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IV. Genius. This is manifested in daring conception. An illustration is stated in Mr. "Washburne's speech on the LieutenantGeneral bill in Congress; referring to the operations below Vicksburg:
"The expedition by Grenada, the opening of the canal, and the opening of the bayous had not succeeded; the country saw ail the attempts to flank that stronghold likely to prove abortive, and there was great anxiety. But with unshaken confidence in himself General Grant pursued the even tenor of his way, and with entire reliance upon his success in the plan finally adopted, and which could not be undertaken until the river and bayous should sufficiently recede to enable them to move. Then, sir, was seen that bold and daring conception which I say is without parallel in all military history. It was to send his army and his transportation by land on the Lousiana side from MillikenV Bend to a point below Vicksburg, and then run the frowning batteries of that rebel Gibraltar, with its hundreds of guns, with his transports, and thus enable him to cross the river below Vicksburg, and get on to the shores of the Mississippi. The country was startled at the success which attended the running of those batteries, by the frail Mississippi steamboats used as transports, and the rebels stood aghast when they saw seven or eight transports and all of Porter's gunboats below Vicksburg."
He never boasts of strategy, but his record shows brilliant movements, that could only have emanated from a daring and highly perceptive genius.
V. Courage. No one has intimated a lack of personal bravery, that dashing intrepidity which faces peril and without a tremor confronts danger. He is unmoved in peril, and composed in the melee of battle. But above this he has that higher courage which springs from principle, which is immovable in defeat as in victory, which moves steadily to the accomplishment of results, undeterred by the combinations of his enemies.
VI. Power over men. His troops believe in him. He impresses, quiet and modest as he is, his confidence upon others. Mighty is faith. He enters into the soldier's life and the soldier's feelings. He shares his rations, endures his privations, hears his complaints, redresses his wrongs. He indulges no hollow display. Mr. WashPOWER OVER MEN. 189
burne says: "When he left his head-quarters at 'Smith's plantation' below Vicksburg, to enter on that great campaign, he did not take with him the trappings and paraphernalia so common to many military men. As all depended on quickness of movement, and as it was important to be encumbered with as little baggage as possible, he set an example to all under him. He took with him neither a horse, nor an orderly, nor a servant, nor a camp-chest, nor an overcoat, nor a blanket, nor even a clean shirt. His entire baggage for six days—I was with him at that time—was a tooth-brush. He fared like the commonest soldier in his command, partaking of his rations and sleeping on the ground with no covering but the canopy of heaven. How could such a General fail to inspire confidence in an army, and to lead it to victory and to glory?"
Such are some of the characteristics of the Lieutenant-General of the American armies. There are other things which may be said, but the time is not yet. The problems of the leader are not wholly solved. His past is his country's. His place in history is however to be decided by events yet unaccomplished.
This much was due to the achieved results of the life and public services of the gallant Colonel of the 21st Regiment of Ills. Vols. Those services, said Mr. Washburne, "Are familiar as household words. Look at what this man has done for his country, for humanity, for civilization—this modest, unpretending General. * * * He has fought more battles, and won more victories than any man living; he has captured more prisoners and taken more guns than any General of modern times. To us in the great valley of the West he has rendered a service in opening our great channel of communication to the ocean so that the great father of waters now goes < unvexed to the sea.' Sir, when his blue legions crowned the crest at Vicksburg, and the hosts of rebeldom laid their arms at the feet of this great conqueror, the rebel Confederacy was cut in twain and the back-bone of the rebellion broken."
THE CUMBERLAND AND TENNESSEE.
Reconnoissance«*-preparations—Battle Of Millford—Mt. Zion—Silver Creek— Columbus—Grant's Brigading Order—Other Forces—Fort Henry—Gunboats-— Land Forces—Tennessee Mud—Instructions—The Bombardment—The White Flag—The Surrender—TighlmAn And Foote—The Commodore In The Pulpit— Escape Of The Camp—Rebels—Iron-clads—Muster Of Forces For Donelson— Donelson—Defences—Rebel Commanders—Waiting For The Transports—The Gunboats—They Retire—Grimes On Admiral Foote—Seige—A Sortie—A TerRible Contest—Gen. Smith's Charge—White Flag—Floyd And Pillow—CorRespondence—Unconditional Surrender—The Victory—Its Results—Stanton's Letter—Grant's Report—The Tides Of War—Kentucky—Mcgoffin—Better And Truer Men—The Legislature—Gen. Anderson—Buckner's Attempt To Seize Louisville—Gen. Rosseau—Hegira—The Situation—Gen. Anderson Retires—"crazy Sherman"—A "bogus Convention"—"council Of Ten"— Broad Farce—A "strong Ass"—Gen. Buell—Divisions—The Second—The Third—Rowlett's Station—Mill Springs—defeat Of Marshall—Mitchell's March On Bowling Green—Crossing Barren River—Occupation—On To NashVille—Its Occupancy—A Rebel Account—Mitchell's And Buell's Forces.
