most valuable part of ļheir | easily the meaning of any science of which we characters. Mine is that of studying physiogno- have already conceived an idea, and the study of mies, but it is far from dangerous; il leans inore which is the result of our own inclination in favour of the good than it turns against the Those who stand in the two situations I have last bad; I become beiter acquainted with my fellow- mentioned, will immediately dive into the myscreatures, and no more expect to meet with per-tery of a new discovery, and explain it without fection among them; I compare their defects the assistance of others ; while those who are together, and excuse those which deserve for- totally deprived of information on that subject giveness, for who can know better than a physi- (and they forın the largest part of the commuognomise those that are entitled to our pity and nity) will deride physiognomy, because they do indulgence ? He is entrusted with the secret of not comprehend the precepts given them, and nature; she alone guides his judgnjent, and are ashamed at their want of capacity. teaches him to require no more of every indivi To me it seems plain that every thing has its dual than the virtues which have fallen to his lot. physiognomy, and this is my way of reasoning : He may succeed also in bringing those virtues to every man who excels in any art is able to deterlight, in inspiring their possessors with self-con mine at the first glance the value, and the good fidence, exalting their courage, and raising them and bad qualities of an object which falls within to a pitch of elevation which they never had the reach of the profession to which he belongs, any hope to reach.

though he had never seen it before; and in this It is necessary to give you a description of case it is babit, and his natural talent, that pre-' what is called physiognomy, and this is the most vents him from erring. A skilful gardener, for difficult part of the lask you have imposed upon || instance, without opening the fruits that hang me. It does not consist in the appearance, the before him, will tell you whether they be sound face, the mein, or features; for I have seen ane ripe; and if everything have its physiogpeople extremely like each other, while their nomy, why should men be deprived of it? If physiognomies expressed different passions. If that of inanimate things never deceives our o'I were to recur to ctyinology, I should find in | servations, why should that of men be more falo the two Greek words that compose the name of lacious? and, to bring the weighty authority of this science, a plain explanation of its meaning, || Aristotle into the question, I will quote the PHUSEOS NOMOS, means the lau of nature; and, comparison he einployed : “ If hunters can according to my doctrine, physiognomy is no trace the qualities of dogs in their physiognothing more than the law, ihe exact rule by mies, why should we not gather from the feawhich nature has enabled us to judge of human tures of our fellow-creatures the knowledge of kinn. You will ask which is this rule, in what their virtues and vices ?" If it be granted that does it consist? I can only answer that it is a man possesses a physiognomy, it must be senwritten on the face of man, on its different feasible; if so, it must be in our power to distures, and strikes my eyes whenever I behold a cover and explore it. human being without its being in my power to Nature, who never produces any uscless object, unveil it easily to others. As we proceed, I hope would not have created it, to conceal it from our to make discoveries which will a sist me in un view; and even had such been her plan, she folding what now may seem obscure ; but as this could not have put it into execution; for it is letter is already so long, I will not anticipate the the external representation, or if you prefer this precepts which I am about to lay before you, and dehuision, the living and visible expression of keep this store of instruction to fill up my next. all the principles, which constitute a human

racter.

