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still existed in the British West In “Three hundred negroes, men, women, and dies at the time their slaves were lib-children, and about twenty Indians, were in

the fort; of these two hundred and seventy erated ; but refused to pay for those were killed, and the greater part of the rest of the Enterprise, or any other slaver mortally wounded." that might be brought on British soil Commodore Patterson, in his offisubsequently to the passage of her cial letter to the Secretary of the Emancipation act. Importunity and Navy, expressly justifies the destrucmenace were alike exhausted by our tion of this fort on the ground of diplomatists down to a recent period, its affording a harbor "for runaway but to no purpose. Great Britain slaves and disaffected Indians:" addstubbornly refused either to unite ing, “they have no longer a place to with us in a reciprocal surrender of fly to, and will not be so liable to fugitive slaves to their masters, or in abscond.” paying for such as, by their own ef The resistance interposed by Gen. forts, or through the interposition of Cass, our Minister at Paris in 1840– Providence, might emerge from Amer 41, to the treaty negotiated between ican bondage into British liberty. the Great Powers, conceding a mutu

Our repeated invasions of Florida, al right to search on the slave-coast while a Spanish colony, our purchase of Africa, with a view to the more of that colony from Spain, and our effectual suppression of the Slaveunjust, costly, and discreditable wars Trade, though cloaked by a jealousy upon her Aboriginal tribes, were all of British maritime preponderance, prompted by a concern for the inter- was really a bid for the favor of the ests and security of the slaveholders Slave Power. The concession, by of southern Georgia and Alabama, our Government, of the right to whose chattels would persist in fol- search, since that Government has lowing each other out of Christian passed out of the hands of the devobondage into savage freedom. Gen. tees of Slavery, is suggestive. It Jackson, in 1816, wrote to Gen. was American Slavery, not AmeriGaines with respect to a fort in can commerce, that dreaded the visFlorida, then a Spanish possession : itation of our vessels on the western

If the fort harbors the negroes of our coast of central Africa by National citizens, or of friendly Indians living within cruisers, intent on the punishment of our territory, or holds out inducements to the slaves of our citizens to desert from a crime which had already been protheir owners' service, it must be destroyed. nounced piracy by the awakened Notify the Governor of Pensacola of your conscience of Christendom. advance into his territory, and for the express purpose of destroying these lawless In fact, so long as more than one banditti."

hundred members of Congress were Gen. Gaines, for some reason, did chosen to represent, to advance, and not execute this order; but a gun to guard, before all else, the interests boat, sent up the Apalachicola river of Slavery, and one hundred electoby our Commodore Patterson, on the ral votes were controlled, primarily, 27th of July, attacked and destroyed by that interest, it was morally imposthe fort by firing red-hot shot, explo- sible that our Government should not ding its magazine. The result is thus be warped into subserviency to our summed up in the official report: National cancer. A peculiar insti

tution, creating and upholding the people. In the Annexation of Texas, title to a species of property valued and in the reasons officially adduced at Four Thousand Millions of dollars, therefor, it challenged the regard of could hardly fail to make itself re- mankind and defied the consciences spected and influential in every de- of our own citizens as a great Napartment of the public service, and tional interest, to the protection of through every act of the Federal which, at all hazards and under all authorities calculated to affect its circumstances, our Government was stability, its prosperity, or its power. inflexibly committed, and with whose

But, up to this time, Slavery had fortunes those of our country were sought and obtained the protection inextricably blended. For the first and championship of the Federal time, our Union stood before the Government expressly as a domestic nations, not merely as an upholder, institution—as an important interest but as a zealous, unscrupulous propaof a certain portion of the American gandist of Human Slavery.



The Federal Constitution (Art. When this Article was under coniv. $ 2) provides that “ The citizens sideration, the delegates from South “ of each State shall be entitled to all Carolina moved to amend by insert" the privileges and immunities of ing the word " white” between “ citizens in the several States." “ free" and "inhabitants;" which

This is plainly condensed from the was emphatically negatived — only corresponding provision of the Arti- two States voting for it: so it was cles of Confederation, adopted in determined that States had, or might 1778, and thenceforth our bond of have, citizens who were not " white,” Union, until superseded in 1787–8 and that these should be entitled to by the Federal Constitution afore- all the privileges of citizens in every said. That provision is as follows: other State.

“ Art. 4. The better to secure and per We have seen' that Congress, in petuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different states in 1821, resisted the attempt of Misthe Union, the free inhabitants of each souri to prohibit the immigration State —— paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives of free colored persons, deeming it a from justice excepted — shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of free palpable violation of that requirecitizens in the several States; and the peo- ment of the Federal Constitution ple of each State shall have free ingress and egress to and from any other State, and above quoted; and would not ad. shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade mit that State into the Union until, and commerce, subject to the same duties, by a second compromise, she was re impositions, and restrictions, as the inhabitants thereof respectively."

quired to pledge herself that her | Page 80.



