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THE DEMOCRACY AT CHARLESTON.
fits of our compact of union, and that all | egation from the State of New York acts of individuals or of State Legislatures to had been chosen by the Convention defeat the purpose or nullify the requirements of that provision, and the laws made which nominated State officers at in pursuance of it, are hostile in character, Syracuse the preceding Autumn; subversive of the Constitution, and revolu- while another had been elected by distionary in their effect.”
tricts, under the auspices of Mr. FerThis, the last of the series, was nando Wood, then Mayor of the Comlikewise adopted, as follows: Yeas mercial Emporium. The former was 36; Nays 6: Yeas as in the first in understood to favor the nomination stance, except that Messrs. Pearce of Senator Douglas for President; the and Thompson did not vote, their latter to oppose it, and incline to enplaces being filled by Messrs. Ten tire acquiescence in whatever the Eyck and Thomson ; while the Nays South might propose or desire. Two were Messrs. Chandler, Clark, Foot, delegations had, in like manner, been Hale, Wade, and Wilson.
chosen from Illinois, under similar The Senate then proceeded, on auspices. The National Committee motion of Mr. Wilson, of Massachu- had issued tickets to what it esteemed setts, to reconsider Mr. Clingman's the regular, or anti-Wood, delegation resolution hitherto given—Mr. Wil- from New York, admitting them to son stating that, for himself and his seats in the Convention, and exfriends, they wished to have nothing cluding their competitors. Francis to do with any part of the series, and B. Flournoy, of Arkansas, was chosen therefore moved the reconsideration; temporary Chairman ; Gen. Caleb which prevailed : Yeas 26; Nays 8. Cushing, of Massachusetts, was, on And the resolution of Mr. Clingman, the second day, made permanent being reconsidered, was rejected.
President, and a Committee on PlatAnd so, Mr. Jefferson Davis's en- form, consisting of one member from tire series, without the change of a each State, appointed. On the third comma, affirming and emphasizing day, the contests were decided in the worst points of the Dred Scott favor of the anti-Wood delegation decision, and asserting as vital truths from New York and the Douglas propositions which even the Southern men from Illinois. On the fourth, Democracy voted down when first
no progress was made. On the fifth, presented to a Democratic National Mr. Avery, of North Carolina, from Convention by Mr. Yancey in 1848, a majority of the Committee on Platwere now adopted by the United form (17 to 14), but representing a States Senate as necessary deductions minority of the People and of the from the fundamental law of the land. Electors of President, reported a
series, whereof the material proposiThe Democratic National Conven- tion was as follows: tion of 1856 had decided that its “ Resolved, That the platform adopted at successor should meet at Charleston,
Cincinnati be affirmed, with the following
resolutions: S.C., which it accordingly did, on the “That the National Democracy of the 23d of April, 1860.
United States hold these cardinal principles
on the subject of Slavery in the Territories: Abundant premonitions of a storm
First, That Congress has no power to abolhad already been afforded. One del. | ish Slavery in the Territories; second, that the Territorial Legislature has no power to Mr. Avery's report from the maabolish Slavery in the Territories, nor to pro- jority was ultimately modified by hibit the introduction of slaves therein, nor any power to destroy or impair the right of him so as to read as follows: property in slaves by any legislation what- ** Resolved, That the platform adopted by ever."