being; it would have been as utterly impossible warın praises or satirical reniarks, I never pass a tu hide this reflection of the mind as to appear sentence u: on a man till I have seen his face. tall when our stature is low. It is with the com But what do you perceive in his face, you will position of man, as with that of those balsas say, features common to all men, and which only which must be annihilated before the perfumes | vary in their colour and their proportions? This they exhale can lose their powers; you must is true; but you will soon allow that from this crush a looking glass to atoms, else every particle | variety in the complexion and the proportions, will still reflect your visage; physiognomy is a an expression may proceed which belongs to one looking-glas3 which will never present you with man in particular, for two human beings exactly the vain illusions cruited by vanity, or other alike have never been found, and which gives us equally powerful passions; in it you will descry an insight into the most hiddea part of his cha. even the secret attempts made by men to conceal their emosjons; it never mixes together what The talent of a physiognomist is a free gift proceeds from nature with the productions of from nature; those who are endowed with it, art; the most Aeeting alteration, the slightest are sometimes unconscious of the treasure they whim, or burst of ill-bumour, will lie unfolded possess till opportunities occur when it begins to before you. The eyes of those who have studied unfold, and then, in a short time, they equal this science cannot be deceived by the stratagems those who have tried to acquire it through the made use of by persons on their guard, and they most indefatigable labours. Many also, though perceive ihe difference that subsists between dis conscious of their talent, are 100 timid to make simulation and openness, as between the rouge any use of it, being blinded by prejudice upon that bedaubs the cheeks of a fashionable lady and their own opinions, wlien even they are just. It the rosts strewed by health on the face of youth. was chance that has led me to believe I had been I am now almost persuaded, that the surest and favoured with a small portion of it; and far from only means of truly knowing men, is to observe letting it slumber, I have cultivated, and I hope their physiognomies; they are at liberiy to alter | improved it. Though it be a free gist of nature, their sentiments in conversation, and their con it may be improved by art and application, and duct depends upon the circumstances in which it is sufficient to succeed in one instance to lay they are involvert, but their physiognomy alone down a rule which seldoin misleads us, but which reveals their real character. The changes ap- every one must find out and compose for himself, parent in their behaviour during the course of as it is the fruit of a natural instinct, which it their existence are only external, they remain the would be disficult not lo onderstand and obey. same, and people wonder at their sudden me- The only advantage which art and application tamorphoses, only because they had not examinee can produce, is a greater facility and quickness their physiognomy, which would have repre- of judgment, which fills the vilgar with astonish. sented the in such as they were.

ment. This science is a fruitful source of never I should think I had committed some gross | failing enjoyments, Aowing from the abundant error in my obsersations, did I hear something I diversity of characters, which surpasses that of did not expect from a person whose features 1 || features; what attracts your observation to-day, had scrutinized; but this information does not

will give place to other subjecis fit to awaken inspire one with a greater share of esteem or con the most interesting remarks to morrow. Physitempt for individuals, for I do not require from cal naiure is alınost unbrunded, but considered them, or lay to their charge, what is not in their | under a moral point of view, no limits can be power to possess or avoid. I am sometimes fixed to the immensity of her extent; and in the mused with the situations in which my imagi- wide field of physiognomy, we do not only benation places certain persons, and makes them hold what passes continually before us, but what perform actions suited to the expression of their may in a future time follow. Recollect what features, and I have frequently had the pleasure | pleasure you felt at , when you asked of hearing them acknowledge, when I had in my opinion of the persons who composed our formed them of what I had done, that in similar company, niost of whoin I then saw for the first circumstances they would have probably followed time in iny life, and my answers coincided exactly the same line of conduct. Striking events have with the reality. With a taste for this science also confirmed the opinions I had formed, and it is impossible to become acquainted with ennui; experience having crowned my calculations with and though now less e ger after discoveries, I am success, my habit of trusting in physiognomies is still fond of being introduced to new persons, become so strong that it would prove useless to with the love of finding some food for my fatry to shake it off.

vourite passion; and I often return delighted I never let the relations of others influence my with the instruction I have collected, without julginent; they may waste their eloquence in giving birth to any suspicion, I do not wein

those discoveries which relate only to accidental | encroached upon your patience, and must plead passions, and the distinctions which I create be my excuse, as the wish of kindling the same tween the energy of the mind and that of the enthusiasm for physiognomy in your soul, has body, between those who have formed their wit alone rendered me guilty. and those whom wit has taught, but I mean those

E. R. which serve to establish my doctrine on a firmer

[To be continued.] basis. But I did not perceive how far I had

ON THE ART OF DRAWING.

[Continued froin Page 149.)