Legislature should pass no act “ by

North Carolina allowed her free " which any of the citizens of either negroes, who possessed the requisite " of the States should be excluded qualifications in other respects, to " from the enjoyment of the privi- vote, regardless of their color, down "leges and immunities to which they to about 1830. Their habit of vot" are entitled under the Constitution ing for the Federal or Whig candi“ of the United States.” There was dates, and against the Democratic, no question pending, no proscription was a subject of frequent and jocular or exclusion meditated, but that af- remark—the Whigs insisting that fecting colored persons only; and the instincts of the negro impelled Congress, by the above action, clear- him uniformly to associate, so far as ly affirmed their right, when citizens practicable, with the more gentleof any State, to the privileges and manly portion of the white race. immunities of citizens in all other In the year 1835," the Legislature States.

of South Carolina saw fit to pass an The assumption that negroes are act, whereby any and every colored not, and cannot be, citizens, is abund- person found on board of any vessel antly refuted by the action of several entering one of her ports was to be of the Slave States themselves. Till forth with seized by her municipal within a recent period, free negroes officers, and lodged in jail; there to were not merely citizens, but electors, remain until the vessel should be of those States—which all citizens cleared for departure, when said are not, or need not be. John Bell, colored person or persons should be when first elected to Congress, in restored to said vessel, on payment 1827, running out Felix Grundy, re- of the cost and charges of arrest, deceived the votes of several colored tention, and subsistence. electors, and used, long after, to con This act necessarily bore with fess his obligation to them.

great hardship on the colored sea* December 19th.

in every such case it shall be the duty of the * The following is a portion of the act in ques

sheriff aforesaid, immediately on the apprehen

sion of any free negro or person of color, to tion:

cause said captain to enter into a recognizance, II. And be it further enacted by the authority with good and sufficient security, in the sum of aforesaid, That it shall not be lawful for any one thousand dollars, for such free negro or free negro, or person of color, to come into this slave so brought into this State, that he will State, on board any vessel, as a cook, steward, comply with the requisitions of this act; and or mariner, or in any other employment on that, on his neglect, or refusal, or disability to board such vessel; and, in case any vessel shall do the same, he shall be compelled by the shearrive in any port or harbor of this State, from riff aforesaid to haul said vessel into the stream, any other State or foreign port, having on board one hundred yards distant from the shore, and any free negro or person of color, employed on remain until said vessel shall proceed to sea board such vessel as a cook, steward, or mari And if said vessel shall not be hauled off from ner, or in any other employment, it shall be the the shore as aforesaid on the order of the sheriff duty of the sheriff of the district in which such aforesaid, the captain or commanding officer of port or harbor is situated, immediately on the said vessel shall be indicted therefor, and, on arrival of such vessel, to apprehend such free conviction, forfeit and pay one thousand dollars, negro or person of color, so arriving contrary to and suffer imprisonment not exceeding six this Act, and to confine him or her closely in months. jail, until such vessel shall be hauled off from "III. And be it further enacted by the authority the wharf, and ready to proceed to sea. And aforesaid, That whenever any free negro or per. that, wben said vessel is ready to sail, the cap son of color shall be apprehended or committed tain of the said vessel shall be bound to carry to jail, as having arrived in any vessel in the away such free negro or person of color, and to capacity of cook, steward, mariner, or otherwise, pay the expenses of his or her detention. And | contrary to this Act, it shall be the duty of the

men, cooks, etc., of Northern vessels the fact, and stating the purpose of trading to Charleston. Massachu- his mission to be," the collecting setts, therefore, at length resolved, and transmission of accurate informathrough the action of her Legisla- tion respecting the number and the ture,' to test its constitutionality by names of citizens of Massachusetts, instituting legal proceedings, which who have heretofore been, or may should bring it ultimately to an ad be, during the period of the engagejudication by the Supreme Court of ment of the agent, imprisoned withthe United States. To this end, out the allegation of any crime.” Gov. Briggs appointed Hon. Sam- He further stated that he was auuel Hoar-one of her most emi- thorized to bring and prosecute one nent and venerable citizens, who had or more suits in behalf of any

citizen served her with honor in many im- so imprisoned, for the purpose of portant trusts, including a seat in having the legality of such imprisonCongress--to proceed to Charleston, ment tried and determined in the and there institute the necessary pro- Supreme Court of the United States. ceedings, in order to bring the mat The next morning, Mr. Hoar callter to judgment. Mr. Hoar accepted ed on Mr. Eggleston, who had been this new duty, and left home accord appointed to the same agency before ingly in November, 1844, for Charles- him, and requested of him an introton; reaching that city on the 28th duction to the Mayor of Charleston, of that month. So utterly unsuspect- his object being to procure access to ing was he of giving offense, or pro- the records of orders or sentences, voking violence, that his young under which citizens of Massachudaughter accompanied him.

