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71 plantation might not suffer. We hers must share her own bitter and need not dwell on this new phase of hopeless degradation. It was long ago Slavery, its revolting features, and observed that American Slavery, with still more revolting consequences. its habitual and life-long separations The simple and notorious fact that of husband from wife, of parent from clergymen, marrying slaves, were child, its exile of perhaps the larger accustomed to require of them fidel. portion of its victims from the humity in their marital relation, until ble but cherished homes of their separated by death, or by inexorable childhood to the strange and repulnecessity, suffices of itself to stamp sive swamps and forests of the far the social condition thus photo- South-West, is harsher and viler than graphed with the indignant reproba- any other system of bondage on tion of mankind. And when we add which the sun ever shone. And that slave girls were not only daily when we add that it has been caresold on the auction-blocks of New fully computed that the State of VirOrleans, and constantly advertised in ginia, since the date of the purchase her journals, as very nearly white, of Louisiana, had received more well-educated, and possessed of the money for her own flesh and blood, rarest personal attractions, and that regularly sold and exported, than her they commanded double and treble soil and all that was upon it would prices on this account, we leave noth- have sold for on the day when she ing to be added to complete the out- seceded from the Union, we need lines of a system of legalized and adduce no more of the million facts priest-sanctioned iniquity, more gi- which unite to prove every wrong a gantic and infernal than heathenism blunder as well as a crime that God and barbarism ever devised. For the has implanted in every evil the seeds Circassian beauty, whose charms of its overthrow and ultimate deseek and find a market at Constanti-struction. nople, is sent thither by her parents, and is herself a willing party to the The conflicting currents of Amerispeculation. She hopefully bids a can thought and action with regard last adieu to the home of her infancy, to Slavery—that which was cherished to find another in the harem of some by the Revolutionary patriots, and wealthy and powerful Turk, where gradually died with them, and that she will achieve the life of luxury by which the former was imperceptiand idleness she covets. But the bly supplanted—are strikingly exhibAmerican-born woman, consigned by ited in the history and progress of the laws of her country and the fiat the movement for African Colonizaof her owner to the absolute


tion. Its originator was the Rev. sion of whomsoever bids most for Samuel Hopkins, D. D., who was her, neither consents to the transfer, settled as a clergyman at Newport, nor is at all consulted as to the per- R. I., in 1770, and found that thrivson to whom she is helplessly con- ing sea-port a focus of Slavery and signed. The Circassian knows that the Slave-Trade, upon both of which her children will be free and honored. he soon commenced an active and The American is keenly aware that determined war. The lea


teracting, and ultimately suppressing, on it early in the following year. the Slave-Trade, through a system- About one thousand emigrants were atic colonization of the western coast dispatched thither in the course of of Africa with emancipated blacks the following seven years, including from America, was matured and sug- a small church of colored persons gested by him to others, even before which migrated from Boston in 1826. the outbreak of the Revolutionary The additional number dispatched war; and its realization, interrupted during the succeeding thirty years by that struggle, was resumed by him was not far from eight thousand. directly after it had been closed. The city founded by the original This was anterior to the British set- emigrants received the name of Montlement of Sierra Leone, and preceded rovia, and in 1847 the colony declared the appearance of Clarkson's prize itself an independent republic under essay, commanding public attention the name of Liberia. That republic to the horrors of the Slave-Trade. still exists, enjoying a moderate and Among Dr. Hopkins's European cor- equable prosperity, in spite of its unrespondents were Granville Sharp healthiness for whites, and for all but and Zachary Macaulay, who were duly acclimated blacks, on account among the earliest and least com- of its tropical and humid location. promising of British abolitionists. But the Colonization movement, Through his influence and efforts, though bountifully lauded and glorithree colored youth were educated fied by the eminent in Church and in New England, toward the close of State, and though the Society numthe last century, with express refer- bered among its Presidents Bushrod ence to missionary labor in Africa in Washington, Charles Carroll, James connection with the Colonization Madison, and Henry Clay, has not movement. Two of these ultimately, achieved a decided success, and for though at a mature age, migrated to the last twenty years has steadily Liberia, where they died soon after. and stubbornly declined in importThirty-eight American blacks emi-ance and consideration. It has grated to Sierra Leone in 1815, ceased to command or deserve the under the auspices and in the vessel sympathy of abolitionists, without of one of their own number. The achieving the hearty confidence, initial organization of the American though it has been blessed or cursed Colonization Society took place at with the abundant verbal commendPrinceton, N. J., in the autumn of ations, of their antagonists. It was 1816; and that Society was formally soon discovered that, while it was organized at Washington, by the presented to the former class as a safe choice of officers, on the 1st of Janu- and unobjectionable device for mitiary, 1817. Its first attempt at prac- gating the evils, while gradually untical colonization was made in 1820 dermining the existence, of human on Sherbro Island, which proved an bondage in our country, it was, at unfortunate location; its present po- the same time, commended to the sition on the main land, at Cape favor and patronage of slaveholders Mesurado, was purchased December as a means of relieving the South of 15, 1821, and some colonists landed | its dangerous free-negro element, and



