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return with the King, nor did she appear in England until after the Queen's decease. Perhaps the most interesting, certainly the most minute and copious details in the two volumes of the Memoirs, refer to this event, completing, as it did, the history of Lord Hervey's court life. We have not space to make the extracts from this narrative which would do it justice. It is sufficient to say that the Queen died as she had lived, self-possessed, calm, and affectionate to those around her, but at the same time a practical skeptic in all religious faith, unforgiving towards her enemies, bitter in every feeling towards her oldest son, the Prince of Wales, and either blind to fully or weak to wickedness towards the faults "of her husband. She refused to see the Prince during her whole sickness, and though frequently spoken to in regard to his desire to approach her, she constantly and unhesitatingly denied him the entree of her chamber. Hence is seen very clearly the satire of Pope's >last tribute to her memory :—
"Hang the sad verse on Carolina's urn, And hail her passage to the realms of rest, All parts perform'd, and all her children blest."
We regard the publication of the Memoirs of Lord Hervey as a valuable, we might say with equal truth, as an invalua6 ^accession to English history. The extracts we have given are scarcely a sample of the character and value of the work. Especially in the portraits of the prominent men of that day, of which the volumes are full, do we regard it of unquestioned authority and unsurpassed excellence. The actors in the drama of life a hundred years ago again walk upon the stage, mingle in its scenes, contend in its strifes, and rejoice in the applause of the crowd, like those of to-day. Onslow and Jekyll, the Duke (if Argyle and Horace Walpole the elder, Uishop Butler and the Earl of Chesterfield, starting from behind the curtain of the past, are again before us in all the freshness and vigor of daily life, and, for the first time, we feel that we know them as they really were. Omitting much that we desire to know, or, to continue our figure, expur
gating many passages of the pky could not fail to have interested ns. i of which barbarous work has been i: indeed by later managers — Vandal history—-into whose hands it had f»'-= there is still not a little left. teacteo; a as we remember how entirely tbe serfs the labors, the jealousies, the antes* the greatness and the glory of thit v: have faded and gone, in language s* emphatic than the preacher's—
"What shadows we are, and whit -iak-.\pursue."
The page of history has long skis r
corded the character of George the Sec*
Lord Hervey's Memoirs of bis Coon »
not alter that record. "He was Bhs <
George the Third in the strength «*'-_
purposes and the rectitude of his je^
character," is the remark of his ft
British eulogist. He may have been *
prozimus sed longo inlerrallo—but h »
none the less a churl and a tyrant V:
aged from his accession to the cro« &
his death by the address of his f& t
the duplicity of his ministers, so tin a
public measures should not destrw r
general weal of his subjects, and bona;'
the laws of a limited monarchy tie &
ger of infracting which was ever W'
him in the expulsion of the ill-fated J*
he was nevertheless in heart and sw:
less a tyrant than Henry the EgBii-*
as much the subject of his own ei«»
the slave of his own vices; inhis fas?
ruffian, in his cabinet a knave, in to k
chamber a profligate, and in his very r»
lantry—his joy and boast—a boor. Ge-r:
II. in his private character stands ^",
to no royal personage who has awn*
the crowD of Great Britain. He bad &
the impress of his vices upon ms te
long before his death, and that did **'
face it. Peter Pindar would have arf
"A change in George's life yon mB*w»'w To try to wash an ass's face Igreally labor to mis place;
And really loss of time as well as M»^ p
TWO LEAVES OF REVOLUTIONARY HISTORY.
TAKEN DOWN FROM CONVERSATIONS WITH GOVERNOR SHELBY.
No portion of the history of the revolunary war is so rich in daring exploits of rtisan warfare, or in bold personal adnture, as that of the Southern States. ior to 1780 the British forces had overn South Carolina, Georgia, and the casti part of North Carolina. All the lunchest patriots were compelled to e from their homes. Some of these rugees joined those enterprising and ring chieftains, Marion and Sumter, d carried on the war in the extreme mth. Others fled for safety to the auntainsof North Carolina and Virginia, d uniting their desperate fortunes to e native intrepidity of the hardy mounineers, planned and executed continual ploits of aggressive warfare against the ritisb, and tories who were east of the ountains.
