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this novelty of career, we add the extraordinary life and activity resulting from our rapid growth, and the earnestness of competition, which will spring from it, we have reason to predict that our country will make a call on the efforts of her sons, such as has scarce ever been felt in any other region. It will ere long, if it does not already, demand an enterprise, an energy, a courage, a manliness of character from its children, proportioned, not merely to the extent of its territories, but to the indefinitely increasing numbers of its think. ing, reasoning, voting men. The old specifics for strong government, the sword and the axe, will be here of no avail: and those who administer our affairs will be required to bring to their duty a singleness and a disinterestedness of purpose, as well as a power and skill, not called for from the inmates of the luxurious cabinets of Europe. What will be the character of the next age in this country is to be decided, not by prescriptions descending from the former, but by the direction, which may be taken by twice as many active minds as now exist in the country, influencing, modifying, and balancing each other. We are much in the wrong if the effect of this state of things be not, to give new importance in education, to the study of human nature and to the arts more immediately exercised in social intercourse, and to throw into the shade the merely speculative and learned acquisitions.
The thoughts are strange, which crowd into my brain,
Who dwelt in Patmos for his Saviour's sake,
Notwithstanding the number of people, who constantly visit Niagara from all parts of the country, yet there are, with whom it is matter of some doubt, whether a man may go beneath the falls, and live. Many, when they look upon this scene, are overcome with terror and cannot approach it. Others, of firmer nerves, venture into the ancillary droppings of this queen of waters, and, confounded by the noise, wind, and spray, and still more by their own imagination, scramble into daylight, fully persuaded'they could not have lived there a moment longer.
confidence. The scene itself is dreadful farther, and the light of the sun no longer
On a fine morning in August last, soon after sunrise, I set out with a friend and a guide to visit this sublime scene. The first thing to be done, after descending the tower of steps, is to strip ourselves of all clothing, except a single covering of linen, and a silk handkerchief tied tight over the ears. This costume, with the addition of a pair of pumps, is the court-dress of the palace of Niagara.
We passed about fifty rods under the Table rock, beneath whose brow and crumbling sides we could not stop to shudder, our minds were at once so excited and oppressed, as we approached that eternal gateway, which nature has built of the motionless rock and the rushing torrent, as a fitting entrance to her most awful magnificence. We turned a jutting corner of the rock, and the chasm yawned upon us. The noise of the cataract was most deafening; its headlong grandeur rolled from the very skies; we were drenched by the overflowings of the stream; our breath was checked by the violence of the wind, which for a moment scattered away the clouds of spray, when a full view of the torrent, raining down its diamonds in infinite profusion, opened upon us. Nothing could equal the flashing brilliancy of the spectacle. The weight of the falling waters made the very rock beneath us tremble, and from the cavern that received them issued a roar, as if the confined spirits of all who had ever been drowned, joined in an united scream for help! Here we stood,-in the very jaws of Niagara, deafened by an uproar, whose tremendous din seemed to fall upon the ear in tangible and ceaseless strokes, and surrounded by an unimaginable and oppressive grandeur. My mind recoiled from the immensity of the tumbling tide; and thought of time and of eternity, and felt that nothing but its own immortality could rise against the force of such an element.
The guide now stopped to take breath. He told us, by hollooing in our ears at the top of his voice, “that we must turn our heads away from the spray when it blew against us, draw the hand downwards over the face if we felt giddy, and not rely too much on the loose pieces of rock." With But effectually to achieve this perform- these instructions he began to conduct us, ance, it is only necessary that we have one by one, beneath the sheet. A few steps
Although the noise exceeded by far the extravagance of my anticipation, I was in some degree prepared for this. I expected too, the loss of breath from the compression of the air, though not the suffocation of the spray; but the wind, the violence of the wind exceeding, as I thought, in swiftness and power the most desolating hurricane-how came the wind there? There, too, in such violence and variety, as if it were the cave of Eolus in rebellion. One would think that the river above, fearful of the precipice to which it was rushing, in the folly of its desperation, had seized with giant arms upon the upper air, and in its half-way course abandoned it in agony.
We now came opposite a part of the sheet, which was thinner, and of course lighter. The guide stopped, and pointed upwards; I looked-and beheld the sun, "shorn of his beams" indeed, and so quenched with the multitudinous waves, that his faint rays shed but a pale and silvery hue upon the cragged and ever humid walls of the cavern.
