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Left to right: Americans, English, French, Swiss. In the contests the English ranked first, the Americans second

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The photograph illustrates a tense scene in the final set on September 2: it shows Vincent Richards
at the left, in foreground, making a resolute fight against impending defeat. William Tilden is at his
right. Across the net are Gerald Patterson--left- and Pat O'Hara Wood, the winning Australasians






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'HO is the founder of Christianity-Jesus Christ or Paul?

He is

Lay readers may be surprised to learn that some theological scholars are quite seriously discussing this question, and that books have been written One or two scholars, more upon it. eager for novelty than for truth, have even claimed that Jesus Christ never existed. Others, more rational, think that Jesus Christ gave the religion but Paul gave the theology, and that the two Those who hold to are not consistent. this view in any of its forms must reckon with Professor Machen's book.1 apparently as familiar with the Greek language as with the English and with life in the first century as with life in the twentieth. In his volume, a series in the Union of lectures delivered Theological Seminary of Princeton to theological students, he is an expert speaking to those who hope to become experts. Much of his volume would be interesting only to students of the Greek Testament. Its criticism of the New almost microTestament is minute, scopic, the work of a careful, able, and conscientious scholar.

But he seems to me more successful in his examination of details than in his mastery of great principles. Thus he puts emphasis on unreal antitheses. "Jesus for Paul," he says, "was primarily not a Revealer but a Saviour." Might he not be a Saviour because he was a Revealer? Again: "Jesus, according to Paul, therefore, was not a teacher but a Redeemer." And yet it is Paul who declares that Jesus came teaching us that we should live soberly, righteously, godly, looking for the appearing of God. Professor Machen lays great stress upon the contrast between the supernatural and the rationalistic interpretation of the Gospel and upon the recognition both by Paul and by the Gospel of its supernatural character. But he scarcely recognizes the possibility of an opinion which is gaining currency in the churches, and perhaps still more outside the churches, of the mystical character of Christianity. its mystical character be recognized, it is seen to be both a supernatural and a rational religion; for mysticism involves a personal experience of and companionship with a supernatural Person, and as a human experience it is capable of rational investigation and interpretation.


There are two conceptions of religion: one obedience to law, the other spontaneous life. Every teacher realizes the difference between the pupil who is not interested in music but conscientiously practices her hour a day and the pupil

By J. Ger 1 The Origin of Paul's Religion. ham Machen, D.D., Assistant Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis at Princeton minary. The Macmillan Company, New York.



who loves music and enthusiastically practices in her eager desire to acquire the capacity to play. Every pupil recognizes the difference between a teacher who sets her pupils tasks and sees that they are accomplished and the teacher who inspires in her pupils a love for learning and a desire to acquire it. Obedience to law was the religion of Pharisaism in the first century and of Puritanism in the eighteenth. The religion of spontaneous life is well expressed in a saying attributed to Augustine, "Please to do right, then do as you please."

Paul was brought up in the religion
of the Pharisees "as touching the right-
eousness which is in the law, found
blameless." But he was not satisfied.
The conscientious legalist never is satis-
fied. Though he has kept all the com-
mandments from his youth up, his soul
still cries out within him, "What lack I
yet?" What he lacks is spontaneity of
And life is always a gift; it is
never self-created.

When Paul discovered this difference
between law and spontaneous life and
accepted the gift of life, he became pos-
sessed with an irresistible passion to
He became an evan-
give it to others.
gelist. He has been studied by philos-
ophers as though he were a philosopher.

He was not a philosopher; that is, he was not interested to give the world a new system of theological thought. He was the herald of a new life; and he had. overmastering desire to give to others the life which Jesus Christ had given to him. He traveled from province to province proclaiming the glad tidings.


He was an orator, and wherever he could get an audience there he found a pulpit-a Jewish synagogue, a Greek schoolroom, a Roman forum, the public street, a prison yard, anywhere. everywhere. As soon as he had kindled a flame of devotion in the hearts of a few disciples he left them to give their message to their fellow-men and traveled on to lay new foundations in a new field. He was a pioneer as well as a missionary, and it was his ambition to preach where no one had preceded him. His epistles are not theological treatises written by a philosopher interested in framing a philosophy of religion. They are the letters of an evangelist, warm with the enthusiasm of an ardent soul, written to give counsel, warning, and little fraternities encouragement to which had been gathered by his labors and looked to him as their spiritual father.

