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The first lesson to be learned, is the Alphabet. We nave letters and words stand for figures. Each letter represents a figure, except A, E, I, O, U, W, H, and Y. Those letters never stand for figures. In the old Roman style of Notation, frequently used in numbering the chapters of books, the letter I. stands for 1, V. for 5, &c.; but we have T stand for l, and L for 5, and use the V to represent 8. We have them represented in entire words, or in separate letters. The word tile represents 15, because the t stands for 1, and the l for 5, the vowels i and e being omitted. The vowels never stand for figures. The letter d represents figure 1, as well as the t, because it sounds nearly like t. The letter n stands for 2. The word tin represents 12, because t stands for 1, and n for 2. The word din represents 12, also, as d represents 1 the same as t. The word more stands for 34, the letter m representing figure 3, and the q standing for 4. The word vile represents 85, the v standing for 8, and the 7 for 5. The word file stands for 85, also; the letter f representing 8, as well as the v. The student must now learn what each letter stands for, throughout the Alphabet, by carefully studying the next two pages.

All the letters that represent figures, except the letter X, are printed in capitals at the top of page 12, with the figures directly under them, and the instructions below and on the following page. The student will now read this page over carefully, twice more, and then attend to the instructions on pages 12 and 13.



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Te. Ne. Me. Re. Le. Je. Ke. Fe. Pe. Ce.

Che. Que. Ve. Be. Se.
She. Ghe (hard)"


Zhe. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 0 The letters that have similar sounds, represent the same figure. The vowel e is placed after each consonant to give uniformity of pronunciation. The letters are easily learned by the ANALOGIES EXISTING BETWEEN THE FORMS OF THE

LETTERS, AND THE FIGURES THEY REPRESENT. t formed with one upright mark, resembles figure 1 n formed with two marks, stands for

2 in formed with three marks, stands for

3 r is the fourth letter of the word four,

4 I in Roman notation is 50—which with the cipher off, is 5 J is a 6 reversed, and stands for

6 k inverted, much resembles a 7,


7 f in writing, very much resembles an .

8 p is a reversed

9 c begins the word cipher, and stands for

0 The above are the primitive letters. Of the others, d sounds nearly like t, and represents figure

1 ch, or che, sounds nearly like je, and therefore represents 6 sh, or she, also sounds nearly like je, and stands for 6 zh, or z in azure, is much like je, and represents

6 g soft, as in genius, sounds like je, and stands for

6 q sounds like ke, and represents


7 g HARD, or ghe, as in geese, much like ke, stands for v sounding very nearly like fe, stands for

8 b sounds nearly like p, and represents

9 s sounds like c in cipher, and stands for

0 sounds nearly like s and c, and represents

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The student will observe, by a careful examination of page 12, what each letter represents. By an hour's study of that page, it will be well learned, so that when a letter is mentioned, the figure that it stands for, can be given readily. The letter X will now be explained. X represents 70. It stands for two figures, because it has two sounds, or articulations. X sounds like the two letters, k and s; the word tax being pronounced as if written ta ks. Now if x sounds like the two letters k and s, it must represent 70, for k stands for 7, and s for 0. When we change words to figures, or give the figures that words represent, we call it translation. A fluency of translation will be acquired by practice. After the Alphabet is committed to memory, the next thing to be learned is articulation. To articulate a word, we pronounce each one of the consonants with an e after it, always omitting h, w, and y, and all the silent letters. The word Beat is articulated by saying be, te. Now we can easily translate the word, or tell the figures that it represents, by recollecting that be stands for 9, and te for 1; showing Beat, as be, te, 91. We articulate Boat in the same way ; be, te, and translate it to 91. Fire is fe, re, 84.

A good way to practice in articulation and translation, is to take examples like those below, and on the following pages, and hold the hand, or a piece of paper, on the articulations and the figures; then, by looking at the word, pronounce the articulations and give the figures, and then remove the hand and see if you are right. In this way, try the following words: Peel, pe, le, 95. Chin, che, ne, 62. Seem, se, me, 03. Road, re, de, 41. Mate, me, te, 31. Bake, be, ke, 97. Mace, me, se, 30. Gin, je, ne, 62. Oaks, ke, se, 70. Cape, ke, pe, 79. Geer, ghe, re, 74. Wax, ke, se, 70.

After translating the above words, and this page has been read, at least three times, the learner will turn the leaf and commit the rules to memory on page 14, and follow the instructions on that and the following pages.

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