The most important affair in all the irtisan 'warfare of the Revolution, both it regards the numbers engaged and its suits, was the "Battle of Ring's Mounin." The officers and men engaged in is bold enterprise resided in the mounins of North Carolina and the southern irt of Virginia, aided by several hundred fugees from South Carolina and the eastn part of North Carolina. They were 3t called into the field by the government
• any board of war, nor by their admiraon for any particular military commander. ; was a spontaneous and masterly effort 'the best energies of the patriots to rike a vigorous blow at a victorious eneiy. Without commissaries, or staff offiers, or efficient military organization : and cstitute of provisions and military stores; tul without the expectation of pay for icir services,—they assembled in the lountains, each man carrying whatever rovisions he could on horseback, to attack ne of the most skilful and brave officers
* the British service.
Of those who participated in this memorable achievement, no one took a more prominent or active part than Col. Isaac Shelby, who was then the county lieutenant commanding the militia in Sullivan county. North Carolina. Although others are entitled equally with himself to the credit of executing the plan which was adopted; yet was he the mainspring of the enterprise, and to him is justly due the merit of projecting the exploit which was so gloriously terminated.
After the close of the revolutionarv war, Col. Shelby removed to Kentucky, where he was twice elected governor. It was whilst residing in that State, that the writer knew him in his boyish days; yet is the impress of the old soldier stamped fixedly on his memory. With a stalwart frame, perhaps an inch less than six feet in height, somewhat inclined to corpulency; his thick suit of iron gray hair shortly cropped; narrow but highly arched head, with prominent perceptive developments, evincing sound practical sense, close penetration, great watchfulness, and unflinching resolution; with closely compressed lips, strongly marked features, and a long heavy eyebrow overhanging a piercing blue eye; when aroused and excited he looked as terrible as the thundercloud of his native mountains. Yet was there ever about him in private life, nmidst his friends, a kindly voice, and ready smile which radiated over his countenance, like the rays of the evening's sun beaming on that same cloud when relieved of its fury. During the residence of Gov. Shelby in Kentucky, up to the time of his death, there existed an intimate friendship between him and the father of the writer. General Martin D. Hardin, late of Frankfort, Kentucky. And when Gov. Shelby was chief magistrate of Kentucky, he appointed M. D. Hardin his Secretary of State. Among the papers which fell into the hands of the writer, as the executor and eldest son of Gen. Hardin, were several sheets of paper in two parcels, in the handwriting of M. D. Hardin, which are headed as follows :—
"Notes of the affair at King's Mountain, taken from a conversation with Governor Shelby, 16th July, 1815."
"Notes of conversations with Governor Shelby, 20th September, 1819."
These papers contain an account of the battle at King's Mountain, and of the battle at Musgrove's Mill which preceded it. They have been carefully preserved for more than twenty years, and as they embody minute and interesting details not stated in any history, it seems to be a duty not to permit them to sleep longer in oblivion. Now that all who participated in these scenes have left the stage of action and live only in the memory of their glorious achievements, no offence can be taken at any statement contained in these notes.
It is the duty of a nation to preserve every authentic memorial of the honorable exploits of her sons. These leaves of history may be of service to some future historian. In re-writing these notes, the writer has confined himself to stating in narrative form the facts set forth in the notes, and has forborne from collating other facts connected with this subject mentioned in different histories, preferring to keep within the bounds of strict authenticity, to deviating in search of extrinsic information to garnish the narration.
Inclosed in "the notes," was a letter from Gov. Shelby to M. D. Hardin on the subject of these conversations. No better evidence of Gov. Shelby's honest truthfulness of purpose, and anxious desire to do strict justice to all, could be given, than is contained in this letter. A copy of it is therefore prefixed to the notes.
John J. Hardin. Jacksonville, III., March 6, 1846.
took up the idea that Campbell was Obst » lieutenant-colonel at home previous t... 'if affair. If you did so understand me, h wis K error, for he was a full colonel of a repan. at home, though not the county lieoteoatu
"Lost in some future conversation To -i subject, you might happen to mention bis tut erroneously as coming from me, I tak» fca occasion to correct the error. He was eqa in rank to the other colonels in cans?.fe: t was his good sense; his 6trict disc-pli^e *i* warm devotion to the cause in which we wot embarked, that induced myself and othen ~ give him the command.
With sincere regard and affection.
General M. D. Harms."
GOVERNOR SHELBY TO M. D. HARMS.