Inspired by his faith, which was much more than a doctrine, Paul was not content to remain in Jerusalem and make The of Christianity a Jewish seet. Christian life was God's gift to the

whole world, and he went out into the
world, in spite of bitter opposition,
within as well as without the churches,
to give this gift to the Gentiles, as to the
Jews. Circumcision was a Jewish cere-
mony as old as the Jewish nation; but
when he found that it interfered with
his mission to the Gentiles he simply
discarded it, as General Booth subse-
quently discarded the sacraments when
he found that they interfered with his
mission to the outcast in London. When
Paul was criticised for so doing, he
simply replied: "Circumcision is noth-
ing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but
the keeping of the commandments of
God." He was not an Anarchist, or
an Anti-
what the theologians call
nomian; he recognized the value of law
as a standard of character, as a restraint
on lawlessness, and as one of the fruits
of the new life. But it was not medic-
inal. Brought up in the strictest sect
of the Pharisees and familiar with its
phraseology from his youth up, he used
the language of Pharisaism to over-
the language of
throw Pharisaism,
legalism to destroy the spirit of legalism,
and he sought to substitute therefor the
freedom of a life of faith and hope and
love freely given and to be joyfully ac-

The Greeks were more interested in
speculative philosophy than they were
Paul seems to have
in spiritual life.
feared lest he should be mistaken for
"The Greeks,"
the founder of a new school of philoso-
phy, and he protested.
he said, "seek after wisdom, but we
preach a Messiah crucified, to the Greeks
foolishness." It is pathetic that the
Church which he did so much to create
has done what he feared-developed a
system which they call by his name,
"Pauline Theology."

He proclaimed a Messiah who was a
Saviour because he was a Revealer. The
Messiah he preached revealed the true
nature of God-a God who came to seek
and to save that which was lost, a mis-
sionary God, a life-giving God, a God
whose righteousness rightens all who
accept his gift of life. There is no evi-
dence that Paul ever saw Jesus. There
is no evidence that he had ever seen be-
fore his conversion any of those frag-
mentary narratives of which, subsequent
to his conversion, the present Gospels
were composed. His faith in the Mes-
siah was a mystical faith. In one of his
letters he gives an account of his con-
version. "It pleased God," he says, "to
reveal his Son in me, that I might
preach him among the heathen." His-
faith was not derived from, though it
was confirmed by, what he later learned
of the earthly life and tragic death of

Christianity, according to Paul, says

Professor Machen, "is both a life and a doctrine-but logically the doctrine comes first." But Paul was not interested in the logical development of a system of thought, he was possessed by an irresistible desire to possess himself and to impart to others the Christ life. Nothing seemed to him too great a sacrifice to accomplish this, his life purpose. He had the temperament of John Wesley, not that of John Calvin. Whatever may be true in philosophy, in life experience precedes definition. The child loves his mother before he knows

what love means or what mother means. In the history of religion, life has always preceded theology. The Christian faith was seen in the first century, but the Nicene Creed did not appear until the fourth century. The life is the light of men. When Professor Machen says that life is the expression of the doctrine and not vice versa, he contradicts both psychology and history. It is not more certain that stars preceded astronomy, flowers preceded botany, and language preceded grammar than that religious experience preceded theological

thought. The thing to be defined came before the definition.

There is much in "Pauline Theology" inconsistent with the simple life and teaching of Jesus as recorded in the Gospels; but nothing inconsistent in the epistles of Paul if they are read as the letters of a missionary and an evangelist. On the contrary, of all the disciples of Jesus Christ, the two who have most clearly understood his secret and interpreted the source of his power are Paul and John-and they are both mystics.



RINCE EUGEN of Sweden would have proved himself a prince among men as well as a prince among painters, there is little doubt, even had he been born, like Zorn, the son of a Dalecarlian peasant woman, or, like Carl Larsson, the son of a day laborer. His paintings would have sold for princely sums on Fifth Avenue and hung in metropolitan galleries. Had his royal origin not placed a ban upon commercializing his genius, the schoolhouses and public buildings of Stockholm that glow with his inspired frescoes would have nothing to show the visitor but whitewashed walls or tawdry ornamentation. Instead, a painter prince, seated on his scaffold like any other workman, has labored, month after month, with loving hand and without compensation to share his own dreams of color with the children of Sweden.

