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'o this greater Sclavonic movement, em- | :ing also the insurrection of the Bohens at Prague, the contests between the mans and the Poles, both in Poscn Galicia, and the revolution in the lubian principalities of Turkey, we now 3 more directly our attention. 'he Sclavonic race, coming originally Q Asia, appears to have existed for ie thousand years in the north-east of ope. The Greeks and Romans despised distant Slavi, and contented themselves Q giving to the vast regions occupied them, in connection with the Finni, the Tie names of Scythia and Sarmatia. eir descendants, which still possess a je part of Eastern Europe, consist prinally of the Russians, the different Sclalic tribes in Hungary, the Bohemians, ; Poles, and the Lithuanians. The relationship of a common descent is tnowledsred among all these nations, expting between the Poles and the Rusns ; and within a few years, many of the iding minds of the more westerly Sclanic countries have entertained the design
lent was not countersigned by an Austrian inister, but by Count Veczy himself. The secd decree, addressed to the county magistrals, placed the kingdom under martial law, the ird dissolved the Diet, on the ground of the il^ality of its late proceedings, declaring all its ts to be null and void, which had not received e imperial sanction; and appointed Baron Joph Jcllachich dictator of Hungary, with su•eme powers, both civil and military. This assassin's blow, aimed from behind at the Oerty of a great enfranchised nation, has been iralyzed by still another insurrection at Vienna, id by the second flight of Ferdinand, as pusilinimous as double-faced, from his capital. On ie occurrence of these events, the Constituent .ssembly of Austria immediately revoked the owers conferred upon Jellachich; and the latter, i consequence, will no longer be sustained by ie secret intrigues or the open aid of the govcmig power at Vienna. The latest reports repreent him to have been defeated. This will, unoubtcdly, be his fate, sooner or later, as, alhough his position, extending from Raab on the Janube, on the left, to the Flatten See and the Jakonyes forest, on the right, is one of great miliary strength, his army, hastily collected and imperfectly equipped, is particularly deficient in hat right arm of war, the artillery. The independence of Hungary, favored as it will be by he supremacy of the popular party at Vienna, annot fail, we think, to be established, wliatever nay be the fate of the Austrian Empire, now lhaken again by insurrection at its centre, as well is by revolt in its extremities. [Vienna corre*pondence of London papers.]
of strengthening these ties of brotherhood. The principal means employed for effecting this purpose have been the interchange of sentiments, various forms of association, and the cultivation of their common language and literature. Russia, also, favoring the idea of a national hegemony, has zealously patronized Sclavonic letters beyond her own borders, and particularly in Hungary. 'Every Hungarian writer of reputation, employing this tongue, has been openly and freely rewarded with Russian favor, if not with stipends. A Sclavonic propaganda is said to have been founded and maintained in this country by northern gold and influence; and that it has been mainly in consequence of its exertions, that the dream has been cherished by some ardent friends of Sclavonic nationality, of establishing a monarchy of their own on the ruins of the Magyar dominion. Certain it is that the principal portion of the Sclavonic population in Hungary delight to call themselves by the name of Itussnyaks, and, being of the Greek communion, openly pray for the Emperor of Russia, as our "Czar," even at Pesth and Presburg.
The recent revolution in France, and the political disorganization of the German States, gave a very great impulse to the centralizing tendency among the Sclavonians. Hence the origin of the Congress of Prague. Immediately after the triumph of the people of Vienna, the friends of Sclavonic nationality in the Austrian Empire agreed to assemble at Prague, on the thirty-first day of May, to deliberate on their common interests. Besides representatives from the various Sclavonic provinces of Austria, a considerable number of distinguished individuals from other lands inhabited by the same race, were invited to be present. The call was very generally answered; and at the time appointed, the ancient city of Prague saw its quiet streets animated with deputies, speaking in different dialects, and dressed in the various and gaunty costumes of Czecks, Poles, Croatians, Dalmatians and Illyrians. They represented eleven millions of their countrymen. On the second of June, the Congress was formally organized. A committee, appointed to draw up a series of resolutions, expressive of the views of the Assembly respecting the subject of Sclavonic interests, subsequently made an elaborate report. Of this, the first clause asserted the necessity of forming a league offensive and defensive between all Sclaves, as the only means of restoring the lost strength and faded splendor, as well as maintaining the new constitutional liberties of the empire. The second clause declared the importance of preserving, as the basis of this peoples' league, each one of the distinct nationalities of Austria ; and to this end, recommending the formation at Vienna of a general Austrian diet, in which the different nationalities should be duly represented. The third resolution advises the establishment of a system of literary intercouse between different branches of the race. The fourth asserts that they will not allow Austria to occupy a subordinate position in the proposed German Empire; and that the Sclaves will not recognize the decrees of the Frankfort Parliament as binding. The last clause proposes that a deputation should wait upon the Emperor, informing him of the resolutions of the Congress.
