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the west, which is often the case, the If this is not intentional fraud, it is gales are charged with the effluvia a curious uccident in composition, and from the city of Constantinople. Nor puts me in mind of the mistakes in is the assertion true, that the Turks tradesmen's bills, which always hapthemselves have no idea of the infec- pen to be in their own favour. Now tious nature of the plague ; many of for an instance of indisputable folly. them believe it to be so, and the most The Westminster Reviewers, after enlightened of them all, the Pasha of writing two long articles to prove that Egypt, adopts a quarantine for his own the plague and all other fevers are security. When the plague is at never propagated by contagion, relate Cairo, he either retires to a garden the following case.- -A poor family, situated about two leagues from the consisting of four persons, were atcity, and surrounds himself by his tacked with malignant fever; they all troops, or he shuts himself up in a lay in the same bed in an exceedingly fortress on the other side of the Nile close and dirty apartment, where they at Gizeh."
were visited by two physicians; the In the statements of the anti-con- one, whenever he entered the room, tagionists, there are some instances of went to the window, threw it open, fraud and of folly which it is utterly observed the sick at a distance, and astonishing that the reviewer should staid a short time—he escaped the have overlooked. Can it be believed disease. The other took no precauthat the Westminister reviewers have tion, examined the skin of the paquoted Dr Russell as an authority for tients closely, and inhaled their effuthe uncontagiousness of the plague, via and breath. He was seized with although, in point of fact, he is the the disease, and died of it. This case greatest authority for the opposite opi- might be supposed to be decisive of nion. No man ever brought to bear the question ; but no, say they, it upon the subject such a combination proves that the disease is not a contaof all the requisites for a right judg- gious, but a contaminative fever. The ment about it, namely, great experi. disease, it is true, was communicated ence of the disease, great reading from the patient to the physician, but about it, and great judgment. “ Dr not by a specific contagion generated Russell," says the Westminster Re- by the body of the patient, but by the viewer, “has recorded a fact in con. exhalations from his body, rendered firmation of the non-contagious nature poisonous by being concentrated. In of this malady, which, for the singu- short, the fever was not a contagious, lar completeness of the proof it af- but a contaminative disease. It is fords, is of extraordinary value.” plain, however, that it was a commu
Who would not believe, from the nicable one, and that is the practical foregoing passage, that Dr Russell
, for question. many years physician to the British “O that such difference should be factory at Aleppo, living in the thick 'Twixt tweedledum and tweedledee." and thin of the plague-who, that did A pretty consolation this to a person previously know otherwise, would not who had been induced, by the prebelieve that he was an anti-contagion vious argument, to expose himself ist ? When I first read the above pas- without precaution to the plague, or sage, it led me into this error. I have typhus, to tell him, " True it is you shown it to several persons, and all have caught the plague from the pahave acknowledged, that if they had tients whom you have approached, but not previously known to the contrary, be of good cheer, for I am happy to it would have led them to suppose that tell you that you are dying, not of a Dr Russell was an authority for the contagious, but of a contaminative disnon-contagious nature of the plague. ease.'
TO MY BIRDIE.
Here's onlie you an' me, Birdie-here's onlie you an' me !
An' there you sit, you humdrum fool,
Sing me a little sang, Birdielilt up a little lay!
When folks are here, fu' fain are ye
The lee lang day.
'Twere sure but kind an' cozie, Birdie,
Dull Care awa!
Life's fair an' foul an' freakish weather,
Maun a' be shared
Fu' fashious loads may weel be borne,
But then, to sulk and sit sae glum-
To mend ane's losses ?
An' aiblins I—gin I mote gang
Wi' friens far hence.
Nae cantraip paig, like hers o' Fife,
Flood, fell, an' fen.
Wi' a braw pair o' bonnie wings,
High up i' th' air.
And I mysell, sae seemin' free,
Whar fain I'd gang.
Whar lavrocks hover, falcons fly,
Whar wishes stray.
There's Ane abune the highest sphere,
Marks ev'ry lot,
An' taketh heed for sic as me,
Puir witless thing !
