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affidavit of Thompson, who in that affidavit speaks of admissions made to him by eighteen of these seamen, to the effect that they were born in Ireland, Scotland, or England ; and by six others, to the effect either that they were Irishmen, or that Ireland or Liverpool was their home.

But of these twenty-four persons there are only seven on whose history any further light is thrown by these depositions, and every one of these seven appears to have emigrated from Great Britain or Ireland to the United States previous to the existing civil war, under circumstances from which it is prima facie to be inferred that, at the time when he took service on board the Florida, he was either a naturalized or a domiciled American. Some of them appear to have resided for many years in the United States; and two (Good and Doris) are expressly stated to have acquired the rights of citizens there, and to have voted at presidential and other elections. With respect to the rest of the crew there is nothing whatever to show that they may not have enlisted under similar circumstances,

As to all persons so situated, we think that it would be a reasonable construction of the foreign enlistment act to hold that, although they are natural-born subjects of Her Majesty, the word “ foreign,” which pervades the first section of the statute, is not, as regards them, applicable to the service into which they have entered. And even 'assuming that this construction might not be admitted, we think that it would not be a proper exercise of discretion on the part of the Crown to attempt to put the statute in force, so far as relates to acts done by persons so situated beyond the limits of British jurisdiction, and within the territory in which such persons may have been naturalized or domiciled. (Signed)


R. P. COLLIER. LINCOLN'S INX, October 20, 1863.


any kind.

The Florida was a vessel built at Liverpool by a firm of ship-builders there, to the order of another Liverpool firm carrying on an extensive business as engineers and iron-founders. She was stated to be ordered for and on account of a person resident at Liverpool, who was a partner in a mercantile house at Palermo, and upon the completion of the vessel. this person was duly registered as her owner, on his own declaration. Her builders stated that, according to the best of their information, they believed her to be really destined for Palermo.

She was a vessel built for speed, and her internal fittings and arrangements were not such as are usual in vessels constructed to carry cargo, but were suitable to a ship of war. She was unarmed, however, and had on board no guns, carriages, ammunition, or other warlike stores of

No facts whatever proving, or tending to prove, that she was in. tended to cruise or carry on war against the United States were ever, before the departure of this ship, communicated by Mr. Adams or Mr. Dudley to Her Majesty's government. Mr. Adams alleged, indeed, that advances of money had been made to the firm which ordered the vessel, and to that which constructed her, by the firm of Fraser, Trenholm & Co., who were believed to have been engaged in blockade-running, and to be employed as agents for the Government of the Confederate States; but this assertion, whether material or not, was not substanti. ated in any way. These were all the facts respecting the vessel which had been communicated to or were in the possession of Her Majesty's Government previously to and at the time of her departure from England.

It is certain that, had the vessel been seized by Her Majesty's gov. ernment, a court of law would have ordered, and would indeed have been bound to order, the immediate restoration of her, for want of evi. dence to support a forfeiture. It was not the duty of Her Majesty's government to seize a ressel which it would have been the duty of a court of law to restore.

The means and opportunities possessed by Mr. Adams and [SO] Mr. Dudley of ascertaining *the truth were fully as great as those

possessed by Her Majesty's government. They were, indeed, greater; since Mr. Dudley was the United States consul on the spot, in constant communication with Americans of all classes, always on the watch for information, and provided with means of gaining it which could not have been employed by Her Majesty's government.

The vessel sailed froin Liverpool with a clearance for Palermo and Jamaica, unarmed, and with no warlike stores of any kind, under the command of a master belonging to the British mercantile marine, and manned by a crew who were not enlisted for the confederate service and had no thought or intention of engaging in it, and who afterward left the ship as soon as they conceived a suspicion that she might be employed in that service.

Although no directions, nor any notice or warning, had or could have. been sent to the authorities of Nassau before her arrival there, the vessel was, upon her arrival and while she remained there, strictly watched by order of the governor; a ship of war was placed near to her; she was finally seized by order of the governor; and proceedings were instituted against her in the proper court of the colony. On being released by the decree of the court, she sailed from Nassau unarmed, and with a clearance for New Brunswick.

Before committing any hostilities against vessels of citizens of the United States, she sailed for and entered a port of the Confederate States, where she remained during more than four months and was put in condition for war, and enlisted a crew, and from whence she was finally sent out to cruise.

She was commissioned as a ship of war of the Confederate States, and was commanded by an officer commissioned by the de facto government of those States. She was received on the footing of a public ship of war in the ports of neutral nations-Spain, France, and Brazil; and on the same footing, and in the same manner, without favor or partiality, she was received likewise in those ports of the British colonies which she had occasion to enter.

