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himfelf to the level of a tithe dealer. And funk fo low, he inevitably lofes all that influence wherewith the fanctity of his character had invefted him, and which a propriety of conduct would have infallibly fecured.

There is another caufe which immediately tends to distress the clergy, and remotely to ftop the progrefs of agriculture. The House of Commons in one of thofe frantic fits, to which all popular affemblies are incident, paffed a vote, fome twenty or thirty years ago, whereby, any lawyer was declared an enemy to his country, who Thould appear as council for the recovery of a due called Agiftment or Herbage, which had ever been paid in lieu of the tithe of grass. But as this vote had the fanction of only one branch of the legislature, it could neither affume the form of a law, nor be binding upon those who paffed it, but during their political exiflence as a parliament. It has, nevertheless, to all intents and purpofes, acquired the force of a law; for the claim is totally relinquished.

Now if the parfon alone had fuffered by this moft iniquitous decifion, one might be brought to believe that no great harm had been done by it. But this very vote contributes to repress industry, and to waste the country. Whereas, if the parfon had been allowed to receive that herbage to which he was intitled, agriculture might have been revived, and depopulation reftrained. Herbage would have acted as a premium upon tillage, by being a tax upon palturage.

Thus you may obferve, that a rich grazier, who pays perhaps ten thousand pounds a year rent, may not be subject to as much tithe, as a wretched cottier, who holds but ten acres of land. No wonder then, that both the clergy and the poor fhould be equally diftreffed. And as little wonder, that infurrection fhould rear its head in this illfated country; the first landlords of which are abfentees, the fecond either foreftallers or graziers, and where the only tiller of the ground stands in a third, and fometimes in a fourth degree from the original proprietor. Something fhould be thought of, fomething done, to refore the rights of human nature, in a country almost ufurped by bullocks and fheep.'

The rifing of the Oak-boys proceeded from a very different caufe; and the diforder has long ceafed, by the application of a proper remedy to the complaint.

The highways in Ireland,' fays the Author, were formerly made and repaired by the labour of the housekeepers. He who had a horse, was obliged to work fix days in the year, himself and horfe: he who had none, was to give fix days labour. It had been long complained, that the poor alone were compelled to work; that the rich had been exempted; that inftead of mending the public roads, the fweat of their brows had been wasted on private roads, useful only to the over. feers. At length, in the year 1764, in the most populous, manufacturing, and confequently civilized part of the province of Uifter, the inhabitants of one parish refused to make more, of what they called job roads. They rofe almoft to a man, and from the oaken branches which they wore in their hats were denominated Oak boys. The difcontent being as general as the grievance, the contagion seized the neighbouring parishes. From parishes it flew to baronies, and


from baronies to counties, till at length the greater part of the province was engaged.

The many-headed monster being now roufed, did not know where to ftop, but began a general redrefs of grievances, whether real or imaginary. Their first object was the overfeers of roads; the fecond the clergy, whom they refolved to curtail of their perfonal and mixed tithes; the third was the landlords, the price of whofe lands, particularly of turf bogs, they fet about regulating. They had feveral inferior objects, all which only difcovered the frenzy of infurrection.

• In the mean time, the army was collected from the other provinces; for till then, the province of Ulfter was deemed fo peaceful, that scarcely any troops were quartered in it. The rabble fled as foon as fired upon; and thus was this tomult quelled for the time, in five or fix weeks after its commencement, with the lofs of only two or three lives. In the next feffion, parliament took the matter into confideration, and very wifely repealed the old Road Act, and provided for the future repair of the roads by levying an equal tax off the lands of both poor and rich. The cause of difcontent being thus happily removed, peace and quiet have returned to their old channels.'

The infurrection of the Steel-boys was temporary likewise, and as fpeedily fuppreffed as the former, though by different means. The occafion of it was this:

• An absentee nobleman, who enjoys one of the largest eftates in this kingdom, instead of letting it, when out of leafe,-which it happened to be altogether about five or fix years ago,-for the higheft rent, which is the ufual way in Ireland, adopted a new mode, of taking large fines and small rents. It is afferted, that those fines amounted to fuch a fum, that the want of the usual circulating cash, carried away to England, severely affected the linen markets of that country. But, be this as it may, the occupier of the ground, though willing to give the highest rent, was unable to pay the fines, and therefore difpoffeffed by the wealthy undertaker; who, not contented with moderate intereft for his money, racked the rents to a pitch above the reach of the old tenant.