AMONG 'the many who resort to the drawing || more are bestowed in drawing after tlic admirca school for instruction, it may be remarked that productions of this transcendent genius--and the few, very few, carry with them the idea of acquir-satisfaction is often no greater ! ing a competent knowledge of any particular The pupil has not been able to give the beauti. branch of the art; they go to learn to draw; || ful forms of these sublime, simple, and elegant their parents, relatives, or friends, wish them to figures, with becoming spirit; the masterly touch learn, because it is an elegant accomplishment, of the original appears coarse and uncouth from and the youth inust have a general notion of the juvenile land; possibly the figures themwhat all the world admire. The ladies especially selves are deemed antiquared, unnatural, or useare delivered to the master with the most inde-less. "Why," says the matron, “ don't you finite and perplexing directions; they are to learn get to do something pretty, something tir to put to draw the eye, the nose, the mouth, and the behind a glass? who would go to the expence head; hands, feet, and whole figures; flowers, of framing that great head you call Elynas the fruit, and landscapes; any thing, and every thing; Sorcerer, with those rough strokes, I suppose to draw in pencil, chalks, red, black, and white, meant for a beard, ill over his face.” in India ink, and in colours; but is the whole of

This sketch will, it is hoped, shew the necessity this possible? does it not require a very different of giving a discretionary authority to the master, turn of thought to study the human figare from as to the objects principally to be pursued by the what is requisite to acquire just ideas of propor- papil; to discover for what particular subjecis tion in animals, in edifices, in trees, or in flowers ?

the youth has an inclination and promptitude; Often in vain the master enqnires what the and to rely wholly on the master's judgment to pupil is directed, or wishes to draw; the friends find out and improve the bend, or bias, of his have given no particular direction, and the pupil scholar's genius. is indifferent about it: and not less frequenily The objects of this art are inconceiveably va. he gives dissatisfaction, either to the scholar or to rious; and surprisingly different are the several the friends, by setiing before the youth what it manners in which the different subjects may be may happen he does not readily acquire, or what created with propriety; amid this variety, it will is not, when done, remarkably striking to the party rarely happen but that some subjects may be hit principally to be pleased. This is mortifying to upon, or selected, in which every one may make the instructor; and it is discouraging to the pupil || a considerable proficiency; but general excelwhen the labour perhaps of six months is taken lence is the happy lot of very few upon the long home, and the whole is condemned in the lump catalogue of artists of the highest reputation ; it “ What,” says the old gentleman, “am I to pay is the result of long experience and practice, or so much for the boy to be able to make a barn, or the peculiar distinction of an universal genius. an out-house? why did he not learn to do history, We have bu: one; rarely we meet with one who or something of caricature, that he might enter handles subjects with equal facility, or in a style tain himself or his friends! Ah! you will never above mediocrity, and who arrains to a decided make a Michael Angelo, or a Bunbury, if you pre-eminence in any branch of ihe art. do not draw something else besides pig-sties and It is therefore highly important to the learner, dog-kennels.” Well, the lad desires to copy that his master be duly apprised of the objects the requisite subjects, to qualify him for making deemed necessary for him to study; and that the a figure. Examples from Raphael are, amung whole attention be unremittingly directed 10. artists, confessedly most excellent studies for the wards these objects only. The most beneficial pupil, and even for the proficient. Six months advantages will speedily accrue from thus, as it