Before any action, however, was taken on these resolutions, the breaking out of the Czcckish insurrection in Prague put a stop to the deliberations of the Congress, and finally resulted in its premature dissolution.*
The Congress, it is true, observed the form of loyalty to the Emperor, but whether it possessed its spirit may well be the subject of doubt. It appears to have been the sense of the members of the Assembly that the Austrian Empire ought to be Sclave, a majority of its people being of that race; and that if the German provinces should become incorporated with the new Teutonic confederation, it would become necessary for the others to form a separate state.
This idea the Sclavonic population of Bohemia were quite too ready to reduce to practice; for some vision of a national empire, including Russia, seems to have been one of the principal causes of the insurrection at Prague. Their hatred of the Austrian Government, however, was of long standing. For many years a systematic effort has been making to revive the use of the Czcckish language and customs, in opposition to those of their con
* Die Allgemeine Zeitung von Augsburg.
querors. Previously to the breaks;;; of the recent Revolutions, therefore, is national feeling had become rerr sr^, and the national parly well organnrd i Bohemia. So imbittered, indeed, h»: £j province become against the sgjr-^ryet weak and vacillating policy >.i' i administration of Metteroich, thai usrbands of Czecks were formed in no* districts, for the purpose of overarisg it German population, and ultimately na» ing the Austrian government. These assisted principally of fanatical young aw who dressed and armed themsehes ae the fashion of the time of the puna Zyska, and were called the Sworcoisin all about twenty thousand. The zumph of the people at Vienna weakat still further the German party in Bckmia; and when the governor, in obedieai to instructions received from the *f» Austrian administration, gave orders fe the election of members to the Fruik'fl Parliament to be held in Prague, cc; three votes were tendered, and the people could hardly be restrained from eift ling the officer who had ordered the opaa» of the polls.
At length, when the abrupt defin?" of Ferdinand from his capital had f.'< duced an interregnum of authority in lit empire, the National Committee alPngw resolved on establishing a separate ntsu administration in Bohemia. A pro** ional government was accordingly forai with Count Leo Thun at its head, >at with a majority of its members seksta from the most determined friends of Cat ish nationality. The new ministry owe diately sent a deputation to Innsprack,* request the imperial sanction for the n» lution, and to demand the recojniiic i the right of Bohemia to a separate »i^» istration of government, respond K itself alone.
This mission was unsuccessful; £* • conflict of protocols, whkh bad t"* opened with the Cabinet at Vienna. "* followed by a more serious war of «r* The immediate occasion of the ouib-ts* which occurred on the twelfth of '**• was the refusal of the commander of* garrison in Prague, Prince Windbehg"^ to supply the students of that city «*• arms and ammunition. The C*«»* population, encouraged to revolt kj *' priests, took up the cause of the 1*"* Barricades thereupon were erected; and the populace, at the same time, proceeded n great numbers to the headquarters of he commandant. Here, -amid the uproar )f the people, a fatal shot, directed awards the windows of the palace, struck lown the wife of Prince Windischgratz; mother severely wounded his eldest son, ,n officer of the Cuirassiers. But the ommander, meeting with Roman equalimity the shock of this sudden calamity, ppeared before the infuriated people, and ddresscd them in words, which deserve o be recorded on the page of history to is honor.
"If this is meant," said he, "as a harivari for me, because my name is V'indischgratz, and because I am called Q aristocrat, yonder is my private resience. You are free to go to it. But if
is directed against me as an officer, and gainst this public edifice, I will show you commander who knows how to do his uty.
"My wife lies before me a pallid corpse; it I address you with words of kindness id conciliation."
But the time for words was past; that r actions had come. The people, becomg more riotous, were forced back by the innon of the artillery; and the troops ok possession of the principal streets. at more or less skirmishing continued itil the 15th, the women acting their irt in the fray with characteristic fury; d the fighting, wherever it did take ace, was of the most desperate characr. One man, who had rendered himself rticularly obnoxious to the Czecks, was ucified; several captured soldiers were urdered; noses and ears were cut off; d many other acts of atrocity were comtted, as cruel as those which, during e Hussite wars, stained the name of the fborites.
