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Page Industrial accidents and loss of earning power: German experience in 1897 and 1907, by Henry J. Harris, Ph. D.: Summary....

1-3 Introduction......

3,4 Special investigations of accidents.

4-96 Scope of the investigation.....

5-8 Sex and age of the injured persons.

8-14 Increase in the general accident rate.

15-18 Time when the accident occurred.

18-33 Month of the year..

18-22 Day of the week..

23-27 Hour of the day.....

27-33 Nature of the injuries sustained by the workmen...

34-43 Length of time the injured person was employed in the establishment and in the occupation......

44-48 Length of time the injured person had been at work on the day of the accident.....

49-51 Causes of accidents..

52-60 Proportion of accidents due to the fault of the employer, of the workmen, etc.....

60-65 Result of the injuries..

66-82 Duration of disability and loss of earning power.....

83-96 Workmen's compensation and insurance: Laws and bills, 1911, by Lindley D. Clark, A. M., LL. M.: Reports of commissions...

97-101 Illinois......

97,98 Massachusetts...

98 Minnesota...

98, 99 New Jersey.

99 Ohio.....

99, 100 Washington.

100 Wisconsin......

100, 101 Laws enacted and bills drafted....

101-106 Principal features of laws and bills..

102-106 Questions of constitutionality...

106-111 Text of laws.....

111-151 California.

111-117 Kansas..

117-124 Maryland...

124 Montana...

124 New Hampshire.

125-127 New Jersey.

128-132 New York..

132 Washington..

132-144 Wisconsin

144-151 Text of bills prepared by commissions..

151-170 Illinois Commission bill....

151-156 Minnesota Commission bill..

156-165 Ohio Commission bill....

165-170 Bills drafted by associations...

171-181 Draft of bill by the American Federation of Labor.....

171-175 Tentative draft of a bill by the National Civic Federation.

175-181

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182-193 194-202

BU

203-247 203--209 209-215 215-220 221-231 231-239 239-242 242-247

ANDUS

248-289

In orde di indust

249, 250

men may

251-273

practic industri

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276-278

The Damely

278, 279

or in

Resolutions of the Sixth Delegates' Meeting of the International Association

Page.
for Labor Legislation......
Report of Illinois Commission on Occupational Diseases.
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications:
Reports on strikes and lockouts..

Austria, 1908...
France, 1908..
Germany, 1908.
Great Britain, 1908 and 1909..
Netherlands, 1907 and 1908.
Spain, 1907...

Sweden, 1908..
Decisions of courts affecting labor:
Decisions under statute law......

Alien contract laborers-deportation-evidence (Ex parte George)... 248, 249
Eight-hour law-construction of levees on the Mississippi River

emergencies (United States v. Garbish).
Employers' liability-compensation law-liability without fault--

due process of law-constitutionality of statute (Ives v. South Buf-
falo Railway Co.)
Employers' liability-departments of labor-construction of statute

(Judd v. Letts) ....
Employers' liability-fellow-servant law-nature of liability-inju-

ries causing death-survival of right of action--damages (Beeler v.

Butte & London Copper Development Co.)......
Employers' liability—mine regulations-shot firers--construction

of statute (Hougland et al. v. Avery Coal & Mining Co.).......
Employers' liability-notice-superintendence-construction of

statute (Smith v. Milliken Bros.).......
Employers' liability-railroad companies-street railways-con-
struction of statute (Conover v. Public Service Railway Co.)......

281
Employers' liability-railroads–Federal statute-jurisdiction of

State and Federal courts-interstate commerce-construction of

statute (Colasurdo v. Central Railroad of New Jersey)...
Hours of labor of employees on railroads Federal statute-time on

duty (United States v. Illinois Central Railroad Co.)......
Mine regulations-inspection--good faith as defense against liability

for injury (Aetitus v. Spring Valley Coal Co.)......

Picketing-police power—municipal regulations (Ex parte Williams). 288, 289 Decisions under common law....

289-307
Boycott-injunction-labor organizations as parties-interference

with employment-proof (Irving v. Joint District Council, United
Brotherhood of Carpenters, etc.)......

289-291
Employer and employee-injury to third person by employeelia-

bility of employer-scope of authority (Tillar v. Reynolds)....... 291-294
Employers' liability-incompetent fellow-servant-evidence (Rob-

bins v. Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street Railway Co.).... 294–296
Employers' liability-new trial-successive verdictsdamages (Carr
V. American Locomotive Co.)........