"Danville, Oct. 11th, 1819. •' Dear Sir:—On my way home from Shclbyville I could not help thinking a little about the inquiries which you made of me concerning the action on King's Mountain, and the events that led to it. And I was apprehensive you
BATTLE OF Ml'SGBOVE S MILL.
In August, 1780, General John M' Dowell, of North Carolina, commardr.. about two thousand militia who were stt tioned at Smith's ford, on Broad rrrer. which was about fifteen miles below 'J* Cherokee ford. Col. Isaac Shelby. :.' North Carolina, commanded a regime: under Gen. McDowell. The term of sa vice for which the men had enlisted «v just about expiring. It was ascertain that there were about seven hundred Tone camped at Musgrove's Mill, on the Ercs"river, a few miles distant from the e*ej of Major Ferguson. Col. Shelby earceiv«d the plan of breaking up this at: and routing the torias. For this pnrpew having obtained leave from Gen. McDoVeH he raised about seven hundred volnntee* from the army without regard to ruk. very many field officers baring rttoteered. Col. Clarke, of North Cart-lR was made second in command.
To effect their design it was neeessirj that the affair should be conducted v£ both secresy and dispatch. Accorded; Shelby's force left Gen. McDowell's car.; on the 18th of August, a short time betr. dark. They travelled on through uV woods until dark, and then fell into thread and proceeded on all night, passa within three or four miles of Fergus---: ■ camp and going beyond it to the Ton camp at Musgrove's Mill. This post m forty miles from McDowell's camp.
Soon after daylight, when Shelby had arrived within half a mile of the camp.! citizen was taken prisoner, from whom h irned that the night previous the Queen's merican Regiment, commanded by Col. ines, from New York, had reached the »st at the mill, and that the enemy were en from twelve to thirteen hundred 'ong. Just as this information was reived the enemy's patrol fell in with the vanced corps of Shelby's force. The itrol was immediately fired on and driven with the loss of several men. This gave e enemy the alarm. Although the Tory rce 'was so much larger than had been :pected, neither Shelby nor his men lought of anything but meeting them. round was selected for an engagement retching af right angles across the road, bout half a mile from the Eronee river, he army was formed, Shelby taking comiand of the right wing, and Col. Clarke f the left. Col. Williams of South Carona was stationed in the road in the ccn•e, though without a separate command. Whilst the Tory force was forming, ihelby and his men were not idle. Imlediately after taking their places in line nd securing their horses, they commenced aaking breastworks of logs. In half an tour they had one breast high. So soon is this was completed, Shelby sent Capt. iiman with a company of mounted men i advance to make a false attack on the nemy. This feint was well executed, nman and his men charged on the eneny, fired their pieces, and then, as directed, led in apparent confusion. The enemy's :entre on whom the false attack had been nade, seeing the flight of this force, iranediately pressed forward in pursuit, in :onsiderable disorder, shouting, "Huzza or King George." On approaching the oreastwork they were unexpectedly met with a deadly tire. The superiority of the snemy in numbers emboldened them to press forward their attack, notwithstanding the advantage which our troops possessed by the breastwork. After an hour's hard fighting the left wing of the enemy, composed of the Queen's regiment, drove our right wing under Shelby from their breastwork. Our left wing, which was opposed by the tories, maintained its position. The battle was maintained some time longer, the right flank of the right wing gradually giving way, whilst the left flank retained its connection with the centre at the breastwork. At this juncture
Col. Clarke sent his reserve, consisting of forty men, to Shelby's aid. Shelby thereupon rallied his men, and ordered a charge, which was well seconded by officers and men, and the enemy were broken and fled in confusion. The rout now became complete along the whole line, and the enemy were pursued to the Eronee river, with great slaughter. Above two hundred of the enemy were killed, and two bundled prisoners were taken. On our side, Capt. Inman, who had conducted himself most gallantly, and thirty men were killed.
The broken forces of the enemy having crossed the Eronee, it became necessary to follow up the pursuit on horseback. Shelby called back his forces and mounted with the intention of pursuing the scattered Tories, and then turning against Fort Ninetysix. While consulting with Col. Clarke, a messenger arrived from Gen. McDowell, bringing a letter from Governor Caswell to McDowell, informing him of Gates's disastrous defeat at Camden on the 16th of August, and advising all officers commanding detachments to retreat, or they would be cut off.