On the 15th, after negotiations had been ed to no purpose, and the military had en galled by the irregular firing of the ople, until their patience was well nigh hausted, the commanding general withew his troops from the streets, in which 3y could act with little advantage, and mbarded the town from the neighboring ights. The old city of Prague was iken to its foundations, and many a ner.ible relic of the middle ages was 3t down to the ground. These severe
measures soon quelled the spirits of the insurrection. The leaders surrendered on the evening of the 17th; the town was reoccupied by the troops; and the dominion of Austria was established more firmly than before.
Thus ended the plot to drive the Germans out of Bohemia, and to found on the ruins of the Austrian dominion an Empire of the Czecks. For that this was the design of the leaders of the insurrection was known, in fact, beforehand hy the government at Vienna, by means of information communicated from Russia, whose aid had been invoked by the conspirators. The hopes of the rebellion having been completely annihilated, the Czeckish and German parties in Bohemia, when the new constitution for the States of Austria was proclaimed, went through the ceremony of a reconciliation in a "grand festival of fraternity." We hope that it was more than a ceremony ; but until Sclavonic and Teutonic blood mingle more freely together than it has yet done, the old enmity of the r.ices, it is to be feared, will not die out in Bohemia.*
Equally futile, though far more sanguinary than the insurrection of the Czecks against the Austrians, has been that of the Poles in the grand duchy of Posen against the Prussians. Here the contest seems to have had no oilier purpose than to gratify the antipathy of the two races, though it had for n pretence the line of division recently run through the duchy, by order of the Prussian government, with the design of incorporating the western districts into Germany, and conferring a separate and national organization upon the eastern division, inhabited principally by Poles.
Afterthe establishment of constitutional liberty at Berlin, the Poles inhabiting the grand duchy of Posen demanded of the Prussian monarch a national reorganization of the province, similar to that asked for by the kingdom of Bohemia, from the Emperor of Austria. Public opinion in Prussia, then enthusiastic in the cause of free institutions, compelled the King to grant the petition of his Polish subjects. Accordingly, a committee, composed half of Germans and half of Poles, was appointed to confer with a royal commis
* Gazette de Cologne, London Time
sioner, Count Wilbain, on the necessary proceedings to be adopted in order to carry the wishes of the people, and the consent of the King into effect. The plan, at first, was very favorably received by the German inhabitants of the grand duchy. But when the self-styled National Committee, which had been formed at Posen, consisting entirely of Poles, undertook to supersede the then existing German authorities; to give orders to the troops; and, by various acts, assumed an attitude toward the German population, which said, You are our subjects, the old jealousy and enmity of race was aroused throughout the western districts. Thereupon the Germans lost no time in remonstrating against the proposed changes, which threatened to bring them under Sclavonic rule; and afterwards, the Prussian cabinet delaying to proceed with the proposed reorganization, they followed up their remonstrance with a prayer to be separated from the duchy, and to be incorporated into Germany.
The king was not reluctant to comply with the wishes of those who desired to become more closely allied to their fatherland. The province was divided. The line of demarcation left the portion inhabited principally by the Poles on one side, and on the other the districts which had originally belonged to Pomerania, and the population of which is now almost exclusively German, and unacquainted with the Polish language. But as Prussia was unwilling to give up the fortress of Posen, the most important point on her eastern frontier, together with the rivers, canals and high roads subsidiary to it, some districts which were strictly Polish in their character found themselves separated from the fortunes of their countrymen, and allied to strangers.
The line of division, therefore, did not satisfy the Poles. On the other hand, the appointment of Count Willisen to the presidency of the province, whose partiality towards the conquered race was well known, and the first acts of whose administration were regarded as expressive of his preferences, displeased the Germans. It took but a little matter to Kindle the flames of civil war in a land so long oppressed, and possessing such an indestructible nationality as Poland. Serious disturbances had some time before occurred
in several places; but now the war > tween German and Pole broke oat wu terrible violence. The peasantry of m former race, assembling in large numt--= directed their attacks upon the reside*-*?-.! the Polish nobility. Many were Sm'x4 many burned. On the other hand.: Polish peasantry seized their scytht i*. axes, and rushed still more furiosi is-* the fight. Mieroslawski, who in liit-' had acted a conspicuous part in \U conspiracy at Berlin, espoused cause of his countrymen, and js.. himself at the head of their troop* These amounted to about twenty (Loess; men, poorly supplied with arms, thoagk abundantly with passion. On th* tdas side, Count Willisen having been rtc&ik; in consequence of the unhappy postal' affairs brought about by his admisist'V tration, General Colomb was placed e command. He immediately resonvd v the most vigorous measures for pexm down the insurrection. At the head i*.' disciplined troops, and amply fornix, with heavy artillery, he commenced o attack upon the insurgents with every fc vantage. Still in several minor octetthe Poles were successful. Aunous with the fiercest hate of the enemy, t:; fought with a bravery worthy of i bene cause. With scythes and pitch-forks ii/» faced the cannon's mouth, and stood '» be shot down in their places, rather ?-turn their backs in flight. Alas, th»: Polish blood should always flow in nc Here, as in all their conflicts with iiecaquerors of their country, there was Do possible chance of success. The first getsri engagement closed the war. In the telle of Xiong, on the fifth of May, JdVi* slawski was taken prisoner, his 1'c-ik'*--" defeated, and his cause ruined.