the Democratic party at Cincinnati be Mr. Henry B. Payne, of Ohio, on affirmed, with the following explanatory res
olutions : behalf of the members of said Com
“ First. That the government of a Territory mittee from all the Free States but organized by an act of Congress, is proviCalifornia, Oregon, and Massachu- sional and temporary; and, during its existsetts—States entitled to choose 172 ence, all citizens of the United States have
an equal right to settle with their property Electors, while those represented in in the Territory without their rights
, either the majority report were entitled of person or property, being destroyed or
impaired by congressional or territorial legisto but 127 Electors—reported a plat- lation. form, which, as finally modified, was
“ Second. That it is the duty of the Federal presented by Mr. Samuels, of Iowa, tect, when necessary, the rights of persons
Government, in all its departments, to proin the following shape:
and property in the Territories, and wherever “1. Resolved, That we, the Democracy of
else its constitutional authority extends. the Union, in Convention assembled, hereby
“ Third. That when the settlers in a Terrideclare our affirmance of the resolutions tory having an adequate population form a unanimously adopted and declared as a plat- State Constitution, the right of sovereignty form of principles by the Democratic Con
commences, and, being consummated by advention at Cincinnati, in the year 1856, be
mission into the Union, they stand on an lieving that Democratic principles are un
equal footing with the people of other States; changeable in their nature, when applied to
and the State thus organized ought to be adthe same subject-matters; and we recom
mitted into the Federal Union, whether its mend, as the only further resolutions, the fol- constitution prohibits or recognizes the inlowing:
stitution of Slavery. “Inasmuch as differences of opinion exist in
“ Fourth. That the Democratic party are in the Democratic party as to the nature and favor of the acquisition of the Island of Cuba, extent of the powers of a Territorial Legis- selves and just to Spain, at the earliest prac
on such terms as shall be honorable to ourlature, and as to the powers and duties of Congress, under the Constitution of the
ticable moment. United States, over the institution of Slavery latures to defeat the faithful execution of the
** Fifih. That the enactments of State legiswithin the Territories : will abide by the decisions of the Supreme tionary in their effect. .-2. Resolved, That the Democratic Party Fugitive Slave Law, are hostile in character,
subversive of the Constitution, and revoluCourt of the United States on the questions of Constitutional law.
"Sixth. That the Democracy of the United “3. Resolved, That it is the duty of the
States recognize it as the imperative duty of United States to afford ample and complete citizen in all his rights, whether at home or
this Government to protect the naturalized protection to all its citizens,
whether at home in foreign lands, to the same extent as its or abroad, and whether native or foreign. “4. Resolved, That one of the necessities
native-born citizens. of the age, in a military, commercial, and the age, in a political, commercial, postal
"Whereas, one of the greatest necessities of postal point of view, is speedy communication between the Atlantic and Pacific States; munication between the Pacific and Atlantio
and military point of view, is a speedy comand the Democratic Party pledge such constitutional government aid as will insure the
coasts: Therefore, be it construction of a railroad to the Pacific
“ Resolced, That the Democratic party do coast, at the earliest practicable period.
hereby pledge themselves to use every means “5. Resolred, That the Democratic party
in their power to secure the passage of some are in favor of the acquisition of the Island bill, to the extent of the constitutional auof Cuba, on such terms as shall be honorable thority of Congress, for the construction of to ourselves and just to Spain.
a Pacific Railroad, from the Mississippi River “6. Resoloed, That the enactments of State
to the Pacific Ocean, at the earliest practicaLegislatures to defeat the faithful execution
ble period." of the Fugitive Slave Law, are hostile in [The report concludes with resolves 5 and character, subversive of the Constitution, 6 of the Douglas platform, for which see and revolutionary in their effect."
A VERY ON DEMOCRATIC PLATFORMS.
Gen. Benj. F. Butler, of Massachu- deny that this is the true construction of the setts, disagreeing with both these re- that, when we voted for the Cincinnati plat
Cincinnati platform. We of the South say ports, proposed simply to reäffirm the form, we understood, from the fact that the Cincinnati platform, and there stop.