Col. Shelby, perceiving the hazardous position in which he was placed by this unexpected calamity, with Cornwallis in front, and Ferguson on his flank, immediately ordered a retreat. Taking his prisoners with him, he travelled all that day and the ensuing night without rest, and continued their march the day succeeding until an hour by sun, when they halted and fed their horses. Although they had thus been marching and fighting incessantly for forty-eight hours, the indomitable energy of their commander permitted his troops no rest, when there was danger of losing all by delay. Halting therefore no longer than was required to feed their horses, the line of march was resumed. It was well it was so; for the news of the defeat of the tories at Musgrove's Mill had reached Ferguson, who had dispatched a strong detachment to intercept Shelby and release his prisoners. By making a hard forced march this detachment reached the spot where Shelby and his men had fed their horses, within thirty minutes after they had left it. But not knowing precisely how long Shelby had been gone, and the detachment being entirely exhausted, the pursuit was relinquished, and Shelby reached the mountains in safety with his prisoners.
The time of service of the men having expired, and there being no opportunity of doing any immediate active duty by a partisan corps, when they reached the road which led to Col. ^ helby's residence, he and the men from his neighborhood returned home, the prisoners being left in charge of Col. Clarke. After going some distance, Col. Clarke in like manner returned home, giving the prisoners in charge to Col. Williams, who conducted them to Hillsborough. At this place Col. Williams met with Gov. Rutledge, who finding him in charge of the prisoners, supposed he had commanded the expedition in which they were taken, and as a reward for the gallant achievement, gave him a Brigadier General's commission. Without detracting from the merits of Col. Williams, who was a gallant officer, is it not right to say that this is an example too frequent in military history, where the rewards of a bold achievement fall on the wrong shoulders?
Col. Shelby described the battle at Musgrove's Mill as the hardest and best fought action he ever was in. He attributed this to the great number of officers who were with him as volunteers. Considering the nature of the march, and the disparity of numbers, the action at Musgrove's Mill must be considered as one of the most brilliant affairs fought by any partisan corps during the Revolution.
BATTLE OF KINO S MOUNTAIN.
Tn the early part of the year 1780, Col. Shelby was appointed Colonel of Sullivan county in North Carolina, with the authority of County Lieutenant. Col. Sevier held the same command in Washington county, N. C. These counties are situate west "of the Alleghany mountains, and now constitute a part of Tennessse. Col. William Campbell at the same time commanded a regiment in Washington county, Virginia, but was not the County Lieutenant.
After the defeat of General Gates at Camden, on the 16th of August, 1780, the patriots were very much dispirited. *gany who resided in the eastern portions
of North and South Carolina, sought safety and liberty in the mountains of North Carolina and Virginia, amidst the hardy patriotic mountaineers of those districts.
In September, 1780, Major Ferguson, who was one of the best and most enterprising of the British officers in America, had succeeded in raising a large body of Tories, who, with his own corps of regulars, constituted an effective force of eleven hundred and twenty-five men. With a view of cutting off Colonel Clarke, of North Carolina, who had recently made a demonstration against Augusu. which was then in the hands of the British, Ferguson had marched near the Blu* Ridge and had taken post at Gilbertstown, which is situated but a few miles fromtn* mountains. Whilst there he discharged a patriot, who had been taken prisoner, on his parole, and directed him to tell CoL Shelby, (who had become obnoxious to the British and tones from the affair it Musgrove's Mill,) that if Shelby did not surrender, he (Ferguson) would come wv the mountains, and put him to death and burn his whole county.
It required no further taunt to rouse tbe patriotic indignation of Col. Shelby. H< determined to make an effort to raise » force, in connection with other officer*. which should surprise and defeat Fergison. With this object in view, he wen'.w a horse-race near where Jonesborooghbfe since been built, to see Sevier and otherShelby and Sevier there resolved, that £ Col. Campbell would join them, they wcaii raise all the force they could, and aUa-i Ferguson; and if this was not practical*. they would co-operate with any corpa J the army of the United States with whici they might meet. If they failed, and ti country was overrun and subdued by li< British, they would then take water asgo down to the Spaniards in Louisiana.
Col. Campbell was notified of their i' termination, and a place of rendexvowappointed in the mountains, east of Job*borough. At the time appointed, Sent* ber 25th, Campbell joined them, aad Iks' united force numbered about oaetimmmi mounted riflemen. They crowed 4' mountains on the 'J7th. in a ravine, aaJ (e in, accidentally, with ( North Carolina, who had mand about four hundred i