Nothing can be looked at steadily beneath Niagara. The hand must constantly guard the eyes against the showers which are forced from the main body of the fall, and the head must be constantly averted from a steady position, to escape the sudden and vehement blasts of wind. One is constantly exposed to the sudden rising of the spray, which bursts up like smoke from a furnace, till it fills the whole cavern, and then, condensed with the rapidity of steam, is precipitated in rain; in addition to which, there is no support but flakes of the rock, which are constantly dropping off; and nothing to stand upon but a bank of loose stones covered with innumerable eels.
Still there are moments when the eye, at one glance, can catch a glimpse of this magnificent saloon. On one side the enormouse ribs of the precipice arch themselves
And, when the shadows of twilight came,
'Blow, blow ye winds, and waft us far from Xeres' glorious plain,
Then be ye calm, while I pronounce a Moor's curse on Spain.
"Thou did'st bow, Spain, for ages, beneath a Moorish yoke,
And save Asturia's mountain sons, there were none to strike a stroke;
On mountain top and lowland plain, thy fate was still the same,
Thy soldiers drew dull scymitars, and the crescent
But I hoped that the cottage roof would be
with Gothic grandeur more than one hun-| Yet feared to alight on the guarded ground.
And he delivered them into the hands of the Gibeonites, and they hanged them in the hill before the Lord; and they fell all seven together, and were put to death in the days of harvest, in the first days, in the beginning of barley-harvest.
And Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah, took sackcloth,
Hear what the desolate Rizpah said,
And her own fair children, dearer than they :
That bloomed and smiled in the court of Saul,
I have made the crags my home, and spread
And my bosom swelled with a mother's pride,
Oh, what an hour for a mother's heart,
The barley harvest was nodding white,
to come no more;
A warrior monarch rules thee now, and we give the battle o'er;
Abencarrage wakes not, when the battle trumpets
Bright eyes are in thy land, Spain, and thy virgins want no charms,
But thou art cursed to know no truth in either
heart or arms;
Their bosoms shall no pillow be, for aught is kind or brave,
But lull in mere illicit love, the sensual priest and slave.
"Thy sway shall reach to distant lands, shall yield thee gold and gem,
But a burning and a bloody sword, shall thy sceptre be o'er them,
Till vengeance meet the murderous bands, from
thine accursed shore,
And give them of the land they seek,- -a grave of
The Guadalquiver's banks shall be divested of
And Ruin's mouldering hand shall sweep to Spain's
And all her fertile regions weep the exile of the
We do assure friend J. that his rhymes are very acceptable to us, and, we doubt not, will be so to the public; wherefore we will thank him for all he may choose to send. ED.
IN the "General Gazette" of October, 1821, we find a notice of several American productions. As that journal has for its Contributors some of the most eminent German scholars of the age, it cannot but be interesting to the American public to learn how favourably the literary efforts of our countrymen are regarded by them.
“Worcester, Massachusetts, printed by Manning: Archæologia Americana; Translations and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society. Vol. I. 1820. 436 pages in 8vo.
every obstacle in the way of scientific exertion, | sisting of ballets and pieces of other kinds.
"The conviction that the preservation of the monuments of antiquity and of the researches of learned men respecting them, are worthy objects of a national institution, occasioned the foundation of the American Antiquarian Society. A new impulse has thus been given to the spirit of inquiry. Here follows in the review Mr PickerThe president of the society, Isaiah Thomas, LL. D. has given it considerable collections, and the ing's account of the manuscript dictionary learned Dr Bentley increased their collection of of Seb. Râle, which is in the library of the books with nine hundred volumes of the works of University at Cambridge. No. 2 is spoken the best German authors, the most valuable works of as a work, in which many useful obserprinted in New England, and rare and valuable vations on the pronunciation of the several Persian, Arabic, and other manuscripts; individual members are constantly sending books and curi-Greek letters have been collected by a osities. Institutions commenced under such aus- scholar who understands the subject. pices come to maturity.
