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The time having arrived" (an Independent Phrase).


The having arrived

.Is an Element in the PHRASE-AN ADJUNCT-WORD-ADI





arrived.. SEQUENT―a PART. (participle)—INTRAN. (intransitive).

4. To bestow many favors (an Infinitive Phrase).

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To...... .Is an Element in the PHRASE-PRINCIPAL ELEMENT-the LEADER-a PREP. (preposition).

Bestow....Is an ELEMENT in the PHRASE-PRINCIPAL ELEMENT—a part of the SUBSEQUENT—A VERB-INFIN. (infinitive) ModeTRANS. (transitive).

Many.. .Is an Element in the PHRASE―an ADJUNCT-ADJ. (adjective). Favors.. ..Is an Element in the PHRASE-PRINCIPAL ELEMENT-a part of the SUBSEQUENT OBJECT-WORD-NOUN.

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REM.-Exercises like the above are well calculated to prepare the Student for Exercises in Syntax; and when he shall have learned the Rules of Syntax, he should combine the above Exercises with the application of those Rules.

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES-Sentences and Phrases.

1. "A mortal disease was upon her vitals, before Cæsar had passed the Rubicon." (See Diagram, p. 41.)

2. "The fur that warms a monarch, warmed a bear."

3. "I have a temple in every heart that owns my influence.”

4. Much learning shows how little mortals know. (See p. 43.)

5. "He that getteth wisdom, loveth his own soul"

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I. Of the Principal Elements.



RULE 1.-The Subject of a Sentence must be in the Nominative Case.

OBS. 1.-The Subject of a Sentence is always Substantive in its office. (See p. 25, OBS. 2.)

A Word,

OBS. 2.-The Subject of a Sentence may be A Phrase, or


A Sentence.

(a) Noun....1. "Virtue secures happiness."

1. A Word. (b) Pronoun. 2. "He plants his footsteps in the sea."

2. A Phrase


3. A Sentence



"His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil power."

4. "

To give good gifts and to be benevolent,

are often very different things." ..5. "That all men are created equal, is a self-evident truth."

REM.—Whatever is peculiar to Pronouns, is discussed under the RULE for Pronouns. We now proceed to discuss what is common to Nouns, Pronouns, Phrases, and Sentences, considered as Subjects of Sentences.

OBS. 3.-The Subject of a Sentence may be ascertained by its answering to the Interrogatives Who? or What? placed before the Predicate. Thus, in the Examples above

What "secures happiness?".



Who "plants his footsteps in the sea?"....Ans.-" He."

What "prevented his rising to

civil power?"..


Ans.- -“ His being a minister.”


What "is a self-evident truth?". . Ans.-"That all men are createa

What "are often different things?" Ans.-" To give good gifts and

to be benevolent."


OBS. 4.-A Subject Word must be a Noun or a Pronoun.


OBS. 5.-Because English Nouns are not varied in form to denote the Case (except for the Possessive), much attention is required in giving them their proper position in a Sentence. (See REMARK 1, p. 180.)


NOTE 1.—In position, the Subject of a Sentence commonly precedes the Verb.

EXAMPLES.-1. Animals RUN.

2. Resources ARE DEVELoped.

3. Virtue SECURES happiness.

4. "The King of Shadows LOVES a shining mark."

5. "The sword and the plague-spot with death STREW the


EXCEPTION 1.-In Interrogative Sentences, the Subject is placed after the Verb, when the Verb constitutes a complete Predicate.

EXAMPLE." Heeds HE not the bursting anguish ?"

EXCEPTION 2.-When the Predicate consists of two Verbs, or a Verb and a Participle, Adjective, Noun, &c., the Subject is placed after the first word of the Predicate.

EXAMPLES.-IS HE injured?-Is SHE kind?-Is HE I leave thee?


EXCEPTION 3.-The Subject follows the Predicate, or the first Word of the Predicate, in the declarative Sentences.

When the Conjunction if, used to introduce a conditional or modifying Sentence, is omitted.

EXAMPLE." Dost THOU not, Hassan, lay these dreams aside,

I'll plunge thee headlong in the whelming tide" EXCEPTION 4.-When the word there is used to introduce the Sentence.

EXAMPLES.-1. "There is a CALM for those who weep."


"There breathes not a soUND, While friends in their sadness are gathering round.”

EXCEPTION 5.-When the Verb is in the Imperative Mode.

EXAMPLE.-" Turn YE, turn YE at my reproof."

EXCEPTION 6.-By the poets and public speakers, for rhetorical effect. EXAMPLES.-1. "Loud peals the THUNDER."

2. "Perish the groveling THOUGHT.'

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OBS. 1.-But the Interrogatives, who, which, and what, used as Sub jects, precede their Verbs.

EXAMPLES." WHO will show us any good?"

"WHAT can compensate for loss of character?"

"WHICH shall be taken first?"

OBS. 2.-When one word includes in its signification many others, expressed in the same connection, the general term is the proper Subject of the Verb; and the included terms may be regarded as explanatory, and, therefore, independent in construction. (See Independent Case, p. 85.)

EXAMPLE.—“ All sink before it—comfort, joy, and wealth.”

Some teachers prefer to supply the ellipsis-which is not improper. OBS. 3.-The Subject of an Imperative Verb is commonly suppressed. EXAMPLE."[ ] Take each man's censure, but [] reserve thy judgment."

OBS. 4.-But it is sometimes expressed.

EXAMPLE." Go ye into all the world."

OBS. 5.-It is sometimes accompanied by an explanatory word. EXAMPLE." Ye rapid FLOODS, give way." (See "Independent Case.")

NOTE II.--Unnecessary repetition of the Subject should be avoided.

OBS. 1.-This principle is violated in the following Example:

"His teeth, they chatter, chatter still."

OBS. 2.-But this practice is allowable, when necessary to a proper rhetorical effect.

EXAMPLES.-Our Fathers, where are they? And the Prophets, do they live for ever!

OBS. 3.-The agent of an action expressed by an Infinitive Verb, may be in the Nominative or the Objective case.

1. I purpose to go.

2. I invited HIм to go.

OBS. 4.-The agent of an action expressed by a Participle, may be in the Possessive or the Objective Case.

1. I heard of YOUR going to Boston.

2. The plowing of the WICKED is sin.

REM.-But these "Agents" are not to be regarded as Subjects of Sentences. [See "Infinitive" and "Participles," below.]

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2. "Writing letters constitutes my most agreeable employment."

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OBS. 5.—A Subject Phrase constitutes one distinct Element in the structure of a Sentence, and should be construed and parsed in the same manner as a Subject Word. Thus,

In Sentence (1), "To steal" is a Phrase-in form, Infinitive;

the Subject of "is base."


in office, Substantive; for it is

"Writing letters” is a Phrase—in form, Participial;

ject of "constitutes employment."

in office, Substantive; for it is the Sub

OBS. 6.—After a Phrase as such has been parsed, it should be analyzed, by resolving it into its constituent Elements. Thus, in the Phrase "to steal," "to" is a Preposition. The Leader of the Infinitive Phrase "steal," is a Verb, Infinitive Mode-the Subsequent of the Phrase, and Object of the Preposition "to."

And, in the Phrase "writing letters," "writing" is a Participle—the Leader of the Participial Phrase. "Letters" is a Noun,-the Subsequent of the Phrase, and Object of the action expressed by "writing."


OBS. 7.--The Phrases commonly used as Subjects of Sentences, are the Infinitive and the Participial--Prepositional and Independent Phrases boing seldom thus used.—(Seo CLARK's Analysis, page 109, note.)

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