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plantation once, driving oxen, and I will relate what I saw there. A slave named Jack, was taken sick while working on the plantation, and he laid himself down in the fence corner. When his master came, he saw him lying down, and he told him to get up immediately and go on working. Jack replied, “O massa, I'm so sick.” “ Get up immediately, you lazy varmint,” replied his master, and he commenced whipping him till he got up; but as soon as his master was off that field, he lay down again. The slaves, seeing his master returning, told him he had better get up, as master was coming, but he could not, and when the master returned he began to whip him again ; but seeing he could not get up, he went to the house and brought a tumblerful of castor oil, and forced him to drink it, and then said, “Now get up, you rascal, or I will whip you," and made him continue his work; but his conscience smote him, and he sent for a doctor, and upon his certificate allowed him to return home. I cannot leave off without relating another incident about him. On one occasion there were a hundred negroes to be sold, and James English went to buy. Among the negroes to be bought there was one named Willis; when he was put on the block, and the bidding began, James English began to bid, and Willis, seeing him bidding, jumped down from the auction-block. The auctioneer said, “ Why do you jump down, you rascal ?” He replied, “Because that man, (pointing to James English) is bidding for me.” “Why do you not want him to bid for you?” “'Cause he's the baddest massa 'tween this an' hell fire.” This scene was repeated twice, but James English at length bought him ; and he went towards the plantation till within three miles of it, when the negroes of another plantatian again told him that there was not a worse master in the whole district. His fears returning afresh, he fled to the woods, but hunger compelled him to return. When he got back he was put into irons, and taken out next morning and hung up, and received a hundred lashes; and when the stripes were partially healed, they gave him twenty-five lashes every other morning as long as they thought he could bear it.
Afterwards, James English was taken ill, but such were his savage propensities, that he got out of bed and dressed himself, and took his whip and went into the cotton field, and commenced quarrelling with a slave named Old George, on the plea that he did not pick cotton fast enough. I will repeat his words : “ Never mind, you old rascal, when I get better I'll give you sixty lashes,-never mind, you old rascal you.” But from that time he began to get worse, and went home and sent for the doctor, Mr. Miller. The following conversation then took place :“ Doctor, I am very sick, can you help me?” The doctor, after feeling his pulse, replied, “ I can't save you.” “Why, doctor? ” “ You have mortification in the head.” He did not believe this, and sent for Dr. Hainsworth. When Dr. Hainsworth came, he said also, “I can't save you, you will die in a few days.” His terror on hearing this announcement was extreme. He prayed the doctors to save his life, but in vain. In five days that terrible hour drew nigh, and his agony and death struggles were such that he required to be held down. Thus ended the life of a member of a Christian Church. When the tidings of his death reached the negroes, they were overjoyed, and especially Willis, who went round to every hut, and shook hands with every negro, saying, “How d’ye do, brudder, de devil is dead an' gon' to hell, an' Old George got clear of his sixty lashes.” Of Robert, the next brother, I knew nothing, as he died when very young. Thomas, the next, was, if possible, worse than James. He was also a member of Mount Zion Chapel. He was articled to a lawyer. While studying the law, he used to whip the negroes on the plantation exceedingly. I will give you an instance of it. He had just bought a new whip, and wished to try it, and, seeing me go by, he called me and told me to bring him some water to wash his hands in. I went and got it as quickly as possible. When I brought it to him, he said, “You have been too slow, now pull off your jacket,” and he then commenced whipping me, having first shut both doors, but I pushed open one of them and ran. I was then between ten und twelve years of age. He ran after me, and soon caught me, and whipped me again till the blood ran. When a young man, he went to Tenessee, and married. The lady's name was Livinia. At his marriage his father gave him twelve negroes. He had then a son named West, and after ten years he returned to South Carolina. His father bought him a plantation five miles from his own, and gave him another slave girl as a nurse for his boy. The boy was very cross, and his mother asserted that the girl pinched the baby, which was not true. This girl was continually being whipped upon that false accusation, so that at length she ran away and went back to her old plantation. But the master tied a rope round her neck and sent her back to his son, who immediately ordered two flat irons to be put on the fire, and had her laid down on a log, and made three negroes, by the names of Frank, Save, and Peter, hold her down. He then took the first iron and pressed it to her body on one side; and when he removed it the skin stuck to it. He repeated the same with the other iron, on the other side of the body. She then left him, and started that night for the old plantation : her pain was so great that she was all night going that little distance. The old master, on seeing the burns, declared she should not go back any more. The following conversation took place when Thomas came to see his father : “ Thomas, did you burn this girl so?” “Yes, pa, I did, because she ran away.” “Well, you shan't have her any more.” But, in this case, Thomas was a true son of his father, and the old proverb remained unshaken, viz., “ The chip off the old block don't fall far from the stump." About this time he became a minister. He preached his first sermon in Mount Zion Chapel, and