It will be recalled that the present reigning dynasty in Sweden, the Bernadottes, with their passion for arts and letters, is of comparatively recent origin and of French descent. The greatgrandfather of Prince Eugen and his brother, the present King, was Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, one of the eighteen marshals of France under Napoleon, who was elected Crown Prince of Sweden on August 21, 1810. His wife was Désirée Clery, daughter of a Marseilles banker and sister of Joseph Bonaparte's wife. Bernadotte was a veteran of every Napoleonic campaign and had been French Minister of War. The arbitrary election by the Swedish Government of a French general to succeed the infirm and childless Charles XIII, although one of the most singular freaks in history and the sort of political patchwork that usually proves to be a short-lived experiment, resulted in turning a new corner in the prosperity of Sweden. For Bernadotte, both as Crown Prince and as King Charles XIV, transferred the pow ers of leadership and organization he had exhibited under Napoleon to the unqualified service of his adopted country, and his energy and public spirit have descended in large measure to the four


members of his family who have succeeded him to the throne of the Northern Kingdom.

Prince Eugen of Sweden, the King's brother, is generally recognized to be one of the world's great painters of landscapes and of the luminous northern summer nights. His personality corresponds best with the schoolboy's conception of one of the noblest of the Knights of King Arthur's Round Table, a Sir Galahad or a Gawain. My own first meeting with him will always be a refreshing memory. It was the summer after the war, when all men's minds were turned to peace and reconstruction and the thought that somehow the world was to be made over and that it was to be a better world. It was felt that America would contribute to the new day, and there was a tendency in the Scandinavian North, as in the other parts of Europe, to idealize America and Americans and a curiosity to know more about our ways and our habits of thought.

When we reached the inn in the country near Stockholm where we were to meet for an informal supper, the Prince drove up.

We were presented to his Royal Highness as he stepped out of his car. It was an evening late in May, a month before high midsummer, and yet so early in that Northern latitude the afterglow of the sunset lingered on long into the night. As Prince Eugen, tall, quiet, and gracious, stood there in the deepening rosy light with the dark spruces in the background, he seemed more part of a picture than a reality.

It was a happy party of artists and their friends who gathered around a very festive Swedish board in the historic old inn. War restrictions on food had largely been suspended, and the Swedes, who had grown thin during the previous terrible year, were now trying to get back into their usual stalwart form. As for the liquid accessories to the feast, the Swedes follow strictly the old motto of the Greeks, "Nothing in excess." For they live happily under the sanest prohibition regulation in the world, the so-called "Stockholm System"

of Dr. Bratt, whereby spirits are doled out according to the just needs of the population. Dr. Bratt did not interfere with the glasses set before us that night, as they had been carefully selected to meet the approval of that arch-connoisseur of the good things of life, Anders Zorn, who was enjoying to the full the last summer of his life. There was in particular one guest who occupied as much attention as any one at the table. This was Zorn's Pekingese dog, "Liten," which we would translate "Tiny," his boon companion in his last years. Tiny sat on Zorn's shoulder a good part of the time, where Zorn fed him and carried on with him a conversation of questions and comments, to which the little creature responded with bright eyes and intelligent head-shakings. Whenever Zorn talked to the other guests, Tiny began to bark to call attention to the neglect. Prince Eugen, the real presence of the evening, partook lightly both of the refreshments and the conversation, always attentive and yet often, it seemed, in a pleasant reverie.

In the course of the evening I found myself seated between the two artists and engaged in a social-economic discussion. That same Prince Eugen, who as an artist had turned from presenting brooding landscapes destitute of man to painting the factories and the busy shipping scenes which he saw from the windows of his home, was as a man interested in his fellow-men and longed to help solve the insoluble riddles of labor and capital. In terms of praise he gave his conception of our American workingmen. They seemed to him more fortunate than their fellow-laborers in other lands, with their baths and cleanliness, their better education and apparent consideration for others. Zorn, who had visited America several times and had opportunity to study conditions here smiled at the Prince's idealistic concep tion of our Utopia and in kindly humor tried to disillusion him of some of his dreams.

Another happy memory of that summer is an evening in Prince Eugen's home, the palace of Valdemarsudde

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