The war having been terminated by x» terrible struggle, in which Polish and fr* man blood was made for once to Ik* common channels, order was soot «established throughout Posen. This »<■<» done, General Colomb was withdraw, and the new President, General Pfcabby conciliatory but determined nieasBn* readily succeeded in pacifying lb* ■** of both parties, and preparing the «».''' the speedy introduction of tbe ehang»<fetermined upon by the cabinet at Brtt
* Die Allgem. Zeitung. Die ZeJtonf. w» B"*1
[n Austrian Poland important and libcconcessions have been made by the imiul government to the people. A popugovernor has been appointed in Galieia, h instructions to effect an administra5 re-organization of the province. Crav is to have a separate council of govtnent; Polish is to be the official lanige in the transaction of all internal af•s, and the peasantry are to be released m feudal services, a compensation being de from the treasury to the landlords, l'hese political privileges, however, were . granted to what was once the republic
Cracow, until after the occurrence of ious disturbances and some bloodshed, e principal outbreak of Polish disconit took place on the twenty-eighth of >ril. While the commandant Count de stiglione was riding through the town the head of his staff, and exhorting the -affected people to keep the peace, he is fired upon from a window and badly mnded. Thereupon General Moltke, king the command, ordered the troops fire upon the populace. These being llected in dense masses, the execution *s terrible. But the inhabitants, instead
being cowed into submission, immediely turned to the work of barricading e streets. Behind their hasty defences ey withstood for the space of three )urs the attacks of the artillery. But it as idle to contend against such unequal Ids. The city submitted and sued for irdon. The principal insurgents and hat few of the Polish emigres survived ie contest, escaped by flight. Of the oops, ten were killed and forty wounded; ut of the people, a much greater number, he timely bestowal, soon afterwards, of a independent and national administra<m of government, prevented the occurence of insurrection.*
It remains for us only to chronicle the rogress of Sclavonic liberty in the princialities of the Danube, belonging to Turey. For even so far eastward have adanced the European revolution and the leas of popular reform.
The Moldavians and Wallachians are he descendants of the ancient Geta; and )acians, mixed with the Roman colonists tnt into the country by Trajan, and speak
* Die Kolnische Zeitung. TOL. II. NO. VI. KKW 8ER1BS.
a language composed of Sclavonic and Latin, hardly inferior in richness and harmony to any of the modern languages, which have sprung from the amalgamation of the Romans and the barbarians. Their country, lying on the Danube and the Pruth, has been from time immemorial the high road, by which the Asiatic hordes have driven their herds and flocks into the pastures of Europe. Here their spears first met the swords of Roman and Gothic civilization. During the earlier Christian centuries, these now flowery plains were a field of death. The light Sarmalian horsemen charged upon the heavy legions of Rome; the Hun, more brutal than the Sarmatian, pursued the scattered Goths; and nation after nation established an ephemeral dominion, until the white eagle of Poland, which for a time built its nest on the woody hills of Moldavia, was scared away by the crescent of the Osmanli. The unchanging despotism of Turkey, under which the inhabitants of these countries dragged out a precarious and miserable existence, lasted until it became somewhat modified, thoughscaroeimproved by the protectorship of Russia, established by treaty in the year 1828. Since that period, the long interval of peace which has enriched and elevated the middling classes of most European lands, has extended a degree of its material prosperity and its political influence even to the banks of the Lower Danube. A liberal party has gradually sprung up, still more powerful than in other parts of Turkey, and in the early part of the present year, had made such progress as to attract the attention of the ever watchful Czar.
After the occurrence of the western revolutions, the disaffection having greatly increased, and having led to the expression of a desire on the part of some of the friends of progress that the principalities might be detached from Turkey and formed into a kingdom dependent upon Hungary, the Emperor of Russia threatened to exercise his office of protector by an armed intervention, and ordered an additional number of troops to the northern frontier of Moldavia, which, like a promontory between two boisterous seas, threatening to overwhelm it, lies exposed between the dominions of Russia on the one side, and Austria on the other. But the activL