Territories stand in the same position as the
District of Columbia, that non-interference The majority report, it will be no
and non-intervention in the Territories was ted, was concurred in by the repre- that same sort of non-interference and nonsentatives, in Committee, of each of intervention practiced in the District of Co
lumbia. Now, we maintain that Congress the fifteen Slave States, with those of has no right to prohibit or abolish Slavery California and Oregon. Mr. Avery, in the District of Columbia. Why? Be
cause it is an existing institution. It bein introducing it, very frankly and
comes the duty of Congress under the Confairly set forth its object, and the stitution to protect and cherish the right of grounds of difference with the minor- property in slaves in that District, because
the Constitution does not give them the ity, as follows:
power to prohibit or establish Slavery. “I have stated that we demand at the Every session of Congress, Northern men, hands of our Northern brethren upon this Southern men, men of all parties, are legisfloor that the great principle which we cher- lating to protect, cherish and uphold, the inish should be recognized, and in that view I stitution of Slavery in the District of Columspeak the common sentiments of our consti- | bia. tuents at home; and I intend no reflection “It is said that the Cincinnati platform is upon those who entertain a different opinion, ambiguous, and that we must explain it. At when I say that the results and ultimate the South, we have maintained that it had consequences to the Southern States of this no ambiguity; that it did not mean Popular confederacy, if the Popular Sovereignty doc- Sovereignty; but our Northern friends say trine be adopted as the doctrine of the Demo- that it does mean Popular Sovereignty. cratic party, would be as dangerous and Now, if we are going to explain it and to subversive of their rights as the adoption of declare its principles, I say, let us either dethe principle of Congressional intervention clare them openly, boldly, squarely, or let us or prohibition. We say that, in a contest for leave it as it is in the Cincinnati Platform. the occupation of the Territories of the I want, and we of the South want, no more United States, the Southern men encumbered doubtful platforms upon this or any other with slaves cannot compete with the Emi- question. We desire that this Convention grant Aid Society at the North. We say should take a bold, square stand. What do that the Emigrant Aid Society can send a the minority of the committee propose ? voter to one of the Territories of the United Their solution is to leave the question to the States, to determine a question relating to decision of the Supreme Court, and agree to Slavery, for the sum of $200; while it would abide by any decision that may be made by cost the Southern man the sum of $1500. that tribunal between the citizens of a TerWe say, then, that, wherever there is compe- ritory upon the subject. Why, gentlemen tition between the South and the North, that of the minority, you cannot help yourselves ! the North can and will, at less expense and That is no concession to us. There is no difficulty, secure power, control, and do- necessity for putting that in the platform, minion over the Territories of the Federal because I take it for granted that you are all Government; and if, then, you establish the law-abiding citizens. Every gentleman here doctrine that a Territorial Legislature which from a non-slaveholding State is a lawmay be established by Congress in any Ter- abiding citizen; and, if he be so, why we ritory has the right, directly or indirectly, to know that, when there is a decision of the affect the institution of Slavery, then you can Supreme Court, even adverse to his views, see that the Legislature by its action, either he will submit to it. directly or indirectly, may finally exclude "You say that this is a judicial question. every man from the slaveholding States as We say that it is not. But, if it be a judicial effectually as if you had adopted the Wilmot question, it is immaterial to you how the Proviso out and out.
platform is made, because all you will have “ But we are told that, in advocating the to say is, “This is a judicial question ; the doctrine we now do, we are violating the majority of the Convention were of one principles of the Cincinnati platform. They opinion; I may entertain my own opinion Bay that the Cincinnati platform is a Popular upon the question ; let the Supreme Court Sovereignty platform; that it was intended settle it.' to present and practically enforce that great “Let us make a platform about which there principle. Now, we who made this report can be no doubt, so that every man, North
and South, may stand side by side on all | Virginia, 1; Missouri, 4; Tennessee, 1; issues connected with Slavery, and advocate Kentucky, 21; Ohio, 23; Indiana, 13; Illithe same principles. That is all we ask. nois, 11; Michigan, 6; Wisconsin, 5; Iowa, All we demand at your hands is, that there 4; Minnesota, 4-165. shall be no equivocation and no doubt in the Nays-Massachusetts, 6; New Jersey, 2; popular inind as to what our principles are." Pennsylvania, 15; Delaware, 3; Maryland,
4}; Virginia, 14; North Carolina, 10; South Mr. Payne, on the other side, quo- Carolina, 8; Georgia, 10; Florida, 3; Alated at length from the Cincinnati bama, 9; Louisiana, 6; Mississippi, 7; platform, from Mr. Buchanan's let. Texas, 4; Arkansas, 14; Missouri, 6; Ten
nessee, 11; Kentucky, 91; California, 4; ter of acceptance, and from speeches Oregon, 3—138. of Howell Cobb, John C. Breckin
Hereupon, Mr. L. P. Walker, of ridge, James L. Orr, A. H. Ste-Alabama, presented the written prophens, Judah P. Benjamin, James test of the delegates from that State, A. Bayard, James M. Mason, Robert 28 in number, showing that they Toombs, etc., to show that Non
were expressly instructed by the Intervention with ‘Popular Sover- State Convention which elected them eignty was the original and estab- not to acquiesce in or submit to any lished Democratic doctrine with re- Squatter Sovereignty’ platform, but gard to Slavery in the Territories.
