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On the eye.
his revelation of the fatherly character have seen, that every eye is a true ope of the Supreme Being and his pro- tical instrument, on the ground of mises of boundless mercy. But, above which light delineates, or paints in all, death seemed to the eye of sense mjuiature, the portrait of every object and natural reason as an all-subduing, situated in the presence of the spectaeternally-victorious foe, Jesus Christ tor. Of all the subjects of observaby his doctrine, and especially by his tion with which nature every where resurrection, shewed that the king of abounds, it may justly be said of this terrors was vanquished, and brought organ, that there is none which more life and immortality to light. In the forcibly exbibits in its structure the divine plans, death was the conse marks of infinite intelligence. quence of sin, and immortality was Having in our last given a descripthe consequence of Christ's righteous tion of the eye and of its several parts, submission to death. Through sin, we shall now endeavour to account the human race lay under the sentence for the manner in which vision . is of mortality, but through the divine achieved. From all the points of mercy, made kuown and administered any object that presents itself to the by “ the mediator of the better cove. eye, there proceed rays that diverge nant," the sentence and curse were in every direction, but of these rays removed, a general acquittal was pro- those only that enter the eye through claimed and “ everlasting righteous- the pupil have any effect in producing ness was brought in. “ The wages of vision. By means of these a complete sin is death,” but the gift of God is image of the object is formed on the eternal life, through Jesus Christ, our bottom of the eye; but the image Lord."
made or painted on the retina is reEPISCOPUS. versed, in consequence of the circum
stance that the rays proceeding from Natural Theology. No. III. points situated on different sides of
the middle point, cross one another (Continued from p. 104.) on passing through the pupil. How He that formed the eye, shall he not see? this is effected may be seen by taking WE ancient philosophers had the eye of an ox recently killed, and
very imperfect notions of the stripping it of its sclerotica behind. manner in which vision is effected. If in this state the eye be placed in a They simply knew, in general, that hule made in the window-shutter 'of the eyes were the instruments of it. a dark room, with the corner outImperfect, however, as were their wards, we shall see in the transpaideas on the subject, the wisdom and rent membranes of the opposite part foresight manifested in the operation, distinct images of the exterior objects. and in the structure of the organ, did This truth admitted, viz. that the not escape their observation. They instant an object is before the eye, admired the position of the eye, in the that object has its portrait on the most elevated part of the head, whence, bottom or back of the organ; it like a centinel, it could overlook a should seem that vision required no multitude of objects with a single farther illustration, but that we may glance. They admired its extreme be led to suppose that our eyes are mobility and the case with which it already trained, and that the mere could be turned in every possible di- presence of objects is sufficient for the rection, and thus, as it were, multi- impressions made on the retina and ply itself by the variety of its seusa- transmitted by the optic nerve to the tions. They admired the suppleness brain, to enable the mind to repreof the lids, ready at all times to cover sent those objects to itself precisely the eyes as with a veil, to protect as they are, and in the places where them from the impression of too vivid they are. It will however, upon relight or the attack of exterior objects, flection, be quite evident that some-. or to aid the power of sleep over the thing more is necessary, considering whole frame. But these and other that the image which is painted on observations of the same kind, relate the retina is a simple surface figured only to neighbouring circumstances; and coloured, without relief, and is the intimate mechanism of vision they moreover the result merely of the had not thought of penetrating. It is action which the extremities of the now completely ascertained, as we rays that touch iť exert on the organ,
and has no connexion of itself with At the same time that the sense of the opposite extremities, where the feeling instructs the eye with regard body which is the object of vision is to the images of objects, it exercises situated. Philosophers have hence it also in the art of estimating their been led to suspect that there existed position in space, their size, and their some intermediate agent, serving to distance; and when this distance ex, connect the impressions produced by ceeds that to which the motion of the the rays which bodies send to the eye, hand extends, we supply the defect with the modifications of those bodies by another exercise, which consists themselves. They imagine that touch, in approaching towards the object till or the sense of feeling is in some way we touch it, and then receding from or other instrumental in instructing it again; and by the extent of these the eye and enabling us to correct the contrary movements we ascertain its errors into which we should be led distance with a degree of accuracy hy this organ when left to itself. This quite sufficient for all common purhas been explained after the following poses. When the object exceeds the manner, by M. Condillac, in Iris compass of our ordinary movements, $* Traité des Sensations."
