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prichio, passion or fancy, that you command or forbid them any thing. This they are capable of unler/landing; and there is no virtue they should be excited to, nor fault they should be kept from, which I do not think they may te convinced of ; but it must be by such reasons as their age and understanding are capable of, and those proposed always in very few and plain words.

The foundations on which several duties are built, and the foun. tains of right and wrong from which they spring, are not perhaps casily to be let into the minds of growo men, not us

grown men, not used to abstract cheir thoughts from common received opinions. Much less are children capable of reasonings from reinote principles. They cannot conc-ive the force of long deductions. The reasons that move them, must be obvious, and level to their thoughts, and such as may (if I may so say) be felt, and touched. But yet, if their age, temper, and inclination be considered, there will never want such motives, as may be fufficient to convince them. If there be no other more particular, yet these will always be intelligible, and of force to deter them from any fault, fit to be taken notice of in them, Priz.) That it will be a discredit and disgrace to them, and displease you.

S 82. But of all the ways whereby children are to be instructed, Examples. and their mzuners formed, the

plainest,

plainest, easiest, and most efficacious, is, to set before their eyes the examples, of those things you would have them do, or avoid ; which, when they are pointed out to them, in the practice of persons within their knowledge, with some reflexions on their beauty and unbecomingness, are of more force to draw or deter their iinitation, than any discourses, which can be made to them. Virtues and vices can by no words be so plainly set before their understandings, as the actions of other men will shew their, when you direct their observation, and bid them view this or that good or bad quality in their practice. And the beauty or uncomeliness of many things, in good and ill breeding, will be better learnt, and make deeper impressions on them, in the examples of others, than from any rules or instructions that can be given about them.

This is a method to be used, not only whilst they are young, tutto be continued even as long as they ihall be under another's tuition or conduct; nay, I know not whether it be not the best way to be used by a father, as long as he should think fit, on any occasion, to reform any thing he wishes mended in His fon; nothing finking to gently, and so deep, is to men's minds, as example. And what ill they either overlook or induge in themfelves, they cannot but disike, and be a

framed

shamed of, when it is set before them in another.

$ 83. It may be doubted, con . cerning whipping, when as the Whipping last remedy, it comes to be necessary; at which times, and by whom it fhould be done : whether presently upon the committing the fault, whilft it is yet fresh and hot; and whether parents themselves should beat their children. As to the first, I think it should not be done presently, lelt pallion miagle with it; and so, though it exceed the just proportion, yet it loses of its due weight: for even children discern when we do things in paflion. But, as I said before, that has moft. weight with them, that appears fedately to come from their parent's reason; and they are not without this distinction. Next, if you. have

any discreet servant capable of it, and has the place of governing your child, (for if you have a tutor, there is no doubt) I think it is best the finart should come imme. diately from another's hand, though by the parent's order, who should see it done;. where.. by the parent's authority will be preserved, and the child's aversion, for the pain it suf. fers, rather to be turned on the person that in.mediately inflicts. For I would have a fa. ther seldom frike bis child, but upon very urgent necessity, and as the last remedy ;

and

and then perhaps it will be fit to do it so, that the child thould not quickly forget it.

§ 84. But, as I faid before, beating is the worst, and therefore the last means to be us. ed in the correction of children, and that only in caíis of extremity, after all gentle ways have been tried, and proyed unsuccessful ; which, if well observed, there will be very seldom any need of blows. For, it not being to be imagined, that a child will often, if ever, dispute his father's prefent command in any particular instance, and the father not interposing his abfolute authority, in peremptory sules, concerning either childish or indifferenc actions, wherein his son is to have his liberty, or concerning his learning or improvement, wherein there is no compulsion to be uled : there remains only the prohibition of some vicious actions, wherein a child is capa. ble of obilinacy, and consequently can deserve beating; and so there will be but very few occasions of that discipline to be used by any one, who considers well, and orders his child's cducation as it should be. For the first seven years, what vices can a child be guilty of, but lying, or fome ill natured tricks; the repeate. ed commission whereof, after his father's die rect command against, fhall bring him into the condemnation of obstinacy, and the charo tisement of the rod ? If

any

vicious inclination in him be, in the first appearance and

instances

inftances of it, treated as it should be, first with your wonder, and then, if returning again, a second time discountenanced with the fevere brow of a father, tutor, and all about him, and a treatment suitable to the state of discredit before mentioned, and this continued till he be made fentible and alhamed of his fault, I imagine there will be no need of any other correction, nor ever any occasion to come to blows. 1 he necessity of such chaftisement is usually the consequence only of former indulgences or neglects : if vicious inclinations were watched from the beginning, and the first irregularities, which they cause, currected by thcfe gentler ways, we should feldom have to do with more than one disorder at once ; which would easily fet right, without any ftir or noise, and not require so harsh a discipline as beating. Thus one by one, as they appeared, they might all be weeded out, without any signs or memory that cver they had been there. But we letting their faults (by, indulging and humouring our little ones) grow up, till they are sturdy and numerous, and the deformity of them inakes us a. fhamed and uneasy, we are fain to come to the plough and the harrow, the fpade and the pick.ax must go deep. to come at the root; and all the force, skill, and diligence we can use, is scarce enough to cleanse the vitiated feed plat, overgrown with weeds, and restore

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