to withdraw from the Convention in The debate was continued, amid
case such a one should be adopted. great excitement and some disorder, Among the resolves so adopted and until Monday, April 30th, when the made binding on their delegates by question was first taken on Gen. the Alabama State Convention, were Butler's proposition; which was de
the following: feated-Yeas 105; Nays 198-as
“1. Resolved, by the Democracy of the State follows:
of Alobama in Convention assembled, That Yeas–Maine, 3; Massachusetts, 8; Con- holding all issues and principles upon which necticut, 21; New Jersey, 5; Pennsylvania, they have heretofore affiliated and acted 164; Delaware, 3; Maryland, 64; Virginia with the National Democratic Party to be 12}; North Carolina, 10; Georgia, 10; Mis- inferior in dignity and importance to the souri, 4}; Tennessee, i1; Kentucky, 9; great question of Slavery, they content Minnesota, 14; Oregon, 3—105.
themselves with a general reaffirmance of Nays-Maine, 5; New Hampshire, 5;
the Cincinnati platform as to such issues, Vermont, 5; Massachusetts, 5; Rhode Is
and also indorse said platform as to Slavery, land, 4; Connecticut, 3}; New York, 35 ; together with the following resolutions : New Jersey, 2; Pennsylvania, 10); Mary- * 2. Resolved further, That we reaffirm so land, 2}; Virginia, 24; South Carolina, 8;
much of the first resolution of the platform Florida, 3; Alabama, 9; Louisiana, 6; Mis- adopted in the Convention by the Demosissippi, 7; Texas, 4; Arkansas, 4; Missouri, cracy of this State, on the 8th of January, 41; Tennessee, 1; Kentucky, 3 ; 'Ohio, 23; | 1856, as relates to the subject of Slavery, to Indiana, 13; Illinois, 11 ; Michigan, 6 ; Wis
wit: “The unqualified right of the people consin, 5; Iowa, 4; Minnesota, 24; Califor- of the Slaveholding States to the protection nia, 4–198.
of their property in the States, in the Terri
tories, and in the wilderness in which TerThe question was next taken on ritorial Governments are as yet unorganthe regular minority report, as pre
ized.' sented in a modified form by Mr.
" 3. Resolred further, That, in order to meet
and clear away all obstacles to a full enjoySamuels; which was adopted, by the ment of this right in the Territories, we refollowing vote:
affirm the principle of the 9th resolution of
the Platform adopted in Convention by the Yeas–Maine, 8; New IIampshire, 5 ; Ver- | Democracy of this State, on the 14th of mont, 5; Massachusetts, 7; Rhode Island, February, 1848, to wit: “That it is the duty 4; Connecticut, 6; New York, 35; New of the General Government, by all proper Jersey, 5; Pennsylvania, 12 ; Maryland, 3!; legislation. to secure an entry into those
ALABAMA ON DEMOCRATIC PLATFORMS.