296-299
Employers' liability-safe place to work-act of foreman (Campbell
v. Jones)....

299-301
Labor organizations-identity-transfer of affiliation-effect on rights

to association funds (Shipwrights', Joiners', and Calkers' Associa

tion, Local No. 2, of Seattle v. Mitchell)..
Strike insurance-representations-construction of policy-indem-
nity (Buffalo Forage Co. v. Mutual Security Co.)..

302-307

279, 280

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OF THE

BUREAU OF LABOR. .

No. 92.

WASHINGTON.

January, 1911,

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AND LOSS OF EARNING POWER:

GERMAN EXPERIENCE IN 1897 AND 1907.

BY HENRY J. HARRIS, PH. D.

SUMMARY. In order to indicate the lines on which measures for the prevention of industrial accidents and for the medical treatment of injured workmen may be directed, the Imperial Insurance Office of Germany makes a practice of publishing, at 10-year intervals, special studies of the industrial accidents compensated under the national accident insurance system for workmen. Some of the facts brought out by the study of the industrial accidents compensated in the year 1907 may be briefly summarized as follows:

The information relates only to serious industrial accidentsnamely, those resulting either in disability lasting longer than 13 weeks or in death-which were compensated in the year 1907. The much larger number of accidents causing disability of shorter duration is not included.

Expressed in terms of workmen who had been employed 300 days in the year, the number of persons included in this study was 8,600,000.

About one workman out of every 100 received injuries causing serious disability or death, the average rate being 9.44 per 1,000 fulltime workmen.

In the period 1897 to 1907 there has been
A decrease in the rate for accidents causing death.

A decrease in the rate for accidents causing total permanent disability.

A decrease in the rate for accidents causing partial permanent disability.

A marked increase in the rate for accidents causing temporary disability lasting longer than 13 weeks.

Workmen employed in teaming, hauling, etc., have the highest accident rate; workmen engaged in the tobacco industry have the lowest.

Arranged in order, the highest coming first, the following 10 industry groups show the highest accident rates: Teaming and hauling, flour milling, mining, quarrying, woodworking, brewing, engineering construction, inland navigation, iron and steel, and express and storage. Arranged in order, the lowest coming first, the following 10 industry groups show the lowest accident rates: Tobacco, clothing, textiles, printing, pottery, paper, glass, railways (private), chimney sweeping, and marine navigation.

The accident rate for males is higher than the rate for females.

Injuries to workmen occur with some uniformity throughout the various months of the year, with a slightly higher rate in October.

Workmen are injured more frequently on Monday forenoon and on Saturday afternoon than during the rest of the week.

Workmen are injured more frequently in the latter part of the forenoon and in the latter part of the afternoon than during the rest of the day.

Of the 81,248 workmen injured, about 5 per cent were injured during the first hour that they were at work, 8.6 per cent were injured during the second hour, 9.2 per cent during the third hour, 11.3 per cent during the fourth hour, and 12.2 per cent during the fifth hour, the highest for the day; for the rest of the working day the percentage is irregular.

Workmen are injured most frequently by fractures, contusions, etc., and these injuries occur most frequently to the arms and legs.

Workmen are injured more frequently if they have been employed in an establishment for but a short period of time; considering only the first year of the workman's employment in an establishment, those employed a shorter period of time are injured more frequently than those employed for a longer period.

Workmen are injured more frequently if they have been employed in an occupation for but a short period of time; considering only the first year of the workman's employment in an occupation, those employed for a shorter period of time are injured more frequently than those employed for a longer period.

Workmen are injured most frequently by working machinery (presses, lathes, looms, etc.); arranged in order, the highest coming first, the five most frequent causes of injury are: First, working machinery; second, collapse, fall, etc., of materials; third, loading, unloading, etc.; fourth, falls, falling from ladders, stairs, etc.; and fifth, railway operation.

Workmen receive fatal injuries most frequently from the collapse, fall, etc., of materials; arranged in order, the highest coming first, the five most frequent causes of fatal injury are: First, collapse, fall, etc., of materials; second, railway operation; third, falls, falling from ladders, stairs, etc.; fourth, inflammable, hot, or corrosive substances, etc.; and fifth, teaming, hauling, draying, etc.

Of the injured workmen sustaining serious injuries, about 50 per cent were still disabled to a greater or less extent at the end of five years.

Workmen injured by accidents due to the fault of fellow workmen formed 5.9 per cent, by accidents due to the fault of the employer

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