the proportions we are accustomed to Our first lessons are derived from remark serve as rules by which to the various motions which the hand apply to more remote objects the immakes that has its own image in the pressions that are made upon us; but bottom of the eye. While in turns it as the distance increases, circumstances approaches nearer to or withdraws become less favourable to such appli, farther from this organ, it teaches us cations, and beyond a certain limit to refer to a greater or less distance objects present themselves more or less to one place than to another, the im- under a deceitful appearance, and we pression that is produced on the retina, are led into that kind of errors called from the knowledge we have of the optical delusions. position of the hand, and of the direc- Having given this brief account of tion and extent of every movement, the manner, or supposed manner of which it makes. . While one hand vision, we shall proceed to observe, passes over the other, it conveys, in that we cannot contemplate the struca manner, over its surface, the colour ture and uses of this organ without of which the impression is in the eye; admiration of the power, the wisdom, it circumscribes this colour within its and the goodness of the Creatar, eslimits, and excites in the mind the pecially when we consider the prodi, representation of a body shaped in gious exactness, and exquisite skill such a manner. Afterwards when employed in every part, administering we touch different objects the hand to this noble and necessary organ, To directs the eye over the several parts pass over the arteries and veins, and of each of them, and renders the ar- other parts that are common to the rangement and respective positions rest of the body, let us reflect on its sensible to it. It acts incessantly with several muscles, which are placed, so regard to the eye, by means of the as to be adapted not only to every rays of light, as if it held one extrem- possible motion of the eye, but cach is ity of a stick, of which the other end endowed with such an exact degree of touched the bottom of the eye, and strength, as to cause the most perfoct guided this stick in succession over equilibration, by which all contorevery part of the object. It seems tions of the eye are prevented, and it even to inform the eye that the point can with the utmost readiness apply it touches is the extremity of the ray itself to every object. Again, the tuwhich strikes that organ; and thus nics or coats are so admirably seated, while it runs over the surface of the and of so firm a texture, as to fit every object, it seems to pronounce its true place, to answer every occasion, and form. When once the eyes are in to be proof against all common incon: structed, the experience they have veniences and annoyances. In the huacquired enables them to do without mours also, we find all the requisite the help of touch, and the presence clearness and transparency, for alone of objects occasions the return casy admission of the rays of light, of the same sensations when the rays well placed for refracting them, ani proceeding from those objects make formed, by the nicest laws of optice, similar impressions on the organ,
to collect the wandering rave into a
point. To this may be added the &c. that have occasion to watch and structure of the darkened cell, in way-lay their prey both by day and . which these curious humours lie, and night, and to look upwards and dowuinto which the glories of the heavens wards in the act of climbing after and the earth are brought and ex- their food or to avoid danger. quisitely pictured, which cell is per- With respect to the means adapted! fectly adapted, by means of its tex- to the protection of this curious organ ture, aperture and colour to guard off we may quote the words of Cicero from without, all useless and noxious De naturú Deorum. “ The eyelids," rays, and within it is extremely well says this philosopher, “which are the coated with a dark tegument, that it coverings of the eyes, are soft to the may not reflect, dissipate, or any way touch that they may not hurt the confuse or disturb the beneficial rays. sight, and are fitted both for veiling According to Descartes, this black and opening the pupils with thegreatness is intended to obscure the rays est celerity. They are defended by which are reflected from the bottom the eye-lashes, as by a palisade which of the eye to its forc-part, and which prevents any thing from falling into would otherwise be thrown back again them while the eyes are open; and upon the bottom, and thus occasion closing together in sleep, the eye is a confused vision. Another reason at rest under their covering. They has been assigned for this colour, viz. are likewise most admirably placed that the superfluous rays which pro- under shelter, and are guarded on all ceed from lateral objects may be ab- sides by more prominent parts. The sorbed. Hence illuminated objects are upper eye-lids covered by the eyebest seen from a dark station, because brows are screened from the perspithe rays proceeding from them are ration falling down from the forehead; not obliterated by circumambient the under eye-lids are defended by the light.
