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than had been promised, yet it enabled the excavators at Alexandretta to go forward in their work. Dr. Peters's attaché at Constantinople was John Dyneley Prince, then a recent graduate of Columbia College, who later became Professor of Slavonic Languages at Columbia.

The exploration under the able direction of Dr. Peters and Professor H. V. Hilprecht was very successful. Its large collection of archæological "finds," now enriching the museum of the University of Pennsylvania and the Museum at Constantinople, are yet in the process of deciphering. Dr. Peters left a full account of the exploration in his twovolume work, "Nippur," a lasting memorial to his services in the cause of archæology. Some of his "finds" date back earlier than 4000 B.C.

At that time Mr. Budge, of the British Museum, and Theodore Bent, another well-known archeologist, were endeavoring to obtain similar permits for excavations. Bent, because of his disappointment in reference to some excavations he made in the island of Thasos, wrote an article for the "Contemporary Review" in which he made a scurrilous attack upon Hamdy Bey, director of the Museum at Constantinople, who had charge of the entire subject of excavation. Bent stated that the Americans were able to receive a favorable firman because I had bribed Hamdy Bey.

Of course this was absolutely untrue. Hamdy Bey was a scholar of high repute and a man of exceptionally fine character.

The truth is that the Sultan at that time felt under special obligations to me. I had been of service to him in a matter which threatened the good relations between Turkey and Persia. The circumstances, in brief, were as follows: There were in the Ottoman Empire about a million Persians, many of them rug dealers. A number had married Turkish women. The Sultan claimed that when a Persian subject in Turkey married a woman who was a Turkish subject his nationality followed that of the wife. The dispute had become so definite and sharp that the Shah of Persia was about to recall his Ambassador.

It was finally agreed between the two Governments to leave the matter to me for decision. I took the subject under advisement, and wrote an opinion in accordance with the universally accepted doctrine that the nationality follows that of the husband. Instead of rendering my decision, I advised the Sultan what the conclusion would be, and suggested that it would probably make for better relationship if he would anticipate my decision by agreeing with the Shah's contention. This at the same time relieved me from the necessity of deciding against the sovereign to whom I was accredited.

The Shah's Ambassador, Mohsin Khan, who had the position practically of a viceroy in the Ottoman Empire, desired to confer upon me Persia's highest

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decoration, the Lion and the Sun, set in brilliants, which of course I did not accept.


About this time the question of building a railway from Constantinople to the Persian Gulf was very much agitated, especially in Germany and at Constantinople. The Grand Vizier referred to this subject several times and expressed the desire to be brought into communication with reliable American railway builders. I wrote to Carl Schurz, suggesting that perhaps Henry Villard would be interested.

Just before this time William K. Vanderbilt came to Constantinople in his yacht. I tried to interest him in the Bagdad railway project and introduced him to the Grand Vizier. Mr. Vanderbilt, however, was on a pleasure trip, and did not feel inclined to take up the cares and burdens that such a project involved.

Baron and Baroness Maurice de Hirsch came to Constantinople in the latter part of 1887. The Baron was known no less as the generous philan thropist than as one of the world's greatest railway builders. He financed and constructed the railway through the Balkans to Constantinople, thus connecting Constantinople by rail with the European cities.

The Baron came to Constantinople in order to adjust his financial differences with the Ottoman Government. The latter claimed that 132,000,000 francs were due them on the kilometric guaranties and other concessions.

While I was making a call upon the Grand Vizier one day he asked my permission to introduce some one. He said it was Baron de Hirsch. Having often heard of the Baron and of his benefactions, I was glad of the opportunity. The Grand Vizier summoned the Baron to his room, and we were introduced.

Baron de Hirsch was a man of notable appearance and of attractive address

(C) Underwood

Scene of Babylonian excavations, for which work Mr. Straus secured special permission from the Sultan

-tall, dark, slender, with full black mustache, and something of the dandy in his dress. We had a pleasant conversation.

Two days later I was invited to dinner by the Sultan. He spoke about Baron de Hirsch and the claim which the Turkish Government had against him. All mutual efforts to arrive at a settlement having failed, appointment of a disinterested arbitrator was proposed. The Baron suggested the French Ambassador and afterwards the Austrian Ambassador, but the Sultan declined, expressing a preference for me as arbitrator. To this choice the Baron agreed. The Sultan added that it had been agreed to pay me as an honorarium 1,000,000 francs.