thus augmenting the security and a follower of Garrison and Wendell insuring the perpetuity of their be- Phillips. The constantly and widely loved institution. Moreover, as the diverging currents of American opinenhanced and constantly increasing ion soon left the Colonization movemarket value of slaves obstructed and ment hopelessly stranded. The diminished manumissions with a view teachings of the new Southern school to colonization, the class of subjects tended palpably toward the extirpafor deportation to Africa steadily tion from the South of the free-negro fell off in numbers, and in the quality anomaly, through reënslavement of those composing it. When, at rather than exile. Legislative efforts last, the South, under the lead of Mr. to decree a general sale of free Calhoun, quite generally adopted the negroes into absolute slavery were novel and extraordinary doctrine of made in several States, barely defeatthe essential righteousness and signal ed in two or three, and fully successbeneficence of Slavery—when the re- ful in one.

ful in one. Arkansas, in 1858–9, lation of life-long servitude and utter enacted the enslavement of all free subjugation to the will of a master colored persons within her limits, was declared the true, natural, and who should not remove beyond them most enviable condition of the la- before the ensuing 4th of July, and boring class anywhere—the condition this atrocious edict was actually enmost conducive to their happiness," forced by her authorities. The nemoral culture, and social well-being-groes generally escaped; but, if any the idea of liberating individuals or remained, they did so in view of the families from this subjugation, and fact that the first sheriff who could sending them from peaceful, plenti- lay hands on them would hurry them ful, and prosperous America to be to the auction-block, and sell them nighted, barbarous, and in hospitable to the highest bidder. And this was Africa, became, in this view, a trans- but a foretaste of the fate to which parent absurdity. No disciple of the new Southern dogma was morally Calhoun could be a logical, con- certain, in a few years, to consign the sistent colonizationist, any more than whole free colored population of the

10 “ What disposition God, in His providence, argument. * * * In the general march of human will eventually make of these blacks, cannot be progress, there is no one interest of humanity foretold; but it is our duty to provide for our which has advanced more rapidly than the instiown happiness and theirs as long as we can. tution of African Slavery as it is in the Southern dealing with this question, it will not do to be States. It has stood the test of every trial. Its guided by abstract notions of liberty and slavery. mission is to subdue the unbroken regions of the We can only judge the future by the past; and, warm and fertile South, and its end is the hapas experience proves that the negro is better off piness and civilization of the human race, includin slavery at the South than in freedom else- ing the race of the slave, in all respects.” where, it is the part of philanthropy to keep him Said Mr. Jas. M. Mason, of Va., in the debate here

, as we keep our children in subjection for their own good.”—De Bow's Review, vol. ii., p.

of the following day:

“As to the slave population, I agree with the Mr. Chestnut of 8. C., in a long pro-slavery Senator from South Carolina. if a problem, it speech in the U. S. Senate, April 9, 1860, pre

has worked itself out; the thing is settled here, sented his views of the inherent excellence of

so far as the South is concerned, or the opinions human bondage, as regards the slaves them

and purposes of the South, or their ability to

make their opinions and purposes good. It will selves, as follows:

become, as it has already begun to be, the estab"But you say, "I leave out of the considera- lished policy of the South to have no more emantion the happiness of the race enslaved.' By no cipation. Let them continue in bondago as they means. It is an important element of the moral now exist, as the best condition of both races.



Slave States, had not those States | resisted and protested, but only to been precipitated into their great be overborne by inexorable logic, and Rebellion. Individuals would have even more inexorable majorities.