• Upon this, the people rose against the foreftallers, destroying their houses, and maiming their cattle which now occupied their quondam farms. When thus driven to acts of defperation, they knew not how to confine themselves to their original object, but became, like the Hearts of Oak, general reformers. The army however eafily difperfed them, and two or three, who were made prisoners, having suffered by the hands of the executioner, the country was foon restored to its priftine tranquility.

• Both these infurrections being in the North, the most opulent, populous, and civilized part of the kingdom, we may obferve they have no fimilitude to that of the White-boys, in the South, either in their caufes or effects, except in the general idea of oppreffion. The cause which generated the one being removed, and the cause of the other being only temporary, the duration of neither was long. The rife and fall of each was like that of a mountain river, which, fwelled


by a broken cloud, at once overwhelms all around, and then shrinks down as fuddenly into its accustomed bed.'

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But in the South, the Author obferves, White-boyism will still probably remain, in defiance of all legiflative severities, how ftrictly foever executed; as the caufe is permanent, and the fufferers fee no appearance of redrefs.- Deprived of their right of commonage, driven from the good grounds, obliged to pay five or fix guineas for an acre to fet their potatoes in, and · having no refources from manufactures, as in the North, they become conftant enemies to the ftate; the ftate not being their 6 friend, nor the ftate's law.'-It has been urged indeed that fanaticifm in the North, and fuperftition in the South, were the original fources of these evils: but if, the Author obferves, the majority of the infurgents in the North were prefbyterians, and of those who rofe in the South were papifts, it is, because the body of the poor in these places are of thofe perfuafions.

In fome of the fubfequent letters, the Author difcuffes a fubject of ftill greater magnitude; and endeavours to shew that an union, or a compleat incorporation of Great Britain and Ireland, with a perfect community of privileges, would be in the highest degree advantageous to both countries.-But we must here take leave of our intelligent traveller, and refer our readers to the work itself; where they will meet with much curious information, on a variety of fubjects.

ART. V. A Treatise on the Situation, Manners, and Inhabitants of Germany: and the Life of Agricola. By C. Cornelius Tacitus; tranflated into English, by John Aikin: with copious Notes, and a Map of Antient Germany. Warrington, printed for Johnfon, London. 8vo. 4s. bound. 1778.


AVING formerly expreffed our idea of Mr. Aikin's merit as a tranflator, it is now neceffary to affure our readers, that we find our opinion of his ability, in this fpecies of writing, confirmed, both by his judicious corrections of his former piece (which is here reprinted without the original) and by the correct verfion which he has given of the book De moribus Germanorum. Perfectly agreeing with him in thinking that it is the first duty of a tranflator to reflect his author's meaning with clearness and precision, we judge his work entitled to great commendation, for the closeness and accuracy with which it has followed the expreffion as well as the ideas of the original, without the leaft approach towards inelegance.

The great value and authority of the original treatise, are fufficiently manifeft by the ufe which some of the most eminent modern writers, particularly Montefquieu, have made of it. It has indeed always been reckoned one of the most precious relics of the political or hiftorical writings of antiquity; and (as the


tranflator juftly remarks) has been rendered more important to modern times than was probably expected by its Author, who could fcarcely foresee that the government, policy, and manners of the most civilized parts of the globe, were to originate from the woods and deserts of Germany. Valuable however as the work is, the concise manner in which it is written, gives it in many parts a degree of obscurity, which renders a faithful tranflation of this piece with judicious notes, particularly defirable: And both thefe, we can with confidence affure our Readers, they may find in the prefent publication. The following extract will, we apprehend, juftify this encomium.