cheek-bones which rise higher than It has been observed by the honour- their surface.” It is remarkable also, able Mr. Boyle and by others who that the hairs of the eye-lashes grow have discoursed on the wisdom and only to a certain length, and never goodness of the Almighty from the stand in need of cutting like the hair structure of the human frame, that as on the head : again, their points stand we are under the necessity of using completely out of the way: those in optic glasses, so nature, meaning by the upper lid bend upwards, while the term, the God of nature, has made those in the lower lid decline downa far more complete provision in the wards. From these circumstances, eyes of animals, to shut out too much, we may learn how critically exact and to admit sufficient light, by the the great Author of Nature has been dilatation and contraction of the pupil; in even the least and most trivial conand it may be farther noted that these veniences belongiug to every part of pupils are in different animals of dif- the animal frame. Did our plan adferent forms according to their pecu- mit of figures we would farther shew liar occasions. In some, particularly the curious structure and lodgment of in man, it is round, that being the the muscle which is used in opening most proper figure for the position of the eye-lids, and of another, or circuour eyes, and the uses we make of cular one, used in closing them, and them on all occasions. In some ani. we would gladly point out the nice mals it is oblong, and large, as in the apparatus of glands that keep the eye cow, sheep, horse, &c, which is an moist, and serve for tears, and other admirable provision for such creatures circumstances which anatomists have to see the better laterally, and thereby noticed with wonder and delight. avoid those things that might offend thein. In other animals the figure of the pupil is erect, and also capable of
Some Account of Cheynell's opening wide and shutting up close.
Growth and Danger of SocinianThe latter of which serves to exclude
isme." the brighter light of day, and the for
(Continued from p. 83.) mer to take in the more faint rays Chapter I. of this curious pam- thinly scattered about in the night, phlet is entitled, “ Of the Rise of Sowhich is an admirable provision for cinianisme." Cheynell attributes this those animals, as the cat, squirrel, malignant heresy to“ the spirit of an.
tichrist," which even in the apostles' notice of him ;” and “as for Servetus.'' time led “Cerinthius and Ebion to he adds, “ I will not staine my paper blaspheme Christ.” The divine, who with his blasphemies.” It is much as one of the famous Assembly was questioned,” he allows,“ whether the empowered to determine the standard Senate of Geneva did not deale too of orthodoxy for nations and ages, was severely with him,” but he quotes so little versed in ecclesiastical history Beza to shew that considering his heas to believe that the founder of the resy, his admonitions by Calvin and Ebionites was a teacher of the name others, and his obstinacy, he was put of Ebion. Ostorodus, whom he quotes to death most justly. Such was the in the following sentence, might have spirit of this member of the Assembly set him right, if he had been capable of divines who had a chief hand in of learning either truth or history, in settling the creed of our self-named what relates to “ Socinianisme :"- orthodox brethren of the present day! “ Ostorodus would not have the name “ The Senate of Geneva," lie further of Ebionites imposed upon the Socin- says, were in good hope by this exians, quia vox Ebon Hebraicè egenum emplary punishment upon Servetus significat. Præf. Inst. pag. 10, 11; to crush this cockatrice's egg and kill it seemes they would not be counted the viper ; but for all this some undermean-conditioned men : and there are hand and others more boldly and imsome indeed, and those no beggers pudently did seduce the people.” (unlesse it be at court) who are too In the true temper of a persecutor, much addicted to Socinian fancies : Cheynell expatiates with savage joy and yet if that be true which Osto- on the melancholy history of Valenrodus cites out of Eusebius, that the, tinus Gentilis, who was burnt for heEbionites were so called because they resy at Berue, in 1566 : † he even had a mean and beggarly opinion of abuses the Papists because they had Christ, sure the Socinians might be before this event forgiven and released well called Ebionites, for none have Gentilis, when he was in their power. baser and cheaper thoughts of Christ, He next pursues the two Socinuses than they."
through several pages. Having quoted After specifying and stiginatizing a passage from the works of Faustias Arians, Photinians, Samosatenians, Socinus concerning his uncle Lalius, Eutychians, &c. down to “Sadducees, he says,_“I am at this great paines of Papists
, Anabaptists, Schwenckefel- transcribing, because Socinian books dians, Antinomians,” with all of whom are so dear, every man will not pay a the Socinians are represented as agree- yroat a sheete, the price that I am ing in their worst heresies, Cheynell forced to, onely that I may declare the adds, “ But I must not in my haste truth,” Amongst “ the tricks and forget Abelairdus, or as Platina calls devices" of Faustus Socinus, he reckhim, Baliardus, as Bernard, Abai- ons this, that he “pretended, just as our lardus, his name in our English translator here" (alluding to Mr. Webtongue may be Balard; he flourished berly) “ to be a Reformer of the Reabout the year 1140; he had a very formers, nay, of the Reformation itready discoursing wit, and is by some selfe.” He describes a book of Socivoiced to be the first founder of nus's, which he confesses he never schoole-diviuity; whether he main- saw, as a pestilent one, “in which he tained all those heresies which Ber- hath most cunningly vented bis poinard layes to his charge I shall not son,” viz, De S. Scripturæ Authorinow stand to dispute, there is some tate, which, Cheynell goes on to say, cause of doubt; Abeilard lived to Calovius tels us is one of his most make his apology, and if it was but subtile pieces, and seemes to be one an honest recantation, he hath made of his first Essayes : Dominicus Lopez some amends."