Territories to all the citizens of the United | recognizing distinctly the rights of the South, States, together with their property of every as asserted in the foregoing resolutions; and description ; and that the same should be if the said National Convention shall refuse protected by the United States while the to adopt, in substance, the propositions emTerritories are under its authority.'
braced in the preceding resolutions, prior to “4. Resolred further, That the Constitution nominating candidates, our delegates to said of the United States is a compact between Convention are hereby positively instructed sovereign and co-ëqual States, united upon to withdraw therefrom. the basis of perfect equality of rights and “11. Resolved further, That our delegates privileges.
to the Charleston Convention shall cast the "5. Resolved further, That the Territories vote of Alabama as a unit, and a majority of of the United States are common property, our delegates shall determine how the vote in which the States have equal rights, and of this state shall be given. to which the citizens of every State may “12. Resolved further, That an Executive rightfully emigrate, with their slaves or Committee, to consist of one from each Conother property recognized as such in any of gressional District, be appointed, whose duty the States of the Union, or by the Constitu- it shall be, in the event that our delegates tion of the United States.
withdraw from the Charleston Convention, “6. Resolved further, That the Congress of in obedience to the 10th resolution, to call the United States has no power to abolish a Convention of the Democracy of Alabama Slavery in the Territories, or to prohibit its to meet at an early day to consider what is introduction into any of them.
best to be done." "7. Resolved further, That the Territorial Legislatures, created by the legislation of The Alabama delegation concluded Congress, have no power to abolish Slavery, with the following statement: or to prohibit the introduction of the same, or to impair by unfriendly legislation the “The points of difference between the security and full enjoyment of the same Northern and the Southern Democracy are: within the Territories; and such constitu- “1. As regards the status of Slavery as a tional power certainly does not belong to political institution in the Territories whilst the people of the Territories in any capacity, they remain Territories, and the power of before, in the exercise of a lawful authority, the people of a Territory to exclude it by they form a Constitution preparatory to ad- unfriendly legislation; and mission as a State into the Union; and their "2. As regards the duty of the Federal action, in the exercise of such lawful au- Government to protect the owner of slaves thority, certainly cannot operate or take in the enjoyment of his property in the Tereffect before their actual admission as a ritories so long as they remain such. State into the Union.
“ This Convention has refused, by the Plat“8. Resolved further, That the principles form adopted, to settle either of these propenunciated by Chief Justice Taney, in his ositions in favor of the South. We deny opinion in the Dred Scott case, deny to the to the people of a Territory any power to Territorial Legislature the power to destroy legislate against the institution of Slavery; or impair, by any legislation whatever, the and we assert that it is the duty of the Federight of property in slaves, and maintain it ral Government, in all its departments, to to be the duty of the Federal Government, protect the owner of slaves in the enjoyment in all of its departments, to protect the of his property in the Territories. These rights of the owner of such property in the principles, as we state them, are embodied Territories; and the principles so declared in the Alabama Platform. are hereby asserted to be the rights of the “Here, then, is a plain, explicit and direct South, and the South should maintain them. issue between this Convention and the con
“9. Resolved further, That we hold all of stituency which we have the honor to reprethe foregoing propositions to contain cardi- sent in this body. nal principles-true in themselves--and just “ Instructed, as we are, not to waive this and proper and necessary for the safety of issue, the contingency, therefore, has arisen, all that is dear to us; and we do hereby in- when, in our opinion, it becomes our duty struct our delegates to the Charleston Con- to withdraw from this Convention. We beg, vention to present them for the calm con- Sir, to communicate this fact through you, sideration and approval of that body-from and to assure the Convention that we do so whose justice and patriotism we anticipate in no spirit of anger, but under a sense of their adoption.
imperative obligation, properly appreciating “10. Resolved further, That our delegates its responsibilities and cheerfully submitting to the Charleston Convention are hereby to its consequences.” expressly instructed to insist that said Convention shall adopt a platform of principles, The Alabama delegation, which