The United States ships of war blockading the port of Mobile failed to capture the Florida when she entered it, under circumstances which made the capture so easy of accomplishment, that the officer to whose incapacity the failure was due was dismissed the service. They again failed to capture her when she left the port to commence her cruise. From that time, until her unlawful seizure in the port of Bahia, she was, for a year and nine months, engaged in cruising, sometimes near the coast of the United States. It does not appear, however, that during all that period she was ever encountered or chased by a United States ship of war. No serious endeavor, indeed, to intercept or capture her appears to have been made on the part of the Government of the United States.

Her Britannic Majesty's government cannot admit that, in respect of the Florida, it is justly chargeable with any failure of international duty for which Great Britain owes reparation to the United States.




On the 24th June, 1862, Earl Russell received from Mr. Adams the following note with an inclosure:

Vr. Adams to Earl Russell.

PART VI.-The Alabaina.


London, June 23, 1862. MY LORD: Some time since it may be recollected by your lordship that I felt it my

duty to make a representation touching the equipment from the port of Liverpool of the gun-boat Oreto with the intent to make war upon the

United States. Notwithstanding the statements returned from the anthorities of that place, with which your lordship favored me in reply, touching a different destination of that vessel, I have the strongest reason for believing that that vessel went directly to Nassau, and that she has been there engaged in completing her armament, provisioning, and crew for the object first indicated by me.

I am now under the painful necessity of apprising your lordship that a new and still more powerful war-steamer is nearly ready for departure from the port of Liverpool on the same errand. This vessel has been built and launched from the dock-yard of persons, one of whom is now sitting as a member of the House of Commons, and is fitting out for the especial and manifest object of carrying on hostilities by sea. It is about to be commanded by one of the insurgent agents, the same who sailed in the Oreto. The parties engaged in the enterprise are persons well kuown at Liverpool to be agents and officers of the insurgents in the United States, the nature and extent of whose labors are well explained in the copy of an intercepted letter of one of them which I received from my Government some days ago, and which I had the honor to place ju yo!'r lordship’s hands on Thursday last.

I now ask permission to transmit, for your consideration, a letter addressed to me by the consul of the United States at Liverpool, in confirmation of the statements here submitted, and to solicit such action as may tend either to stop the projected expedition, or to establish the fact that its purpose is not inimical to the people of the United States. Renewing, &c., (Signed)

CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS. The " copy of an intercepted letter" referred to in the above note was a paper purporting to be a copy of a letter or report from a confederate officer of artillery, addressed to some person unknown, and relating to purchases of military supplies for the confederate army, and to vessels employed in blockade running. The inclosure was as follows:

Dr. Dudley to Jr. Adams.


Lirerpool, June 21, 1862. Sir: The gun-boat now being built by the Messrs. Laird & Co., at Birkenhead, opposite Liverpool, and which I mentioned to you in a previous dispatch, is intended for the so-called confederate government in the Southern States. The evidence I have is entirely conclusive to my mind. I do not think there is the least room for doubt about it. Beaufort and Caddy, two of the ofticers from the privateer Sumter, stated that this vessel was being built for the Confederate States. The foremann Messrs. Lairs

Appendix, vol. i, p. 177.

yarl says she is the sister to the gum-boat Oreto, and has been built for the same parties and for the same purpose; when pressed for a further explanation he stated that she was to be a privateer for the “southern government of the United States." The captain and officers of the steamer Julia Usher, now at Liverpool, and which is loaded to run the blockade, state that this gun-boat is for the confederates, and is to be conmanded by Captain Bullock.

The strictest watch is kept over this vessel; no person except those immediately engaged upon ber is admitted into the yard. On the occasion of the trial trip made last Thursday week, no one was admitted without a pass, and theso passes were issued to but few persons, and those whoure known here as active secessionists engaged in sending aid and relief to the rebels.

I understand that her arinament is to consist of eleven guns, and that she is to enter at once, as soon as she leaves this port, upon her business as a privateer. The vessel is very nearly completed; she bas had her tirst trial trip. This trial was

successful, and entirely satisfactory to the persons who are superintending her [2) construction. She will be tinished *in nive or ten days. A part of her powder

canisters, which are to number 200, and which are of a new patent, made of copper with screw tops, are on board the vessel; the others are to bo delivered in a few lars. No pains or expense have been spared in her construction. Her engines are on the oscillating principle, and are 350 horse-power. She measures 1,050 tons burden, and will draw 14 feet of water when loaded. Her screw or fan works in a solid brass frame casting, weighing near two tons, and is so constructed as to be lifted from the water by steam-power. The platforms and gun-carriages are now being constructed.

Wben completed and armed she will be a most formidable and dangerous craft; and, if not prevented from going to sea, will do much mischief to our commerce. The persons engaged in her construction say that no better vessel of her class was ever built.

