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Foreign Affairs

Of importance second only to that of of this conference and those which are to The Hague, may be reckoned the peace succeed it each year. Central

conference which closed America's Peace its labors at Washington But valuable as these provisions are for

Conference in the middle of Decem the future growth and development of the ber. The five states of Central America:

states, the most important

A Permanent Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nica

action of the conference

Peace Court ragua and Guatemala, were there repre

would seem to be the estabsented, and the results of their gathering lishment of a permanent judicial court promise a new epoch in their history. No for the settlement of controversies beless than eight treaties were signed by tween any of the Central American states. these representatives and now await rati. It is desired that the court shall reprefication by the governments involved. sent “the national conscience of Central The avowed purpose of the conference America.” To it the various governments was “to promote the unification and har are to submit all points of difference bemony of interests as one of the most tween each other. Each government is to efficacious means to prepare for the fusion name a judge for a term of five years, at of the Central American peoples into one an annual salary of $8,000. Three judges single nationality.” Provision has there must agree in a final decision on any case. fore been made for the following: The For the present this “Central American neutralization of Honduras - troops of Court of Justice," as it is named, will sit other states not being permitted to cross Honduran territory; a system of extradition which will prevent one republic being made recruiting ground for a rebellion in another; the development of a correlated system of higher education; the establishment of a Central American bureau of information; the harmonious adjustment of tariff duties and the building of a Central-American railroad to facilitate intercourse between the states. Recognizing also that for the furtherance of harmony, there must be some central authority for uniform legislation, provision is made for regular and automatic meetings of the conference. Commissions are to be appointed by each government to consider economic and fiscal matters which may be made uniform in Central America and delegates are to be appointed for a common conference to convene on ANOTHER JAPANESE LOVE LETTER TO JOHN the first day of the following January. The framing of laws affecting the com

The Big Fellow-" Very interesting! I can't read the lan

guage, but no doubt it's something affectionate." mon interests of the states will be the task

Bradley, in the Chicago Daily News

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at Cartago, Costa Rica, but it has au the illegal and despotic action of the Czar, thority to meet elsewhere, if it so desires. and appealing to the nation to refuse payAn unusual feature of the provisions is ment of taxes as long as Russia was withthat giving the court jurisdiction over out a representative government. Among questions raised by an individual of one those on trial, charged with treasonable Central American state against any of the practices, were Professor Muromtseff, contracting governments, irrespective of president of the first douma; Prince Dolendorsement of his claim by his own gov- gorukoff, vice-president; Princes Obolenernment. This exceeds the power of our sky and Shakhovsky, Count P. Tolstoi, own Supreme Court. All these provisions and several professors and lawyers idenpromise much for the future stability and tified with the Constitutional Democratic

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consequent prosperity of Central Amer- party. The spirited defense made by the ica, and it is a satisfaction to know that accused was a noteworthy feature of the our own Secretary of State, Mr. Root, was trial. They declared their indifference instrumental, with President Diaz, of to any sentence the court might impose, Mexico, in securing the holding of the con as they considered themselves answerable ference just closed.

only to the nation and to history. M. Petrunkevitch made a remarkable speech

in which he affirmed: “If we are imAn event of historic importance is the prisoned we will know that we have fultrial in St. Petersburg of the 169 members filled our mandates as true citizens of The Trial of the of the first douma, who, Russia, and that the country approves of

Signers of the upon the issuance of a de us." The forcefulness and impassioned Viborg Manifesto cree for its dissolution by character of the speeches, which were the Czar, adjourned its sessions to Viborg made in presence of the Parliament, proin Finland. There, it will be recalled, duced the impression that the judges and they issued a manifesto declaring against not the accused were arraigned.

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