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OBS. 4.-The variations for the Potential Mode are rather variations of form than to indicate distinctions of time—this Mode being generally indifferent as to time. EXAMPLE.—“O, would the scandal vanish with my life,
Then happy were to me ensuing death!” Obs. 5.--The Infinitive Present generally indicates indefinite timethe Finite Verb on which it depends commonly determines its tense. EXAMPI ES —“I went TO SEE him.”—Present in form, but Past in senee.
“I shall go TO SEE him.”—Present in form, but Future in
OBs. 6.—But generally, to indicate past time, the Past Infinitive is used, except when the Infinitive follows Verbs denoting purpose, expectation,
EXAMPLES.—-We ought TO HAVE GONE.
I purposed TO WRITE many days ago.
FORM OF THE VERB.
NOTE XII.—That form of a Verb should be used which will correctly and fully express the fact intended. Common Errors.-1. “There let him lay." —Byron.
2. "To you I fly for refuge.”—Murray. Corrected.—There let him lie.—To you I flee for refuge.
VOICE. OBs. 7.- The form of the Active Voice is properly used when the agent of the action expressed is made the Subject of the Sentence. EXAMPLES.—1. Columbus discovered America.
2. Cesar invaded Gaul.
Obs. 8. —The Passive form is used when the Object of the Act is made the Subject of the Sentence. EXAMPLES.-1. America was discovered.
2. Gaul was invaded. Obs. 9.—The Agent of the Action is made the Object of an Adjunct Phrase, when the Verb takes the Passive form.
EXAMPLES. — Active Voice.—1. William Has SOLVED the problem.
2. Mary gave me a rose. Passive Voice.-1. The problem has been solved by William
2. A rose was given (to] me by Mary. Obs. 1.-Action is sometimes improperly predicated of a Passive Subject.
You are mistaken. for....
..... You mistake.
The house is building. for....... . The house is being built. which means.... . The house is be[com]ing built, i. e., people are at work
upon it; but the house does not act. REM.—This is one of the instances in which Authority is against Philosophy. For an act can not properly be predicated of a Passive Subject Many good writers properly reject this idiom.
“Mansfield's prophecy is being realized.” — Michelet's Luther.
TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.
NOTE XIII.-A Verb which is necessarily Transitive requires an Object in construction, expressed or implied.
Obs. 1.—The appropriate Object of a Sentence should not be made the Object of a Phrase.
ExamplE.—“ Transitive Verbs do not admit of a Preposition after them.”—Bullion's Graminar, p. 91.
CORRECTED.—Transitive Verbs do not admit Prepositions after them [to complete the Predicate).
Note XIV.-A Verb necessarily Intransitive should not have an Object, except by poetic license or for other rhetorical purposes.
ExamFLE.—“I sit me down, a fensive hour to spend.”
EXCEPTION 1.--But a sınall number of Verbs are used Transitively or lutransitively (See p. 107, Obs. 1.)
EXCEPTION 2.-Some Intransitive Verbs may have Objects of their own signification. EXAMPLES.-1. “I dreamed a dream that was pot all a dream."
2. “I have fought a good fight.” Obs. 1.—Some Verbs, commonly used Intransitively, become Transitive by virtue of a Prepositional Prefix. EXAMPLES.—1. John goes to school. goes” is Intransitive.
2. John undergoes punishment..“undergoes” is Transitive.
6. “Green becomes my complexion best.” Obs. 2.-In such examples of Compound Verbs in Predicate, it is generally—not always—the Preposition in Composition that makes the Verb Transitive. The Substantive following is, logically, the Object of the Preposition; but, grammatically considered, it is the Object of the Predicate, and should be parsed accordingly.
OBs. 3.—Verbs made Transitive by this use of Prefixes, can not elegantly be used in the Passive Voice. EXAMPLES.–1. “John undergoes punishment.” — We may not
вау punishment is undergone by John. 2. “The tower overlooks the city.”—Nor, the city is
overlooked by the tower. Obs. 4. -Prepositions not in composition, used with Intransitive Verbs to introduce Adjunct Phrases, are construed with the Predicate when the Verb becomes Passive. EXAMPLES.—1. “The children laughed at him.”—He was laughed at
by the children. 2. “We often thought of our friends at home.". Our
friends at home were often thought of. REM.-Such expressions are not often elegant, and should be avoided when the same thought can be otherwise expressed. Thus,
He was derided by the children.
NOTE XV.-A Verb should not be used for its Participle in Predicate.
EXAMPLE.-James ought not to have went.
NOTE XVI.—A Participle should not take the place of its Verb.
ExamPLE.—“The work is imperfect;--you done it too hastily."
Obs. 2.-Parts of the Predicate of a Sentence may be omitted by ellipsis. 1. The leading Word.
“If [ ] heard aright, It is the knell of my departed hours.” 2. The second Word.
“They may [ ) and should return to allegiance." 8. The whole Predicate.
· While [ ] there we visited the Asylum.“
EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
“ He inaketh the storm a calm."
. Adjunct of “storm." ADJUNOTS.
To become a calm,. ...Adjunct of “maketh.”
. . Adjunct of " calm.”
Its form determines its
.Hence, Third Person.
Subject of "maketh.”...Hence, Nominative Case. Rule— * The Subject of a Sentence must be in the Nominative Case."
Asserts an act..
.Hence, a Verb.
gular Number. Rule.—“ A Verb must agree with its Subject in Person and Number. The
Describes “storm".... .Hence, an Adjective.
Hence, a Noun.
.Hence, Third Person.
.Hence, Objective Case.
To become] a calm. Modifies “maketh”-limit
ing the act to its result...Hence, an Adverb. A
Describes “ calm.” ...... .Hence, an Adjective.
.Hence, a Noun.
.Hence, Third Person.
...Hence, Independent Case RULE.-Note.--"A Noun or a Pronoun used in Predicate with a
Verb, is in the Independent Case.” REM.—The above is the correct grammatical construction of the Sentence, and it is correctly parsed. But without the Adjunct Phrase “ to become a calm,” the word “maketh” could not properly have “storm” as its Object. “Storm” is the object of the modified Predicate, " inaketh (causeth to become) a calm.”