a Jesuit, was so taken or mistaken Cheynell next takes notice of Pos- with it, as to print it in the yeare, tellus, though he says, he “ shall not 1588." Dominicus Lopez is not the doe him so much honour as to take only Trinitarian who has been taken,
For an account of Abelard, see the * See an account of this murder, M. extract, p. 136, &c. from Turner's History Repos. iii. 309-312, in an article furof England.
nished by the late Rev.S. Palmer.
or to give the member of the Assem- books—of these, however, we shall bly of Divines his pun, mistaken with take no account, as we have hereafter Socinus's tract on the “ Authority of to extract some particulars from anoScripture;" it was translated into ther pamphlet of Cheynell's, directed English by Combe, in 1732, with a entirely against that renowned Prorecommendation by Bp. Smallbrook, testant advocate. and a dedication to Queen Caroline.* The dangers of Socinianisme are, its
Chap. ii. on “ The growth of So- doctrines of the right of private judge cinianisme," is very short and scanty. ment, the nullity of Fathers or Coun« Ill weeds thrive apace," says Chey- cells, the sufficiency of scripture, the nell; and he instances, in whole resurrection not the resurrection of congregations submitting themselves the same body, the salvableness of to the Socinian yoake in Sarmatia,” heretics and all honest virtuous perand in there soon being “ some hun- sons, and the duty of a Catholic, as dreds of congregations infected in opposed to a sectarian, spirit. Transylvania;" for these facts he quotes is Socinians" concludes this WestCalovius, a celebrated Anti-Socinian minster divine; "are not to be suffered writer. From the same Calovius, in any state, for they will not shew Cheynell borrows some abuse of Pe- any obedience or respect to magis. truo Steinins or Statorius, a popular trates; they say, they have no power missionary preacher, “ by whose un- to punish hainons offenders in time of happy eloquence the sublimest subtil- peace, nor have they power to defend tiey of Socinus which transcended themselves or the people by swords vulgar capacities were so explained in time of warre. But especially, they and smoothed in a popular but plau- charge the magistrates to beware how sible way that the most refined notions they meddle with good honest here: were made familiar to the common peo- ticks, for all hereticks in the opinion ple.This blasphemous wretch did of Arminians and Socinians (who travaile ab extremú Silesiæ ora in inti- speake favourably in their own cause) man Lithuaniam, that he might spread are good pious men." his errors, though he did thereby of- Cheynell here refers to and misreten endanger his life : he lived a long presents the opinions of some of the time, he was about 60 years of age Polish brethren, who held, surely in when he died.”
the spirit of the New Testament, that “ The danger of Socinianisme" is all war is unlawful and that capital the title of Chap. III. Cheynell here punishments are unwarranted by the says, in a style that has come down laws of God and nature. To his futo the present times, that Socinians are rious spirit these gentle; benevolent pot Christians, and that he “cannot sentiments appeared perfectly ridicu. but blot out Smalcius his name out lous, as they did to the great body of of the white roll of Christians, if it the divines of that age, who were true were but for that one blasphemy, members of “ the Church Militant here Christianus esse potest qui divinam below," which also Cheynell accuses Christi essentiam negut, i. e. he may the Socinians of disowning. In fact, be a Christian who denies the divinė the Presbyterian ministers of this time nature of Christ,
were as much heads of a political as Socinians are said to - set open a of a religious party; they preached tvide gap to Atheisme, by denying and prayed politically, and their lives that the soule of man can possibly so were employed (until by the Restora. subsist by itselfe after this life as to bc tion another set of state divines were capable of joy or torment, of reward placed uttermost) in promoting the or punishment; they may,” adds this cause of a faction. Modern Dissencensor," when they please, speak ters are apt to look back to the Westplain English and say that there is minster divines with awe, as prodi: neither heaven nor hell."
gies of purity and piety ; but in reality In this and the subsequent chapters no class of ministers were ever deeper are strictures on Mr. Chillingworth's involved in worldly schemes and po
litical intrigues and struggles for pow. * See “ A Plea for Unitariani Dissen- triots, though that is diminished by
er. They deserve some praise as paters." By Robert Aspland. 2nd ed. 12mo, their inconsistency in shrinking frost P: 76. Note us