THE reconnoissance made under orders of General Grant convinced him that the rebel line along the Tennessee and Cumberland could be broken, those rivers opened, the evacuation of Columbus compelled, Nashville captured, and the enemy forced to make his base elsewhere than on those water lines. Preparations were made for a grand movement which was delayed a short time, awaiting the completion of some gunboats.
Meanwhile other stirring events were transpiring. BrigadierGeneral Pope had charge of Central Missouri, and on the 18th of December, 1861, fought a spirited and successful engagement at Millford, Mo», which resulted, according to Major-General Halleck's report, in taking "thirteen hundred prisoners including three Colonels, and seventeen captains, one thousand stand of arms, one thou
THE FORCE BRIGADED. 191
sand horses j sixty-five wagons and a large quantity of baggage, tents and supplies." General Prentiss had command in North Missouri, and a portion of his force had, on December 28th, a hotly contested fight with the enemy at Mount Zion, Boon county, dispersing and driving them. On the 8th of January, 1862, Major Torrence of the 1st Iowa Cavalry attacked and defeated a rebel force at Silver Creek, Missouri.
Columbus, Kentucky, is situated upon the Mississippi River, about twenty miles below Cairo. It was seized by General Polk, September 4th, and so fortified as to be termed the "Rebel Gibraltar." Naturally strong for defence, it was made almost impregnable by massive works and heavy guns. Of course it closed the Mississippi to navigation as effectually as though its waters had become solid rock. Its possession was indispensable to the Union armies, but it was to be taken by those tactics which since became so unpleasant at Chattanooga and Atlanta. The capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson was to uncover its rear, and compel its abandonment by the forces of General Polk. The gunboat fleet was being pressed to completion during the months of November, December and January, and thorough reconnoissances were made toward Columbus, some by water, and one in force by land, causing the Confederates to concentrate their forces for the defences of their Gibraltar.
General Grant had matured his plan for the campaign of the Tennessee and Cumberland, and it is to be remembered that his troops occupied the ports of Paducah and Smithfield at the mouth of those rivers. He issued the following order for brigading them:
"Head-quarters, District Op Cairo, "Cairo, February 1, 1862. "[General Order No, 5.]
"For temporary government, the forces of this military district will be divided and commanded as follows, to wit:
"The First Brigade will consist of the Eighth, Eighteenth, Twenty-seventh, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first Regiments of Illinois Volunteers, Schwartz's and Dresser's batteries, and Stewart's, Dollin's, O'Harnett's, and Carmichael's cavalry. Colonel R> J. Oglesby, senior colonel of the brigade, commanding.
"The Second Brigade will consist of the Eleventh, Twentieth, Forty-fifth, and
Forty-eighth Illinois Infantry, Fourth Illinois Cavalry, Taylor's and McAllister's Artillery. (The latter with four siege-guns.) Colonel W. H. L. Wallace commanding.
"The First and Second Brigades will constitute the First Division of the District of Cairo, and will be commanded by Brigadier-General John A. McClernand.
"The Third Brigade will consist of the Eighth Wisconsin, Forty-ninth Illinois, Twenty-fifth Indiana, four companies of artillery, and such troops as are yet to arrive. Brigadier-General E. A. Paine commanding.
"The Fourth Brigade will be composed of the Tenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-second, and Thirty-third Illinois, and the Tenth Iowa Infantry; Houtaling's battery of Light Artillery, four companies of the Seventh and two companies of the First Illinois Cavalry. Colonel Morgan commanding.
"General E. A. Paine is assigned to the command of Cairo and Mound City, and Colonel Morgan to the command of Bird's Point.
"By order of U. S. Grant, Brig.-Gen. Commanding.
"john A. Rawlins, A. A.-G."
This order was published, and no pains taken to prevent its falling into the hands of the rebels, but it was not published that there were divisions organizing under Generals C. F. Smith and Lew. Wallace at Paducah and Smithland. Preparations were made for a combined land and naval attack upon Fort Henry, situated on the Tennessee River, near the Kentucky and Tennessee line. It stands on low ground, above high-water mark, just below a bend in the river, and at the head of a straight stretch of about two miles and commands the river for about that distance. It was a bastioned earth-work enclosing about two acres. It mounted seventeen guns including one ten-inch columbiad, throwing a roundshot of one hundred and twenty-eight pounds weight, one breech-loading rifle gun, carrying a sixty-pound elongated shot, twelve thirty-two pounders, one twenty-four pounder, rifled, and two twelve-pounder siege guns. Most of the guns were pivoted, and capable of being played in any direction. It was encompassed by a deep moat, and strongly garrisoned and deemed capable of resisting any assailing force, however formidable.
Late on Saturday night, February 1st, the gunboats St. Louis, Cincinnati, Carondolet, Essex, Tyler and Lexington, left Cairo and proceeded to the mouth of the Tennessee at Paducah, when they were joined by the Conestoga. The fleet was commanded by Commodore, later Rear-Admiral, A. H. Foote, as gallant a seaman