I have, &c.,

THOS. H, DUDLEY. The attention of Mr. Adams had been called by Mr. Dudley to the vessel mentioned in the foregoing note and inclosure, both before she was launched and immediately afterward. The launching of this vessel took place on the 15th May, 1862, abont a inonth before the date of Mr. Adams's first representation to Earl Russell. Mr. Dudley's attention had been directed to the vessel in November, 1861, immediately on his arrival at Liverpool.

Iinmediately on the receipt of Mr. Adams's note, Mr. Hammond, one of the under secretaries of state for foreign affairs, wrote, by the direction of Earl Russell, to the secretary to the treasury and to the law. officers of the Crown, as follows:1

Ur. Hammond to the secretary to the treasury.

FOREIGX OFFICE, June 25, 1862. SIR: I am directed by Earl Russell to transmit to you a copy of a letter from the United States minister at this court, calling attention to a steamer reported to be fitted out at Liverpool as a southern privateer, and inclosing a copy of a letter from the United states cousul at that port, reporting the result of his investigations into the matter; and I am to request that you will move the lords commissioners of Her Majesty's treasury to canse immediato inquiries to be made respecting this vessel and to take uchsixps in the matter as may be right and proper.

I am, & c.,


Mi. Hammond o the law-officers of the Crown.

FOREIGN OFFICE, June 23, 1862. GENTLEMEN: I am directed by Earl Russell to transmit to you a letter from the United States minister at this court, calling attention to a steamer reported to be fitting out at Liverpool as a southern privateer, and inclosing a copy of a letter from the Cnited States cousul at that port reporting the result of his investigations into the matter; and I am to request that you will take these papers into your consideration and far or Lord Russell with any observations you may have to make upon this question.

I am, &c.,

Appendix, vol. i, pr. 130, 181.

Copies of Mr. Adams's note and Mr. Dudley's letter were sent with each of the two preceding letters for the information of the lords commissioners of the treasury and the law-officers, respectively. Earl Russell, on the same day, wrote as follows to Mr. Adams:'

Earl Russell to Mr. Adams.

FOREIGN OFFICE, June 25, 1862. Sir: I have the lionor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 234 instant, calling attention to a steam-vessel which you state is now sitting out at Liverpool with the intention of carrying on hostilities against the Government of the United States; and I have to acquaint you that I have lost no time in referring the matter to the proper department of Her Majesty's government.

I am, &c.,

RUSSELL. The law-officers of the Crown, on the 30th June, 1862, made their report, as follows:

The law-officers of the Crown to Earl Russell.

TEMPLE, June 30, 1862. MY LORD: We are honorell with your lordship's commanis signified in Mr. Hain

mond's letter of the 25th June instant, stating that he was directed by your [83] lordship to transmit to us a letter from the United *States minister at this court,

calling attention to a steamer reporteil to be fitted out at Liverpool as a southern privateer, and inclosing a copy of a letter from the United States consul at that port, reporting the result of his investigations into the matter, and to request that we would take these papers into our consideration and favor your lordship with any observations we might have to make upon this question.

In obedience to your lordship's commands we have taken these papers into consideration, and have the honor to report

That, if the representation made to Her Majesty's government by Mr. Adams is in accordance with the facts, the building and equipment of the steamer in question is a manifest violation of the foreign enlistment act, and steps onglit to be taken to put that act in force and to prevent the vessel from going to sea.

The report of the United States consul at Liverpool, inclosed by Mr. Adams, besides suggesting other grounds of reasonable suspicion, contains a direct assertion that the foreman of Messrs. Laird, the builders, has stated that this vessel is intended as a privateer for the service of the government of the Southern States; and, if the character of the vessel and of her equipment be such as the same report describes them to be, it seeins evident that she must be intended for some warlike purpose.

Under these circumstances we think that proper steps ought to be taken, under the (lirection of Her Majesty's government, by the authorities of the customs at Liverpool, to ascertain the truth, and that, if sutticient evidence can be obtained to justify proceedings under the foreign enlistment act, such proceedings should be taken as early as possible. In tie mean time, Mr. Adams ought, we think, to be informed that Her Majesty's government are proceeding to investigate the case; but that the course which they may eventually take must necessarily slepend upon the nature and sufficiency of any evidence of a breach of the law which they may be enabled to obtain; and that it will be desirable that any evidence in the possession of the United States consulat Liverpool should be at once communicated to the officers of Her Majesty's customs at that port.

We have, &c.,


ROUNDELL PALMER. The commissioners of customs, on the 1st July, 1862, reported to the treasury as follows:3

Report by the commissioners of customs. To the lords commissioners of Her Majesty's treasury:

Your lordships having referred to ns the annexed letter from Mr. Hammond, the under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, transmitting, by desire of Earl Russell, copy of a letter from the United States minister at this court, calling attention to a

Appendix, vol. i, p. 180. Ibid., p. 181. 3 Ibid., p. 182.


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