This Society, which was first established in Massachusetts in 1812, and of which the origin, act of incorporation, and laws are contained from page 13 to 59 (directly after the preface, table of contents, and the list of the members), offers in this first volume of its transactions a multitude of remarkable materials and well-digested investigations, which have an interest not only for the history of this part of America, but for the history of
Here follows, in the original review, an abstract of all the communications of the gentlemen just mentioned. Their essays are called interesting and worthy of attention. The researches of Moses Fiske are also commended for their acuteness; and the "excellent map of the river Ohio" is mentioned. The reviewer laments that so few of the Indian songs are made public. A desire is expressed "to announce
soon the continuance of these valuable labours."
THE VESPERS OF PALERMO."
A new tragedy with this title, founded upon the well known Sicilian Vespers, has lately been brought out at Covent Garden theatre, but has met with an unfavourable or at best a doubtful reception from the public, and been withdrawn for revision. It is the production of Mrs Hemans, who is already known as the author of some poetry of acknowledged merit. The critics allow to this tragedy great merits of style and sentiment, and great poetical beauty. They in fact seem to attribute, in part at least, its failure on the stage to the too highly elevated strain of poetry and sentiment which is maintained throughout the piece; but which injures its effect as a theatrical exhibition.
The tragical romance of Kenilworth has been dramatized both in London and Paris. In the English drama the catastrophe is altered, and Varney is made to undergo the "1. Cambridge (in America), by Hilliard & Met- fate which in the original befals Amy Robcalf: An Essay on a Uniform Orthography for sart. What new disposition of the charthe Indian Languages of North America; by acters is made in adapting it to the ParisJohn Pickering, A. A. S. 1820. 42 pages in ian stage, we do not know; it may be 2. At the same place: An Essay on the Pronun- sumed however that there is some imciation of the Greek Language; by John Pick-portant change in the personages or inciering. 1818. 70 pages in 4to.
"It is very pleasing to observe the literary activity which is now awakening in the free states of North America. The increasing culture of the soil and improvement of its productions employ not only many hands but also many minds. When their civil prosperity shall have long been established, many will be devoted to the pursuits of found science. But even now there are on all sides symptoms of such a tendency in that happy country. On all sides societies are formed to advance the sciences (No. 1 and 2 belong to the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences). It has been said, that scientific culture will emigrate from Europe to America; that must not be. We desire rather to remove still more
dents, since the title under which it is
It appears from some of the French Journals, that in the course of the year 1823, the Parisian Theatres have exhibited not less than 217 new pieces. Of these, eight were tragedies, twenty-two comedies, one hundred and twenty-two vaudevilles, nineteen melodrames, fourteen comic operas, and four grand operas; the remainder con
NEW THEATRICAL SPECTACLE.
The Christmas pantomime at Covent Garden theatre for the present season is entitled the "House that Jack built," and is founded upon the old nursery tale of the same name. In the course of the exhibition one of the personages is represented as making an aerial voyage in a balloon from London to Paris, and during the excursion, the audience as well as the traveller are gratified with a view of the country over which the balloon passes, the Thames, the channel, &c. &c.; night comes on, and the balloon, emerging from the clouds, alights in the garden of the Thuilleries. It is said that this spectacle is the most brilliant and splendid in scenery, and the most complete in mechanical execution of any which has been presented at either of the theatres.
Α young Hungarian, named Leist, only eleven years of age, is astonishing the musical world at Paris, by his wonderful per
formances. He is remarkable both for great rapidity of fingering on the piano forte, and for a union with it of great delicacy and firmness of touch, whilst at the same time he exhibits a beauty of expression which is equalled by few performers. He also composes in the style of the greatest masters with the most wonderful facility. Since the time of Mozart, who at eight years of age astonished several of the European courts by his performances, nothing has appeared so surprising as the exhibition of the talents of the young Leist.
CONDENSATION OF GASES INTO LIQUIDS. Mr Faraday, Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution in Great Britain, has lately performed some very important and interesting experiments on the condensation of the gases into liquids. In these experiments he has been favoured with the
countenance and advice of Sir Humphrey There is considerable risk from explo-
Heat, if necessary, was applied to the end containing the materials, while the
other was placed in a freezing mixture. As the gas forms, it is gradually deposited in a liquid state in the cold end of the tube. In this way the properties of chlorine, muriatic acid, sulphureous acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, carbonic acid, euchlorine, nitrous oxide, cyanogen, and ammonia, in a liquid state, have been ascertained, with a greater or less degree of precision. The following
is a view of the results at which Mr Fara
day has arrived with regard to the colour, consistency, and specific gravity of these several gases, and of the degree of pressure and temperature which is necessary to reduce them to a liquid state.