were, concentrating the mental powers; they || faithful poriraiture of some interesting spot. If will penetrate to the theory on which practice is a gentleman artist should be an M.D. L.L. D. founded; and this farther satisfaction will result, F.A.S. or F. R.S. or be any ways connected the accurate investigation of any particular sub. with the editur, printer, or publisher, of some ject will delightfully facilitate improvement in periodical publication, his beautiful little bits inwhatever may afterwards come under considera- | fallibly fall into the hands of an engraver; who tion; while a superficial rainbling over the ex-if, unfortunately for his own ease, he knows any tensive held of art, will leave few lasting impres- thing of drawing, will be perfectly bewildered in sions on the mind, will produce a knowledge the intricacy oi delineation; or is, happily, he scarce worth the rouble of collecting, because knows nothing about it except what he may inadequate to any purpose beyond pueriie amuse. have collected out of a sixpenny drawing book ment. The prevalent pursuit of the present day of perspective, the prints may possibly, eren in is landscape; but what other than puerile amuse this case, have an advantage of the drawing, by ment for grown people, or absolute ridicule 10 an soine two of the lines being parallel, and some artist, can arise froin looking over the hasty little three, if not more, being drawn to the same point sketches of gentlemen who never learneil, who somewhere or other; but the public unior ubave totally forgot, or wlio never attend to the nately must, in either case, be presented with first rudimen's of drawing?

views of editices, which ihe Land of time ibels, Beautiful they are calleit, because the objects assisted by the most barbarian ravages (which truly were beautiful; free, because made in a || avowedly produce the niost rude, rough, and burry, mare in ten minutes, in a post chaise, picturesque effects), could not render as rude, possibly en pussant, perhaps in a shower of rain; irregular, and confused, as the beautiful original should an artist make a sketch in such haste as sketches. Hence to draw like a gentleman, bas to be intelligible only to himself, he would put now ceased to be a recommendation. it into form before he exhibited it as a specimen

(To be continued.) of Gothic architecture, picturesque scenery, or

BRITISH SYNONOMY.

The impossibility of writing with accuracy il piness of the person in view. A perfidious friend and precision, without a due attention to the may not be wanting in any of the demonstrations specific import of words, having been demon- of friendship, but it is only the real one who strated in the lecture on “ The Stricture of || furnishes testimonies of it. Language," a list of the principal reputed syno Firmness, constancy.- Firmness is the steady nomies, may not be unacceptable to the gene- resistance which a strong mind opposes to the rali:y of the readers of LA BELLE ASSEMBLEE. temptations that assail it. Constancy is an uni

Sensibility, tenderness. The first relates to form attachment to the same objects. He who sensation, the last to sentiment.

is form, can neither be seduced by pleasure, nor Tenderness is the natural state of the soul, intimidated by danger: neither the allureinents sensibility is its disposition to receive impressions. of glory or of riches; neither the fear of disa One aliaches by kindness the heart that is sen grace, of hardships, of torture, or even of death sible; the heart that is tender attaches itself. itself, can shake the resolution which his judge. Tenderness loses nene of its force by beimg always ment and his conscience approve. The constant in action; but the vivacity of sensibility is im- are not affected by variety; the same inclination paired by frequent excitement.

draws them always, and equally, towards the same Demonstration of friendship, testimonies of thing. In the viine of difficulty and danger, the friendship. Demonstrations of friendship are man of firmness is sustained by his courage, and frequent in society, the testimonies of it are rare. determined by his reason : the man of constancy The first is confined to the exterior ; professions, has no guide but his heart; he has always the caresses, anomalous attentions are demonstrations same wants, of friendship. They indicate attachment, but Realiz", effect, execute.-These verbs agree in do not prove it. The testimonies of friendship expressing the accomplishment of something are so many irrefragable proofs of its existence; which was intended, but they announce it under they are actions prompied by the unfeigned in different circumstances. To realize, is to accom• terest which the heart takes in the concerns of plish that which appearances have induced us ta another, and which have the advantage and hap-hope, To effect, is to accomplish that of which

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which we relied. To execute, is to accomplish qualities which it may, or may not possess. To that of which a regular plan had been traced out. praise, is to express our admiration of some exThus we speak with propriety of realising cellence that is apparent. One extols a man's hopes, of effecting arrangements, and of execut character; one praises his conduct. ing designs.