In the election of kings they have regard to birth; in that of military commanders*, to valour. Their kings have not an abfolute or unlimited power +; and their generals command less through the force of authority, than of example. If they are daring, adventurous, and confpicuous in action, they procure obedience from the admiration they infpire. None, however, but the priests are permitted to chastize delinquents, to inflict bonds or ftripes; that it may appear not as a punishment, or in consequence of the general's order, but as the inftigation of the god whom they fuppofe prefent with warriors. They also carry with them to battle, images and standards taken from the sacred groves §. It is a principal incentive to their courage, that their

Vertot (Mem. de l'Acad. des Infcrip.) supposes that the French Maires du Palais had their origin from thefe German military leaders. If the kings were equally confpicuous for valour as for birth, they united the regal with the military command. Generally, however, feveral kings and generals were assembled in their wars. In this cafe the most eminent commanded, and obtained a common jurifdiction in war, which did not fubfift in time of peace. Thus Cæfar (Bell. Gall. VI.) fays, "In peace they have no common magiftracy." A general was elected by placing him on a fhield, and lifting him on the fhoulders of the by-ftanders. The fame ceremonial was observed in the election of kings.

+ Hence Ambiorix, king of the Eburones, declared that "the nature of his authority was fuch, that the people had no lefs power over him, than he over the people." Cæfar Bell, Gall. V. The authority of the North American Chiefs is almost exactly fimilar.

The power of life and death, however, was in the hands of magiftrates. Thus Cæfar; "When a ftate engages either in an offenfive or defenfive war, magiftrates are chofen to prefide over it, and exercise power of life and death." Bell. Gall. VI. The infliction of punishments was committed to the priests, in order to give them more folemnity, and render them lefs invidious.

§ This was in order further to enforce the fame idea of a divine prefence. The images were of wild beafts, the types and enfigns of their national religion (fee Tacitus's Hift. IV. 22.): the standards were such as had been taken from the enemy, and were hung up in their groves to the deity of the place.


fquadrons and battalions are not formed by men fortuitously col lected, but by the affemblage of families and clans. Near them are ranged the deareft pledges of their affection; fo that they have within hearing the yells of their women, and the cries of their children. Thefe, too, are the moft refpected witneffes, the most liberal applauders, of the conduct of each. To their mothers and wives they bring their wounds; and these are not shocked at counting, and even requiring them. They also carry food and encouragement + to those who are engaged.


Tradition relates, that armies beginning to give way have been brought again to the charge by the women, through the earneftness of their entreaties, the oppofition of their bodies 1, and the pictures they have drawn of imminent flavery §; a calamity which these people bear with more impatience on their women's account than their own; fo that thofe ftates who have been obliged to give among their hoftages the daughters of noble families, are the most effectually engaged to fidelity ¶ They even suppose somewhat of fanctity and prescience to be inherent in the female fex; and therefore neither despise their counsels ||,

Inftead of the Latin word answering to this, exigere, fome read exfugere, "to fuck the wounds." This, however, is an unauthorized reading, and lefs in the manner of the author. The word " requir ing" ftrongly expreffes the favage fortitude of the German women, who would even receive their husbands and children with reproaches, if they left the field unwounded.

+ Cibos & hortamina: "Food and encouragement"-one of the points, frequently to be met with in Tacitus, like the "mountains and mutual dread” in the first sentence of this treatise. Some annotators, not entering into this mark of character in the hiftorian's ftyle, have interpreted hortamina "refreshments"; and as food was before related, have fuppofed it to mean wine or ale. J. A.

They not only interpofed to prevent the flight of their husbands and fons; but, in defperate emergencies, themselves engaged in battle. This happened on Marius's defeat of the Cimbri (hereafter to be mentioned); and Dio relates, that when Marcus Aurelius overthrew the Marcomanni, Quadi, and other German allies, the bodies of women in armour were found among the flain.

§ Thus, in the army of Ariovistus, the women, with their hair difheveled, and weeping, befought the foldiers not to deliver them captives to the Romans. Cæfar Bell. Gall. I.

Relative to this, perhaps, is a circumftance mentioned by Suetonius in his life of Auguftus. "From fome nations he attempted to exact a new kind of hoftages, women; because he observed that those of the male fex were disregarded." Aug. XXI.

See the fame obfervation with regard to the Celtic women, in Plutarch on the virtues of women. The North Americans pay a fimilar regard to their females.

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