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strong-minded friend or other goes boldly forward and shakes the convalescent by the hand. Even still there will be timid people who know perhaps that their delicacy of constitution renders them peculiarly sensitive, and who will keep aloof after all. Of course, these and similar prejudices will give way to time. We have our Probate Court; and the phrase co-respondent is now familiar as a household word. Now, however tempting the theme, I am not going to inquire whether we have done wisely or the reverse } this piece of legislation ; whether, by instilling certain precepts of self-control, a larger spirit of accommodation, and a more conciliatory disposition generally, we might have removed some of the difficulties without the heroic remedy of the decree nisi ; whether, in i. it might not have been better to teach people to swim, or even float, rather than make this great issue of cheap life-belts. I am so practical that I rather address myself to profit by what is, than endeavour by any change to make it better. We live in a statistical age. We are eternally inquiring who it is wants this, who consumes that, who goes to such a place, who is liable to this or that malady. Classification is a passion with us; and we have bulky volumes to teach us what sorts of people have chest affections, what are most prone to stomachic diseases, who have ophthalmia, and who the gout. We are also instructed as to the kind of persons most disposed to insanity, and we have a copious list of occupations given us which more or less incline those who profess them to derangement. Even the Civil-Service Examiners have contributed their share to this mass of entertaining knowledge, and shown from what parts of the kingdom bad spellers habitually come, what counties are celebrated for cacography, and in what districts etymology is an unknown thing. Would it not, then, be a most interesting and instructive statistic that would give us a tabular view
of divorce, showing in what classes frailty chiefly prevailed, with the relative sexes, and also a glimpse at the ages? Imagine what a light the statement would throw on the morality of classes, and what an imcalculable benefit to parents in the choice of a career for their children I For instance, no sensible father would select a life of out-door exposure for a weak-chested son, or make a sailor of one with an incurable sea-sickness. In the same way would he be guided by the character of his children as to the perils certain careers would expose them to. A passing glance at the lists of divorce shows us that no “promovent”—it is a delicate title, and I like it—no promovent figures oftener than a civil engineer. Now, how instructive to inquire why! What is there in embankments and earthworks and culverts that should dispose the wife of him who makes them to infidelity ? Why should a tunnel only lead to domestic treachery why must a cutting sever the heart that designs it? I do not know ; I cannot even guess. My ingenuity stands stockstill at the question, and I can only re-echo Why? Next amongst the “predisposed" come schoolmasters, plasterers, &c. What unseen thread runs through the woof of these natures, apparently so little alike? It is the boast of modern science to settle much that once was puzzling, and reconcile to a system what formerly appeared discordant. How I wish some great Babbage-like intellect would bestir itself in this inquiry. Surely ethical questions are as well worthy of investigation as purely physical or mechanical ones, and yet we ignore them most ignominiously. We think no expense too great to test an Armstrong or a Whitworth gun; we spend thousands to ascertain how far it will carry, what destructive force it possesses, and how long it will resist explosion;–why not appoint a commission of this nature on “conjugals;” why not ascertain, if we
can, wbat is the weak point in ma "welding" a failure; or, last of all, trimony, and why are explosions so however wounding to our national frequent? Is the "cast" system à vanity, do they understand these bad one, and must we pronounce things better in France" ?
ON OLIMBING BOYS.
With the common fate of all when indolence or weariness sugthings human, it is said that every gested sloth, the stimulus of a little career and walk in life bas some one fire underneath, whether a few peculiar disparagement - something lighted straws or a Birmingham that, attaching to the duties of the mass-ineeting, was sure to quicken station as a sort of special griev- progress and excite activity. ance, serves to show that none of Again, I make this statement on us, no matter how favoured, are to the faith of Lord Shaftesbury, who imagine there can be any lot ex- pronounced it before their Lordempted from its share of troubles. ships in the Upper House :-" It is Ask the soldier, the sailor, the par- no uncommon thing to buy and sell son, the doctor, the lawyer, or the them. There is a regular traffic in actor, and each will give you & them; and through the agency of friendly warning to adopt any other certain women, not the models of career than his own.