Hydrate of Chlorine.
Muriate of Ammonia and Sulphuric Acid.
Muriatic Acid and Sulphuret of Iron.
50 Chloride of Silver saturated with Ammon. Gas.
Colour. Sp. Grav. Pres. in Atmos. Temp. Materials employed for procuring the gases.
TEMPERATURE OF THE CARIBEAN SEA AT
1o. An account of all portance, especially of Under this head, the m will be given as reporte ligencer.
2°. An account of all e
II. History of the several
PART II. C Notices of important a forming a part of the rative.
The temperature at this depth in lat. 20 III. History of the several s
and the apparatus came up in good order.
COPPERING OF SHIPS' BOTTOMS.
APPENDIX TO THE
Important state pape Remarkable trials an Statistical tables. Notices of inventions Obituary notices of d General miscellany. The excellence of
work and its certain ut ed, must be obvious. I Prof. Everett, and the tleman's name renders its probable character fluous.
This edition will conta the author has collecto of the New England S lication of the first edit together with enlarged plants of the first edit about double the quanti
Cummings, Hilliard, & press, and will shortly pu niensis, a Collection of Sir H. Davy has lately read a paper to its vicinty, with their pl the Royal Society, on the cause of the of flowering, and occas corrosion and decay of copper used for cov-Jacob Bigelow, M. D. ering the bottoms of ships. This he has and Professor of Mater ascertained to be a weak chemical action vard University.-Seco constantly exerted between the saline con- enlarged. tents of sea water and the copper, and which, whatever may be the nature of the copper, sooner or later destroys it. The remedy he has found in the application of those electrical powers and relations of bodies which have been found to exert so extensive an influence upon chemical phenomena. He finds that a very small sur-ally contained in the w face of tin or other oxidable metal in contact any where with a large surface of copper renders it so negatively electrical that the sea water has no action upon it; and even a little mass of tin brought into communication with a large plate of copper by a wire, entirely preserves the copper. Sir H. Davy is now putting this discovery into actual practice on some of the British ships of war.
BY WELLS AND LILLY,
SERMONS-By the Rev. Samuel C.
History of a Voyage to the China Sea. By John White, Lieutenant in the United States
REFLECTIONS on the Politics of An-Navy.
cient Greece. Translated from the German of Arnold H. L. Heeren, by George Bancroft.
What think ye of Christ? A Sermon preached at Newburyport, Sunday, Oct. 26, 1923. By John Pierpont, Minister of Hollis-street Church, Boston.
The Philosophy of Natural History, by William Smellie, Member of the Antiquarian and Royal Societies of Edinburgh.-With an Introduction and various additions and alterations, intended to adapt it to the present state of knowledge. By John Ware, M. D. Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The Greek Reader, by Frederic Jacobs, Professor of the Gymnasium at Gotha, and editor of the Anthologia. From the seventh German edition, adapted to the translation of Buttmann's Greek Grammar.
A Practical Treatise upon the Authority and Duty of Justices of the Peace in Criminal Prosecutions. By Daniel Davis, Solicitor General of Massachusetts.
A General Abridgment and Digest of American Law, with occasional Notes and Comments. By Nathan Dane, LL. D. Counsellor at Law. Volumes I. II. and III.
Hints on Extemporaneous Preaching. By Henry Ware, Jr. Minister of the Second Church
Sketches of the Earth and its Inhabitants; comprising a Description of the Grand Features of Nature; the Principal Mountains, Rivers, Cataracts, and other Interesting Objects and Natural Curiosties; also of the Chief Cities and Remarkable Edifices and Ruins; together with a View of the Manners and Customs of different Nations: Illustrated by One Hundred Engravings. By J. E. Worcester.
Elements of Geography, Ancient and Modern: with an Atlas. By J. E. Worcester, A. M. Stereotype edition.- [In this edition the quantity of matter has been much increased, various alterations have been made in the arrangement, and considerable changes also in all parts, the modern geography, the ancient, and the tabular views. The design has been to render the work more convenient for use, both to the teacher and the pupil. The Atlas has also been revised, and a new map of the Eastern and Middle States has been added to it.]