Aff han', let's ilk ane do our best
tomed to the House, the House to him I was in the gallery of the House --the orator, though singular, became of Commons on the night when the successful and brilliant in the highest late Mr Grattan made his first speech degree ; and at the moment when it in the English Parliament. The sub- was plain that all was safe, Mr Pitt ject was Catholic Emancipation; the turned round to Mr Canning, and question was opened by Mr Fox. I clapping him on the knee, and with went at eight in the morning, waited a strong expression of delight in his at the door of the gallery, till twelve, countenance, exclaimed," It will do !" and then had my ribs nearly broken He was too great himself to be jealous in a squeeze to get in. The House of another, even of one who was to be met at four; at five Mr Fox rose; his political opponent. he spoke till after eight in a way which I need not describe. He was followed
DUKE OF WELLINGTON. by Mr Percival, then by Dr Duigenan, I have heard Lord Wellesley talk and then Mr Grattan rose. It was a about his brother, the Duke of Welstriking sight and moment. The lower lington-about his military career, and part of the House was crammed with about the peculiarities of mind which Members, so that numbers could find led to his splendid successes, and enaroom only in the upper side galleries. bled him to conquer the conqueror of The fame of his eloquence had raised the world. He said that he was the great expectations, yet repeated in opposite to a cunning man—that he stances of the failure of Irish_elo- had done all by simple manly heroism ; quence, when transplanted into Eng- and that he could not define his chaland, caused considerable anxiety, es- racter better than by the following pecially among the Irish, of whom lines in Milton's “Samson Agonistes, there were numbers in the Strangers' which ought to be placed at the foot Gallery, and still more at the outer of his pictures :door, waiting to hear the success of He all their ammunition their champion. After a pause of dead And feats of war defeats, silence he began. He was dressed if With plain heroic magnitude of mind. my eyes did not deceive me, in black, with yellow gloves—his queer person his large red face, his límbs thrown Passing through Brussels on my about in a most rapid and graceless way to the Rhine, we of course paid a way–his pronunciation, which to my visit to the plains of Waterloo. On ear sounded less like the brogue of an our way we stopped at an ugly red Irishman, than like the broken Eng- brick church, on the right side of the lish of a foreigner—his plunging head- road, where there are monuments to long into his subject without any of many of the English officers who fell the introductory remarks which are so on this occasion. We were conducted common in English oratory, and his by a grey-haired old man into the epigrammatic sentences, altogether chapel, and there, on both sides along produced a sensation so totally new the walls are inscriptions to the meto the English House of Commons, mory, of not single individuals, but that for many minutes it was doubt- whole companies. The thought that ful, among the best judges of Parlia- this splendid victory was purchased mentary eloquence, whether it would by the lives of so many in the flower not terminate in a complete failure. of their age, full of life, and joy, and During this interval of suspense, I heroism oppresses the heart. With have heard on good authority the fol- this mournful feeling we left the chalowing incident. Mr Pitt, who was pel, and were conducted through a sitting next Mr Canning, manifested dirty lane into a little shabby garden, the greatest possible anxiety ; he to see a large black stone, sacred to seemed to shrink every now and then the memory of whom ?—the Marquis when the effect of what was said bor- of Anglesea's leg—I had almost writdered on the offensive : but a few mi- ten his toe. The bathos is not merenutes passed-Grattan became accus- ly ridiculous—it is disgusting. If the
MOST OFFENSIVE OF MONUMENTS.
living owner of the leg did not direct land-thanks to the wrong-headedness it, he might have prevented it. Some of some of our physicians, and the suone has written below
pineness of others—it is worth while
knowing the means which he employHere lies the Marquis of Anglesea's limb; ed. “ As soon as I rose in the morThe devil will have the remainder of him. ning early, I took the quantity of a
nutmeg of the anti-pestilential electu
ary; then, after the dispatch of priThe origin of this substance is in- vate concerns in my family, I venvolved in complete obscurity. All that tured into a large room, where crowds we know of it is, that it is most com- of citizens used to be in waiting for monly found in lumps floating on the me, and there I commonly spent two ocean, sometimes adhering to rocks, or three hours, as in an hospital, exasometimes in the stomachs of fish- mining the several conditions and cirbut whence does it come? by what pro- cumstances of all who came thither, cess is it formed ? Everybody knows some of which had ulcers yet uncured, the history of that greasy substance and others to be advised under the called Adipocire—that on digging up first symptoms of seizure ; all which the bodies in the cemetery of St Inno- I endeavoured to dispatch, with all cent's at Paris, many of them were possible care to their various exigenfound in part converted into a sub- cies. As soon as this crowd could be stance resembling spermaceti; and that discharged, I judged it not proper to it has since been ascertained, that if the go abroad fasting, and therefore got flesh of animals, instead of undergo- my breakfast ; after which, till dinner ing putrefaction in air, undergoes the time, I visited the sick at their houses; slower changes which take place under whereupon, entering their houses, I water, in a running stream, it is gra- immediately had burnt some proper dually converted into this substance. thing upon coals, and also kept in my It is not an improbable conjecture, mouth some lozenges all the while I that Ambergris is the flesh of dead fish
was examining them. But they are which has undergone this change- in a mistake who report that physithat is marine adipocire. And this cians used on such occasions very hot conjecture is corroborated by a fact things, as myrrh, zedoary, angelica, which was lately stated in one of the ginger, &c. for many, deceived thereAmerican newspapers. A marine ani- by, raised inflammations upon their mal of gigantic size has lately been dis- tonsils, and greatly endangered their covered and dug up in the neighbour- lungs. I further took care not to go hood of New Orleans, in the groove of into the rooms of the sick when I one of whose bones was found a matter sweated, or was short-breathed with closely resembling Ambergris. This walking, and kept my mind as comanimal, which is supposed to be extinct, posed as possible, being sufficiently had been buried for an incalculable warned by such who had greviously time.