their sex, you can get any quantity In most cases the quid ama- of them you want." Last of all, on run, the one bitter drop, is to be the same high anthority, we are found in the career itself, some- told of their perfect inutility, "since thing that belongs to that one craft there is nothing that they do could or calling; just as the white-lead not be better done by a machine." colic, for instance, is the fatal mal I resist, as I say, all temptations ady of painters. There are, how- of this kind, and simply address ever, a few rare cases in which the myself to the one point of similarity detracting element attaches itself to between them which illustrates the the followers and not to the profes- theory with which I bave started sion, as though it would seem there and now to state this as formally as I was a something in the daily work- arn able. Let me declare that in all ing of that peculiar craft which the varied employments of life I warped the minds and coerced the have never met with men who have natures of men to be different from the same dread of their possible what temperament and character successors as sweeps and statesmen. sboald have made of them,
The whole aim and object of each The two classes which most pro- is directed, first of all, to give those minently exhibit wbat I mean are who do their work as little as possisomewhat socially separated, but ble, well knowing that the time will they bave a number of small analo- come when these small creatures gies in common. They are SWEEPS will find the space too confined for and STATESMEN! It would be them, and set up for themselves. tempting-but I resist the tempta A volume might be written on tion—to show how many points of the subtle artifices adopted to keep resemblance unite them-how each them "little"—the browbeatings, works in the dark, in a small, nar. the insults, the crushing cruelties, TOW, confined sphere, without view the spare diet intermixed with ocor oatlet; how the tendency of casional stimulants, the irregular each is to scratch his way upwards hours, and the heat and contineand gain the top, caring wonderfully ment of the sphere they work in. little how black and dirty the pro- Still nature is stronger than all tess has made him. One might these crafty contrivances. The even go farther, and mark how, little sweep will grow into the big
sweep, and the small under-sec. will in his head. Their great smeltingscratch bis way up to the Cabinet houses and steam-power factories I will not impose on my reader the require big chimneys; and being an burden of carrying along with him overbearing set of self-made vulgar this double load. I will address fellows, they say they ought to be myself simply to one of these ca- a law to all England. You don't reers—the statesman's. It is a want to make cotton-twist, or broadstrange but a most unquestionable gauge iron; so much the worse for fact, that no other class of men are you. It is the grandest object of so ill-disposed to those who are the humanity. Providence created men most likely to succeed them—not to manufacture printed cottons and of an Opposition, for that would be cheap penknives. We of Manchesnatural enough, but of their own ter understand what our American party, of their own colour, of their friends call manifest destiny; we own rearing. Let us be just; wben know and feel ours will be - to a man has long enjoyed place, pow. rule England. Once let us only er, and pre-eminence, dispensed introduce big chimneys, and you'll honours and pensions and patron- see if you won't take to spinningage, it is not a small trial to discover jennies and mules and treddles; that one of those little creatures he and there's that climbing boy Gladhas made-whose first scraper and stone declares he'll not leave the brush he himself paid for I can't business, but go up, no matter how get rid of the sweep out of my head dirty the flue, the day we want --will turn insolently on him and him. declare that he will no longer re- Some shrewd folk, who see farmain & subordinate, but go and set ther into the millstone than their up for himself. This is excessively neighbours, have hinted that this hard, and might try the temper of a same boy is of a crotchety, intriguman even without à fit of the gout. ing type, full of his own ingenuity,
It is exactly what has just bap- and enamoured of his own subtlety; pened; an apprentice, called Glad- so that make the chimney how stone, having made a sort of great you will, he'll not go up it, connection in Manchester and Bir- but scratch out another flue for mingham, a district abounding in himself, and come out, heaven tall chimneys, has given warning knows where or how. Indeed, they to his master Pam that he will not tell that on one occasion of an sweep any longer. He is a bold, alarm of fire in the bouse--caused aspiring sort of lad, and he is not by a pantry-boy called Russell bornsatisfied with saying—as many ing some waste-paper instead of others have done that he is getting going up the chimney as he was too broad-shouldered for his work; ordered—this same Will began to but he declares that the chimneys for tell how the Greeks had no cbimthe future must be all made bigger neys, and a mass of antiquarian and the flues wider, just because rubbish of the same kind, so that he likes climbing, and doesn't bis master, losing patience, exclaimmean to abandon it. There is no ed, "Of all plagues in the world he doubt of it. Manchester and Stock knew of none to compare with these port and Birmingham have put this climbing boys!"
There are two classes of people ner of games, and the men who not a little thought of, and even speak several languages. I begin caressed, in society, and for whom with the latter, and declare that, I bave ever felt a very humble esti- after a somewhat varied experience mate-the men who play all man- of life, I never met a linguist that was above a third-rate man; and I address itself. Imitation must be, go farther, and aver that I never in one sense or other, the strong. chanced upon a really able man who hold of the linguist-imitation of had the talent for languages.
expression, of style, of accent, of I ain well aware that it sounds cadence, of tone. The linguist something little short of a heresy must not merely master grammar, to make this declaration. It is but he must manage gutturals. enough to make the blood of Civil. The mimicry must go farther: in Service Commissioners run cold to simulating expression it must affect hear it. It sounds illiberal-and, the sentiment. You are not merely worse, it seems illogical. Why borrowing the clothes, but you are should any intellectual develop pretending to put on the feelings, ment imply deficiency? Why the thoughts, the prejudices of the should an acquirement argue & wearer. Now, what man with a defect? I answer, I don't kuow strong nature can merge himself so any more than I know why san- entirely in bis fictitious being as not guineous people are bot-tempered, to burst the seams and tear the lining and leuco-phlegmatic ones are more of a garment that only impedes the brooding in their wrath. If—for free action of his limbs, and actuI do not ask to be anything higher ally threatens the very extinction of than empyrical-if I find tbat par- bis respiration ? simonious people bave generally thin It is not merely by their greater noses, and that the snob is associated adaptiveness that women are better with the spendthrift, I never trouble linguists than men; it is by their myself with the demonstration, but more delicate organisation, their I bug the fact, and endeavour to ap- more subdued identity, and their ply it.