Misfortune, accident, disaster. These words Forbidden, prohibited.-Both these worils de- all announce some distressing event; but mis pote something which is contrary to an order, or

fortune applies particularly to the events which to the law; they differ in this, that it is human affect the interest. Accident regards what hap** laws which prohibit, but divine laws which for- i pens to the person. Disaster has a more exten. bid. Idolatry is forbidden, smuggling prohibited. sive application. It is a misfortune for a man to

Discredit, decry. The last attacks the reputa. I lost his friend or his property. is an accident * tion; the first the credit. One decries a woman for him to fall and be hurt. It is a disaster to be

in accusing her of indiscretions; une discredits a i suddenly disgraced in the world. One says, a man of business, in reporting him to be ruined. I great misfortune, a cruel accident, a frightful · One decries an ambassador, in saying that he is disaster.

not entrusted with the usual powers; one dis- To invent, to discover.One invents something eredits him, in saying that he is destitute of new, by the force of imagination ; une discovers, judgment or honour. The jealousy of some by research, something which has been concealed. authors prompts them to decry others, in order to The one marks the fecundity of the mind, the discredit their opinions.

other its penetration. A physician and a philoIrresolution, indecision.We are irresolute in sopher trace effects till they discover their cause. eases where taste or sentiment is to determine; || A mechanic is continually exercising his invenwe are undecided when it is reason that shoula | tiun. Sir Isaac Newton made many valuable guirle us. The irresolute are not sufficiently l discoveries ; Sir Richard Arkwright has produced affected by any object to feel a decided preference | many useful inventions. for it. The undecided want a motive sufficiently Indolence, supineness, laziness, negligence.Inpowerful to determine their choice. Inde | dolence, proceeds from a deficiency of sensibility ; rision proceeds from a want of judgment; irre- || supineness, froin a deficiency of ardour; laziness, solution from a deficiency of sensibility. We from a deficiency of activity; and negligence, sometimes decide upon measures which we have from a deficiency of care. Nothing moves the not resolution enough to carry into effect; and indolent; they are without passions and without we sometimes resolve to adopt those, on the impulses. It is difficult to animate the supine; policy of which we have not decided. The irre- they proceed slowly and faintly with whatever solute want a stimulus; the undecided require they attempt. The love of inaction renders the instruction. To determine the latter, we must lazy indifferent to all the advantages which they have an authority over the mind; to determine might reap from exertion. The negligent attend the former, we must have an influence upon the to nothing; they forget all that they are enjoined, soul.

and are incapable of doing any shing with exact. Metaphor, simile, allegory.- A metaphor is a İndolence enfeebles the powers of the simile expressed in an abridged form. An alle mind. Supineness dreads faxigue. Lazinesss huns gory is a metaphor continued. A metaphor is a trouble. Negligence creates delays, and profits figure founded entirely on the resemblance which not by opportunities. one object bears in another : thus we say of a Coward, poltroon.- A coward recedes, a pol. minister, whose wisdom and talents have greatly troon dare not advance. The best does not de. benefi:ed his country, that he is the pillar of the fend himself; he is deficient in valour. The se

A. simile or comparison requires more cond attacks not; he is deficient in courage. We words: we employ a simile when, speaking of must never recur upon the assistance of a coward, such a minister we say, that he upholds the state, or the support of a poltroon. like a pillar that supports the whole edifice; or, Declare, discouer, manifest, reveal, disclose.. that he is a pillar to the state. The words as or All these words indicate the cornmunication of like, are the signs of simile. An author who something previously unknown, but the word indulges himself much in the use of metaphor, | declare, implies a communication made with a sometimes carries it so far that it becomes an design; to discover, is to show, either from deallegors.

sign or inadvertence, something which had been To extol, to praise. We extol a person in concealed ; to manifest, is to render evident whac order to procure him the esteem of others, or to was before doubtful; to reveal, is to make public extend his reputation. We priise him to testify what we are bound in honour to conceal; to dis she esteem which we ourselves feel for him. To close, is to mention the name of a person whe No. XVI. Vol. II.

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ness,

state.

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