the negroes flocked to hear him, and were so overjoyed to think that now he had experienced true religion, he would be more merciful to them, but he was the same devil still. He owned a slave whose name was January, who could not pick cotton as fast as the other negroes. For this reason, this minister of religion gave him from twenty-five to one hundred lashes, and fifty blows with the paddle, which so frightened the negro that he ran away into the woods; but was caught, and again whipped, and put into the stocks, and was taken out every other morning, and received twenty-five lashes for a time, and then put to work with a lock and chain round his neck. At that time, his son West was overseer and whipping the negroes for his father. At the time I left slavery he often whipped the slaves severely. In the Southern States of America, any negro found out at night after nine o'clock, without a pass, is liable to be taken up and receive thirty-nine lashes; and it is a common amusement for young men to go out at night in parties patrolling. This minister, Thomas English, one night joined a party, and they came upon a slave named Isaac, on Dr. Grag's plantation, and they gave chase, but he outran them, and this minister was leading them on, shouting at the top of his voice, with horrid oaths, “ Catch the rascal.” We will now pass on to Mack, the youngest brother, he was worsə than either of the others, and was the one who kicked me when I was digging for hickory root. He had not finished his schooling, before he was put to oversee his father's plantation. He used to whip the slaves more than his father. Among the atrocities which he committed, he knocked my mother down with the butt of his whip, while I stood by feeling as if I had been struck myself, when he suddenly turned round and said, “ Go on with your work, you
rascal.” His whip spared neither old nor young. This youth ordered every negro to pick one cwt. of cotton each day-which was almost impossible for them to do—and on their not presenting that amount of cotton at the machine, he gave them from twenty-five to fifty lashes each; so that during the cottonpicking season, the place was filled with screams of agony every evening. There was a sla ve named Isaac, who could not pick cotton so fast as the others, and the consequence was, that he was flogged every night by this youth. This tyrant was going to give him fifty lashes again one evening, on the scaffold where they weigh the cotton, about ten feet high; and Isaac jumped down in the dark on a snaggy stump and ruined his feet, and could not work for more than a month. He used often to call the negroes up at midnight to screw cotton, and to move fences in the sweet potatoe fields.
The time of killing hogs is the negroes' feast, as it is the only time that the negroes can get meat, for they are then allowed the chitterlings and feet; then they do not see any more till next hog-killing time. Their food is a dry peck of corn that they have to grind at the hand-mill after a hard day's work, and a pint of salt, which they receive every week. They are only allowed to eat twice a-day. Mack English once tied down a slave named Old Prince, and gave him one hundred lashes with the whip, and fifty blows with the paddle, because he could not work fast enough to please him. A slaveholder named Mr. Wilson, having died in debt, my master bought two of his slave girls, named Rose and Jenny. Jenny was forced to have Adam, who was already married; also her sister Rose was married to March, before she came on our plantation. Mack English, having turned a wishful eye on Rose, wrapped himself up in his big cloak, and went to the nigger-house in the night, and called a slave named Esau, and told him to tell Rose to come to him as he wanted her. She sent back to say, “ I'm nursing my baby and can't come.” “Go and tell her I don't care about her baby, she must come," answered Mack, “and if she does not come, I'll give her twenty-five lashes to-morrow morning.” “Go and tell him, Esau, my husband will be coming, and I can't come," answered she. The next morning he tied her up and cut her naked back all over; the further particulars are too revolting to tell. · We will now relate his death. He went with his father one summer to the White Sulphur Springs. There he was taken ill, and death took place in five days. His death-bed was a scene of heartrending agony. He swore, and he cursed, he shrieked “Murder! Murder!! Murder!!! Pa, you stand here and see all these doctors hunching and punching me. Murder! Murder !!” Then, as he expired, he shrieked with fearful agony, “ God to blast." This I heard from Old Bob, the carriage driver, who was his nurse till his death. The following conversation I overheard when his father returned :-“Wife, our son is dead and gone to hell.” “Hush! hush! talking so before the niggers.” “Well, he is, he died cursing and swearing.” Just then, Mack's playmate, named Davey Wilson, entered and inquired for him. “Your playmate is dead and gone to hell,” was the answer he received. His wife immediately replied, “ Hush! hush! shut your mouth, you old fool, what are you telling him that for." Davey Wilson went and told his mother, who told the minister, Mr. Reed, of Mount Zion Church, who preached a sermon to the young about his death After that, none of the English's family attended Mount Zion Chapel. When he went to the White Sulphur Springs, I prayed that I might never see him again, and thus was my prayer signally answered. I remembered when he and his father both whipped me at the same time, about sunrise, on my naked back, and then made me work till twelve o'clock without eating anything. I also remember that when he was going to the Springs, he said, “When I get back, my father will give me the Creek Swamp plantation and fifty niggers, and then I will buy a cowhide whip, well corded, five feet long, and I'll make all the niggers take Ephraim by force, and tie him to an oak tree, and I'll make Adam give him one of the hardest hundred lashes that ever man put on nigger.” I, myself, was willed to that tyrant, but God