setts, it was understood, had been On the day of his arrival, Mr. imprisoned. Mr. Eggleston acceded Hoar addressed a letter to the Gov- to his request, but said it would be ernor of South Carolina,' announcing best that he should first see the

sheriff, during the confinement in jail of such | land or by water, after having been warned as free negro or person of color, to call upon some aforesaid, shall be dealt with as the first section justice of the peace or quorum, to warn such of this Act directs in regard to persons of color, free negro or person of color never to enter the who shall migrate, or be brought, into this said State after he shall have departed there- State." from, and such justice of the peace, or quorum, shall, at the time of warning such free negro, or

It may be as well to add that the penalty of person of color, insert his or her name in a the first section referred to, is corporal punishbook, to be provided for that purpose by the ment for the first offense: “and if, after said sheriff, and shall therein specify his or her age, sentence or punishment, such free negro or peroccupation, hight, and distinguishing marks; which book shall be good and sufficient evidenco

son of color shall still rem in in the State longer to such warning; and said book shall be a pub than the time allowed, or, having left the State, lic record, and be subject and open to the exam

shall thereafter return to the same, upon proof ination of all persons who may make application and conviction thereof before a court, to be conto the clerk of the court of general sessions, in stituted as hereinbefore directed, he or she shall whose office it shall be deposited. And such justice shall receive the sum of two dollars, pay

be appropriated and applied, one half thereof to the able by the captain of the vessel in which said use of the State, and the other half to the use of the free negro or person of color shall be introduc. informer." ed into this State, for the services rendered in making said entry. And every free negro, or

* Resolves of March 24, 1843, and March 16, person of color, who shall not depart the State, 1844. in case of the captain refusing or neglecting to carry him or her away, or, having departed,

5 Hon. James H. Håmmond, since distinguish. shall again enter into the limits of this state, by ed as a U. S. Senator.



Mayor, and explain the matter in more material provisions are as foladvance of the proposed introduction. lows: Mr. Hoar assented, and Eggleston left

"J. Be it enacted by the Senate and House Mr. H. waiting in his office, while he of Representatives, nou met and sitting in proceeded to confer with the Mayor. General Assembly and by authority of the After a considerable absence, he re

same, That any person or persons who shall

on his, her, or their own behalf, or under turned, and stated that the Mayor any color, or in virtue of any commission was at Columbia, attending the ses

or authority from any State in this Union, sion of the Legislature, and that the limits of this state for the purpose or with

or of any foreign power, come within the gentleman who temporarily discharg- the intent to disturb, counteract, or hinder ed the duties of the officer judged it the operation of such laws as have been or

shall be made by the public authorities of best that all further proceedings this State, in relation to slaves or free pershould await his return. This was sons of color, such person or persons shall assented to, and Mr. Hoar waited and shall be committed for trial to the com

be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, through the next three days accord- mon jail of the district, by any one of the ingly.

judges of the courts of law or equity, or the

recorder of the city of Charleston, unless Meantime, Gov. Hammond had admitted to bail by the said judge or rereceived Mr. Hoar's letter, and com-corder; and, upon due conviction thereof by municated it to the Legislature, by be sentenced to banishment from the State,

any court of competent jurisdiction, shall which it was received in high dudg- and to such fine and imprisonment as may eon. That Legislature proceeded to be deemed fitting by the court which shall pass, by a substantially unanimous have tried such offense.

“II. That any person within this State vote, the following resolutions : who shall at any time accept any commis

sion or authority from any State, or public * Resolved, 1st, That the right to exclude authority of any State in this Union, or from from their territories seditious persons, or

any foreign power, in relation to slaves or others whose presence may be dangerous to

free persons of color, and who shall commit their peace, is essential to every independ- peace or security of this state, or with in

any overt act with intent to disturb the ent State.

tent to disturb, counteract, or hinder the " Resolved, 2d, That free and other persons of color are not citizens of the United operation of the laws or regulations of the States, within the meaning of the Constitu- public authorities of this state, made or to tion, which confers upon the citizens of one

be made, in relation to slaves or free perState the privileges and immunities of citi. guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction

sons of color, such person shall be deemed zens of the several States. * Resoloed, 3d, That the emissary sent by be sentenced to pay, for the first offense, a

thereof, before any competent court, shall the State of Massachusetts to the State of South Carolina, with the avoued purpose of

fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, interfering with her institutions, and dis

and to be imprisoned not exceeding one turbing her peace, is to be regarded in the year; for the second offense, he shall be character he has assumed, and to be treated imprisoned for seven years, and pay a fine

not less than one thousand dollars, or be accordingly.

banished from the State, as the court may " Resolved, 4th, That his Excellency the

see fit." Governor bé requested to expel from our territory the said agent, after due notice to [The act furthermore requires that the depart; and that the Legislature will sus Governor for the time being shall require tain the Executive authority in any meas

the aforesaid emissary or emissaries from ure it may adopt for the purpose aforesaid.”

another State, or from a foreign power, to The Legislature proceeded di- depart from the limits of the State in fortyrectly thereafter to pass an act for- lecting to depart within the specified time,

eight hours—such person or persons, negbidding and punishing such missions to be committed (unless admitted to bail), as that of Mr. Hoar, whereof the and to be tried and punished as before

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