I told the Sultan I felt complimented by his request, but that I would have to consult the Secretary of State. He replied that he had already communicated with his Minister in Washington; that his Minister reported Secretary Bayard expressed no objection. I said I would communicate with Mr. Bayard myself and give him a reply later.

Mr. Bayard confirmed what the Sultan told me. He saw no objection to my acting as arbitrator and to my receiving the honorarium, provided it appeared to me advisable to accept.

I thought the matter over carefully. While desirous of complying with the Sultan's request, I felt that it would not be advisable. Any such transaction was always open to the suspicion of improper methods and of bribery. Should I become the arbitrator and make a decision disappointing to the Turkish Government, I would in all probability come under such a suspicion. So I advised

cretary Bayard of my attitude, and

subsequently informed the Sultan frankly why I could not accept.

I added that, while I could not accept an honorarium, I would be glad to sit as mediator if the negotiations at any time required it. As the negotiations went forward the Baron and the Grand Vizier had frequent disagreements and personal altercations. Each of them came to me with their grievances, whereupon it fell to me to give opinions and bring them together again. Finally, a legal question was submitted to Professor Gneist, the eminent German international law authority. After his decision the Baron paid to the Turkish Government something like 22,000,000 francs.


In the course of these negotiations, which lasted several months, I became quite intimate with the Baron and with his exceptionally fine and admirable wife.

She was a remarkable woman, learned and able. Her main purpose in life seemed to be to learn how she could be most helpful to others. While at Constantinople she frequently visited the poorer quarters, both Christian and Jewish, and extended help generously. She was rather short and trim, with a benign face. She was dressed in deep mourning, as they had only a short time before lost their only child, Lucien.

I heard of an incident occurring two years before I met her which was typical. The Baron's railway passed through a little village near Constanti nople, and in order to locate a station in that village they had been obliged to tear down a number of houses belonging to poor people. The wrecking was done

by the Turkish Government, with the understanding that the Government would recompense the dispossessed people. Not receiving redress or relief, they appealed to the Baron and Baroness in Constantinople. De Hirsch said that it was the Government's affair, but the Baroness told her husband that she did not propose that this railway should be the cause of bringing unhappiness to people. It would probably be a long time before they would receive any compensation from the Turkish Government. She insisted upon taking from her own private fortune the funds with which these people could immediately build new homes and be happy.

The Baron and Baroness frequently came to the American Legation and took family dinner with us. Because of their recent bereavement, they refused the many official invitations which were extended to them. The Baron spoke about his benefactions, which up to that time had been chiefly in Russia. His purpose was during the rest of his life to devote his fortune to benevolent purposes. America interested him greatly, because, driven by persecution, many Russian Jews were emigrating there. He wanted to help these emigrants re-establish themselves.

For several years prior to my coming to Turkey I had been intimate with Michael Heilprin, the distinguished American-Jewish scholar, who worked incessantly to aid the arriving immigrants. I wrote to Heilprin to furnish full information about conditions among the Jewish immigrants in America, together with suggestions for aiding them constructively. Receiving Heilprin's reply, I sent it to Baron de Hirsch with a list of names of men who were foremost in works of benevolence among the Jews in New York. I included Meyer S. Isaacs, President of the United Hebrew Congregations; Jacob H. Schiff; Jesse Seligman, President of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum; and my brother Isidor.

Out of Baron de Hirsch's communications with these men arose the Baron de Hirsch Fund and the trade school.

Subsequently, after conferring with my wife, the Baroness endowed the Clara de Hirsch Home for Working Girls. Neither my wife nor I claim any credit for the foundation of these benevolent institutions. We were simply a medium for communication of such information as was necessary.



The National election of 1888 resulted in a Republican victory. As I had adjusted all outstanding differences between the United States and Turkey, I felt justified in resigning. I would have resigned even if Cleveland had been reelected. With no urgent diplomatic questions before me to occupy all my attention and energy, I felt more and more that I could not afford to absent myself from my private affairs any longer. In the interim between Cox's

resignation and my appointment the salary of the post was reduced from $10,000 to $7,500 per annum. The following year it was restored to the original figure. This barely covered my house rent, as I secured the best house available for entertaining.