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WHEN the State of Louisiana, pre “And provided, That the introduction of viously known as the Territory of Slavery, or involuntary servitude, be prohib

ited, except for the punishment of crimes, Orleans, was admitted into the Un- whereof the party has been duly convicted ion,' the remainder of the Louisiana and that all children born within the said

State, after the admission thereof into the purchase, which had formerly borne Union, shall be declared free at the age of the designation of Louisiana Terri- twenty-five years." tory, was renamed the Territory of On the rising of the Committee, Missouri. The people of a portion the Yeas and Nays were demanded of this Territory, stretching west- in the House on the question of ward from the Mississippi on both agreeing to this amendment; when sides of the river Missouri, peti- a division was called, and so much tioned Congress for admission into of it as precedes and includes the the Union as the State of Missouri; word “convicted” was adopted by and their memorials were referred 87 Yeas—all from the substantially by the House to a Select Committee, Free States except one of the two whereof Mr. Scott, their delegate, members from Delaware — to 76 was chairman. This Committee re- Nays, whereof ten were from Free ported a bill in accordance with their States— Massachusetts (then includprayer, which was read twice and ing Maine) supplying three of them, committed; but no further action was New York three, with one each from taken thereon during that session. New Jersey, New Hampshire, Ohio,

The same Congress reconvened for and Illinois. The residue of the its second session on the 16th of the amendment was likewise sustained, following November, and the House by the close vote of 82 Yeas to 78 resolved itself into a Committee of Nays. The bill thus amended was the whole," and in due time took up ordered to a third reading by 98 the Missouri bill aforesaid, which was Yeas to 56 Nays, and the next day considered throughout that sitting was passed and sent to the Senate, and that of the next day but one, where the restriction aforesaid was during which several amendments stricken out by a vote of 22 to 16, were adopted, the most important and the bill thus amended passed of which, moved by General James without a division, on the last day Tallmadge, of Dutchess County, New but one of the session. Being now York, was as follows:

returned to the House, General Tall.

1 April 8, 1812.

On the 16th of March, 1818. : April 3d. • February 13, 1819.

5 New York and New Jersey still held a few slaves, but the former had decreed their man. umission.



madge moved its indefinite post-Committee three members from Slave ponement, which was defeated States, beside Mr. Scott, who was Yeas 69, Nays 74. But the question chairman, with but one from a Free next presented, of concurrence in the State. In the Senate, the legislative Senate's amendment aforesaid, was memorial aforesaid was referred to decided in the negative-Yeas 76, the Judiciary Committee, consisting Nays 78; and the bill returned to of three members from Slave States the Senate accordingly. The Sen- with but two from Free States. ate insisted on its amendment with Upon the conflict which ensued, out a division; and, on the return of the Slave Power entered with very the bill to the House, Mr. John W. great incidental advantages. The Taylor, of New York, moved that President, Mr. Monroe, though he the House adhere to its disagree took no conspicuous part in the ment; which prevailed —Yeas 78, strife, was well known to favor that Nays 66. And so the bill failed for side, as did a majority of his Cabithat session.

net, so that the patronage of the A bill, organizing so much of the Government and the hopes of aspirTerritory of Missouri as was not in- ants to its favor were powerful makecluded within the borders of the pro- weights against the policy of Restricposed State of that name, to be tion. The two ex-Presidents of the known as the Territory of Arkansas, dominant party, Messrs. Jefferson was considered at this session, and and Madison, still survived, and gave Mr. Taylor, of New York, moved their powerful influence openly in the application thereto of the restric- accordance with their Southern symtion aforesaid. So much of it as pathies rather than their Anti-Slavery required that all slaves born within convictions. Mr. Clay, the popular the Territory after the passage of and potent Speaker of the House, this act should be free at twenty-five though likewise Anti-Slavery in prinyears of age, was carried,' by 75 Yeas ciple, was a zealous and most effito 72 Nays, and the residue defeated cient adversary of Restriction. The by 70 Yeas to 71 Nays. Next day, natural fears of a destruction, or at however, the adopted clause was re- least a temporary prostration, of the considered and stricken out, and the Republican ascendency, through the bill ultimately passed without any rëformation of parties on what were reference to Slavery. Arkansas be called geographical lines, also tended came in consequence a Slave Terri- strongly to defeat the proposed inhitory, and ultimately a Slave State. bition of Slavery. The North, it had

A new Congress convened Decem-by this time come to be understood, ber 6, 1819; and Mr. Scott' moved if beaten in such a struggle, would a reference to a Select Committee quietly submit; while the South, it of the memorials from Missouri, in- was very clearly intimated and gencluding that of her Territorial Legis- erally believed, would shiver all party lature, asking admission into the bands, and perhaps even the Union Union. This motion prevailed, and itself, rather than submit to a defeat Mr. Speaker Clay appointed as such on this issue.

* Some years afterward, Speaker of the House. February 17th.

8 December 8th.

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