An Introduction to Ancient and Modern Geography, on the plan of Goldsmith and Guy; comprising Rules for Projecting Maps. With an Atlas. By J. A. Cummings. Ninth edition, with additions and improvements.
BY CHARLES EWER,
A SERIES of Lectures on the most a
proved principles and practice of Modern Surgery; principally derived from the lectures delivered by Astley Cooper Esq. F. R. S. &c. at the United Hospital of Guy and St Thomas, by Charles M. Syder.
The Hero of No Fiction; or Memoirs of Francis Barnett, the Lefevre of "No Fiction." Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary, abridged for the use of Schools; to which is added, Walker's Key to Scripture Proper Names.
BY JOSEPH T. BUCKINGHAM,
Good's Study of Medicine and Nosology. [For numerous recommendations of this celebrated and very popular work, see N. E. Medical Journal.]
BY JAMES LORING, Boston.
THE Moral Dignity of the Missionary Enterprise. A Sermon delivered before the Boston Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, on the evening of October 6, and before the Salem Bible Translation Society on the evening of November 4, 1823. By F. Wayland, Jr. Pastor of the First Baptist Church in Boston. Second edition.
BY RICHARDSON AND LORD,
A NEW and greatly improved edition of
Wanostrocht's French Grammar.
A new edition of Whelpley's Compend of General History.
Observations on the Diseases of Females
BY PHELPS AND FARNUM,
SOME Account of the Medical School in
Boston, and of the Massachusetts General Hos
tion from the Hartz. By Miss Jane Porter, author Duke Christian of Luneburg; or, Tradiof "Thaddeus of Warsaw." &c. &c. &c.
Warreniana; With Notes Critical and Explanatory. By the Editor of a Quarterly Review. [This work is said to have been written by
the "Authors of Rejected Addresses."
BY CROCKER AND BREWSTER,
THE Moral Condition and Prospects of
the Heathen. A Sermon, delivered at the Old South Church in Boston, before the Foreign Missionary Society of Boston and the vicinity, at their Annual Meeting, Jan. 1, 1824. By Benjamin B. Wisner, Pastor of the Old South Church. The Faith once Delivered to the Saints. A Sermon delivered at Worcester, Mass. October
BY CUSHING AND APPLETON, Salem.
author of "Ruins of Pæstum."
BY WHIPPLE AND LAWRENCE,
which obtained the Boylston Premium for 1822. MEDICAL Dissertation on the Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pertussis or Chin Cough,
BY A. H. MALTBY & CO.
A COMPLETE History of Connecticut,
Civil and Ecclesiastical, from the emigration of its first Planters from England in the year 1630, to the year 1764, and to the close of the Indian wars. By Benjamin Trumbull, D. D. 2 vols. 8vo.
BY WILLIAM H. CLAYTON,
LETTERS of Jonathan Oldstyle, Gent.
BY C. S. VAN WINKLE,
AHISTORY of New York, from the beginning of the World to the end of the Dutch Dynasty. By Diedrich Knickerbocker. Fourth edition. 2 vols.
BY A. FINLEY, Philadelphia.
AN elegant general Atlas, comprising 60 Maps, together with an engraved title and table of contents. Subscription price, coloured and half bound in morocco, $10.
BY CAREY AND LEA.
ELEMENTS of Therapeutics and Materia Medica. By N. Chapman, M. D. Professor
the Institutes of the Practice of Physic &c. 2 vols. 8vo. pages 1000. Price $6.
Essays on various subjects connected with Midwifery. By W. P. Dewes, M. D. Member of the American Philosophical Society, 1 vol. 8vo. pages 479. Price $3,50.
A short Treatise on Operative Surgery, describing the principal operations as they are practised in England and France, designed for students in operating on the dead body. By Charles Averil, surgeon, 1 vol. 12mo. pages 232. Price $1,12.
Flora of North America, illustrated by BOSTON Prize Poems, and other Speci- 15, 1823, at the Ordination of the Rev. L. I. Hoad-colored engravings drawn from Nature. By
mens of Dramatic Poetry.
ly. By Lyman Beecher, D. D. Second edition. W. P. C. Barton, M. D. &c. &c.