In diplomatic life the social functions are of real importance in establishing proper relations with one's colleagues and officials of the Government to which one is accredited. Besides, it is important so far as one's own nationals are concerned to be able to show them such hospitality as they expect from their diplomatic representative.

My immediate predecessors, General Lew Wallace and "Sunset" Cox, lived in hotels, and consequently did very little entertaining. General Wallace felt compelled to decline dinner invitations from his colleagues because he was not in a financial position to reciprocate.

In diplomacy noblesse oblige has its widest and most emphatic application. Americans are usually supposed to be rich. If an American diplomat does not show the usual hospitality, it is attributed to penuriousness.

When I returned to Washington on leave, Mr. Cleveland asked me how I got on with my salary. I told him I could live fairly well as a diplomat on four times that amount. My stay in Constantinople cost at the rate of be tween $35,000 and $40,000 a year.

With the inauguration of a new Administration, the heads of missions tender their resignations to the new President through the Secretary of State. This I did. I was unofficially advised that, for fear I would be displaced, numerous letters and memorials from individuals and from missionary societies and various Protestant churches were sent to the President requesting that I be retained at my post. Dr. Pepper, the Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, together with the presidents of several other leading universities, asked for my retention. I wrote Dr. Pepper advising him that I could not continue, that it was imperative for me to return home.

On June 5, 1889, I received a letter from James G. Blaine, the new Secretary of State, accepting my resignation and commending me for my conduct of the mission.

A few days before I left Constantinople I was invited to dine with the Sultan. Expressing regret at my departure, he said that at no time during

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his reign had the relations between our two countries been more agreeable. He referred especially to a large claim pressed through the Legation by an American citizen. It was based upon a dynamite gun which the American was permitted to exhibit. I examined the claim carefully, and found that it was not justified either morally or legally, and accordingly informed the Porte that the claim was withdrawn. It seems that the Porte was not accustomed to such fair treatment. The result was that whenever I presented a matter it was always believed to be justified.

I had frequently dined with the Sultan, but this time he was especially affable and spoke quite freely about his affairs. He was very well informed, holding the Government closely, too closely, in his own hands.

On this occasion he said he had heard of the great disaster and loss of lives in the Johnstown flood, and that he desired to transmit through me a contribution of 200 pounds. The following day I cabled this amount to the Secretary of State, who replied:

Express grateful appreciation of the President and the Government of the United States for the Sultan's generous relief for flood sufferers.

The missionaries at Constantinople sent me a joint letter on the eve of my departure, June 22, expressing regret at my leaving and satisfaction for the manner in which the prestige of the United States had been sustained. The letter read in part:

As missionaries, we are grateful to you for the effects of this care, seen in important and we hope permanent advantages incidentally secured for various of our enterprises. As fellow-exiles from the homeland we would assure you of the high value which we have placed upon those social relations with yourself and Mrs. Straus which lead us to desire always to be numbered among your friends.

We boarded the steamship to make the passage through the Black Sea to Varna. A royal caique, one of those graceful Bosphorus rowboats manned by six oarsmen, came alongside. An aide-de-camp of the Sultan boarded the ship and presented to Mrs. Straus, in the name of the Sultan, the highest order of the Shefekat decoration, a star set in brilliants. The reasons which would have prohibited me from accepting a decoration did not apply to her, so it would have been ungracious to decline it.



FASCINATING account of Mr. Straus's long and intimate relationships with President Cleveland comprises next week's installment of the Autobiog raphy. Cleveland's war on "free silver," his defeat in 1888 because of his uncompromising stand on coinage and the tariff, and his renomination and election in 1892 are authoritatively discussed. His conversion

of Nathan Straus's home in Lakewood, New Jersey, into "the little White House," and his calm conduct while under fire by political enemies are described. Unusual Cleveland letters are presented. He is described on vacations in New York; his theatrical tastes, his midnight suppers and flair for humor are all delightfully reported.


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The ferry-boat is always a good place for a quiet little tête-à-tête and for a timely discussion of where to locate the romantic bungalow. The artist does not show their hands, but of course they're holding them

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