suffered by uneasiness in that respect. After some hours visiting in this man
ner, I returned home. Before dinner, I During the great Plague in Lon- always drank a glass of sack to warm don, in 1665, Dr Hodges was one of the stomach, refresh the spirits, and the persons appointed by the College dissipate any beginning lodgement of of Physicians to visit the sick. The the infection. I chose meats for my great Sydenham quitted London to table that yielded an easie and geneavoid the contagion, but at length re- rous nourishment, roasted before boilturned, apparently ashamed of his ed, and pickles not only suitable to cowardice. Many physicians volun- the meats, but the nature of the disteered their services on this occasion : temper (and, indeed, in this melanamong those was the celebrated Dr choly time, the city greatly abounded Glisson. Out of the number employed with variety of all good things of that in this benevolent task, nine perished. nature). I seldom, likewise, rose from Hodges survived, and has given the dinner without drinking more wine. following account of the means by After this, I had always many persons which he believes he preserved him- who came for advice; and, as soon as self from the infection. As we shall I could dispatch them, I again visited most likely have the Plague in Eng- till eight or nine at night, and then
concluded the evening at home, by circulation, long portions copied from drinking to cheerfulness of my old works that are little read, or translated favourite liquor, which encouraged literally from foreign writers. Being sleep, and an easie breathing through at a dinner party one day, and sitting the pores all night. But if in the day- next an author in whose writings I time I found the least approaches of had repeatedly detected this wholesale the infection upon me, as by giddiness, plagiarism, I mentioned the subject in loathing at stomach, and faintness, I general terms; and then turning to immediately had recourse to a glass of him, said, “ But perhaps the wonder this wine, which easily drove these is not that authors should practise this beginning disorders away by trans- mode of writing, but that I should piration. Yet in the whole course of wonder at it;" on which he looked the infection, I found myself ill but impudently at me, and said he belietwice, but was soon again cleared of ved so. I have met with some ridiits approaches by these means, and the culous instances of this practice. Being help of such antidotes as I kept al- led by an advertisement in the newsways by me.” In another part of his papers to look at a saddle-horse, and history of the Plague, he gives the fol- perceiving some remarkable differences lowing extraordinary account. Speak- between the description and the aniing of the nurses who attended the mal, I mentioned it to his owner, who sick, he adds, “ These wretches, out coolly told me, that not being able to of greediness to plunder the dead, write an advertisement himself, he had would strangle their patients, and copied one from an old newspaper charge it to the distemper in their which seemed something like. throats; others would secretly convey When the process of hatching chicthe pestilential taint from sores of the kens by steam was exhibited at the infected to those who were well. The Egyptian Hall, a little sixpenny pamcase of a worthy citizen was very re- phlet, descriptive of the progressive markable, who, being suspected dying growth of the chick in the egg, was by his nurse, was beforehand stripped sold at the door. It professed to be by her ; but recovering again, he came the composition of Mr-What's his a second time into the world naked.” Name ?-the inventor of the process ; (Loimologia, or an Account of the but the truth is, that it was extracted Plague in London, in 1665, by Nath. verbatim from the English copy of Hodges, M.D.)
“ The Exercitations on Generation,
by Wm. Harvey,” the discoverer of THE DEVIL'S WALK.
the circulation. But the best of the There are two kinds of plagiarisms. joke was this-after describing the ciIn one the thought is borrowed, but it catricula, that is the little white spot is clothed in new words, is adapted to near the blunt end of the yolk, where its new situation, and undergoes more the first signs of life are seen, Harvey or less of transmutation. This is a
“ and yet this first principle of kind of plagiarism which, in the pre- the egg was never yet, to my knowsent stage of literature, is and ought ledge, observed by any man. (Page to be practised, by men of the great- 82, A.D. 1653.) By an absurd blunest genius. Milton describes himself der of the person who extracted the as preparing for the composition of descriptions, this passage is preserved, his great poem, among other things, so that Mr of the Egyptian Hall, by select and attentive reading. claims the discovery of the use of the But there is another kind of plagia- cicatricula. But although there may rism, which consists in borrowing not be some excuse for hack compilers and only the thoughts, but the very words ignorant horse-jockeys, there is none in which they are expressed-stealing for writers of first-rate genius. And whole pages from writers of eminence, yet even these will sometimes stoop to not only without inverted commas, but similar acts of literary dishonesty. without the slightest hint that it is Lord Kames produced the beautiful paborrowed from any one.
I had no
rable on persecution as an original comnotion, till lately, that this mode of position of Franklin's. Franklin, duwriting with the eye and scissars, in- ring his lifetime, permitted it to circu. stead of the mind and pen, was so late as such, and it is still inserted as common as it is. I have found, in his own in his collected works ; yet it works of some celebrity and extensive is stolen from the last page of Jeremy