less obstreperous temperaments, In the same spirit, if I hear a which are consequently less egotisman in a salon change from French tical, less redolent of the one indito German, and tbence diverge into vidual self. And what is it that Italian and Spanish, with possibly makes the men of mark or note, a brief excursion into something the cognate signs of human algebra, Scandinavian, or Sclay-at home in but these same characteristics ; not each and all-I would no more think always good, not always pleasant, of associating him in my mind with not always genial, but always asanything responsible in station or sociated with something that decommanding in intellect, than I clares pre-eminence, and pronounces should think of connecting the ser- their owner to be a “representative Tant tbat announced me with the man"? last brilliant paper in the 'Quar When Lord Ward replied to terly.
Prince Schwartzenberg's flippant No man with a strongly-marked remark on the bad French of Engidentity-and no really able man lish diplomatists by the apology, ever existed without sach - can “that we had not enjoyed the advansubordinate that identity so far as tage of having our capital cities so to put on the foreigner; and with. often occupied by French troops as out this he never can attain that some of our neighbours," be uttered mastery of a foreign language that not merely a smart epigram but & makes the linguist. To be able to great philosophical truth. It was repeat conventionalities - bringing not alone that we had not possessed them in at the telling moment, ad the opportunity to pick up an acjusting phrases to emergencies, as cent, but that we bad not subora joiner adapts the pieces of wood dinated our minds and babits to to his carpentry-may be, and is, & French modes and ways of thought, very neat and a very dexterous per- and that the tone and temper of the formance, but it is scarcely the exer- French people bad not been heaten cise to which & large capacity will into us by the roll of a French drum
One may buy an accomplishment implies no brilliancy whatever in him too dearly. It is possible to pay who exhibits, though it argues imtoo much even for a Parisian pro- mense resources in the treasury from nunciation! Not only have I never which he derives this wealth. found a linguist a man of eminence, I have known scores of delightful but I have never seen a linguist talkers-Frenchmen — who had no who talked well. Fluent they are, other charm than what their lanof course. Like the Stecknadel guage lent them. They were neither gun of the Prussians, they can fire profound, nor cnltivated, nor witty without cessation, but, like the --some were not even shrewd or same weapon, they are compara- acute; but all were pleasant-pleatively aimless. It is a feu roulant, sant in the use of a conversational with plenty of noise and some medium, of which the world has smoke, but very "few casualties" not the equal—a language that has announce the success. The greatest its set form of expression for every linguist of modern Europe, Mezzo- social eventuality, and that hits to fanti, was a most inferior man. Of a nicety every contingency of the the countries whose dialect he spoke" salon;" for it is no more the to perfection, he knew nothing. An language of natural people than the old dictionary would have been to essence of the perfumer's shop is the full as companionable. I find it the odour of a field flower. It is very hard not to be personal just pre-eminently the medium of peonow, and give a list-it would be a ple who talk with tall glasses before long one-of all the tiresome people them, and an incense of truffles I know, who talk four, five, some around them, and well-dressed woof them six modern languages per- men-clever and witty, and not fectly. It is only with an effort I over-scrupulous in their opinions— abstain from mentioning the pames for their company. Then, French of some well-known men who are is unapproachable; English would the charming people at Rome and be totally unsuited to the occasion, Vienna every winter, and each sum- and German even more so. There mer are the delight of Ems, of Berlin, is a flavour of sauer kraut about that and of Ischl. What tyrants these unhappy tongue that would vulgarise fellows are, too, over the men who a Queen if she talked it. have not got their gift of tongues ! To attain, therefore, the turns how they out-talk them and over- and tricks of this language-for it bear them! with what an insolent is a Chinese puzzle in its involveconfidence they fall back upon the ments—what a life must a man petty superiority of their fluency, have led! What “terms" he must and lord' it over those who are im- have " put in " at cafés and restaumeasurably their masters! Just as rants !
What seasons at small Blondin might run along the rigging theatres-tripots and worse! What of a three-decker, and pretend that nights at bals-masqués, Chateaux des his agility entitled him to command a Fleurs, and Cadrans rouges et bleus ! squadron!
Wbat' doubtful company he must Nothing, besides, is more impos- have often kept! What company. ing than the mock eloquence of & little more than doubtfal occagood French. The language in it- sionally! What iniquities of French self is so adaptive, it is so felicitous, romance must he have read, with it abounds in such innumerable all the cardinal virtues arrayed as pleasant little analogies, such nice the evil destinies of humanity, and conceits and suggestive drolleries, every wickedness paraded as that that he who acquires these has at natural expansion of the heart will a whole armoury of attack and which alone raises man above the defence. It actually requires years condition of the brute! I ask, if of habit to accustom us to a display proficiency must imply profligacy, that we come at last to discover would you not rather find a man