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rederik, which King Hans, in 1503, had disastrous division. The king, and his ngaged to make to his brother. The brothers Hans and Adolph, received difoung king, nourishing a deep-rooted ferent districts both of Schleswig and Holatred against the powerful nobility, stein, with their castles, convents and hom he, as a crown prince, had already towns, which were denominated after the ith the axe and the sword almost annihi- principal residences. The king's share ited in Norway, and whose exorbitant was called that of Sonderborg. Duke rivileges he intended to circumscribe in Hans obtained Hadersleben, and Adolph, lenmark, refused the demands of the Gottorp. The younger brother Frederik tates. Serious discussions now arose; became bishop of Hildersheim in 1551. nd both prelates and nobles declared that The ducal claims to the possession of
the king did not confirm all their rights Hamburg and the territory of the Ditnd claims, they would immediately elect marskers, and many privileges and taxes, is uncle Frederik as their only sovereign remained in common; for every one of uke. Christian II., knowing the ambition the dukes possessed the full sovereignty f that prince, and fearing the general dis- in his own principality, though he recogatisfaction in Sweden, yielded at the time; nized the emperor as his liege-lord for e deferred his intended reforms, acknow- Holstein. Yet the royal brothers, on their edged the rights of the oligarchy, and presenting their homage to the king, reeceived their homage as Duke of Schles- fused to perform the usual military service vig and Holstein. Yet the enmity be- for Schleswig as a Danish banner-fief; actween the two princes continued, and was ing upon the illegal pretension of the old omented by the disloyal and treacherous dukes of South Jutland, that the duchy onduct of Christian towards his uncle. was a frank-fee exempted from every The horrible slaughter of the Swedish dary duty. Years passed on in violent mobility in Stockholm on the 8th of No- disputes, and at last, when the ceremony vember, 1520, and the subsequent rebel- of investiture was to take place at the ion of the Danish nobles in 1523, decided general assembly at Colding, in 1547, in he fate of Christian the Tyrant. He fled the presence of the king, the dukes on a to Germany, and Frederik, being called to sudden refused; a tumult arose, the cerethe Danish throne, immediately took pos- mony was suspended, and the princes, session of all the royal castles in the duch- mounting their horses, hurried off in disies, which thus were united a second time. gust. But King Christian did not yield, They remained undivided till the year and though he lived nearly in the same 1544 ; during which period King Chris- dissensions with his brothers as the untian III., the son of Frederik I., had gov- happy Erik Plough-penning had done, erned them in the name of his younger three hundred years before, he still vindibrothers, Hans, Adolph, and Frederik. cated the right of the Danish crown. Another favorable opportunity had thus Adolph of Holstein-Gottorp, a prince of presented itself to the Danish Council for a hot and impetuous temper, again turned reclaiming the ancient Danish province of his arms against the courageous DitmarskSouth Jutland, and by uniting it with ers, who, ever since the terrible defeat of Denmark, to establish anew the old Scan- King Hans, had enjoyed uninterrupted dinavian frontier of the Eyder-or at least, possession of their independence. Chrisby adopting the advice of the distinguished tian III., however, who wished to rule in general, John de Rantzau, at once to de- tranquillity over his dominions, succeeded clare the right of primogeniture in the in preserving peace till his death in 1559. duchies. This principle had at that time But his son and successor, Frederik II., already been introduced with success into was more willing to enter into the designs Bavaria and Mark-Brandenburg. But the of his uncle, being afraid of his conquering Danish oligarchs, says a native historian, the whole territory and keeping it to himwere more intent upon fortifying their self. The king, with his Danish army, castles and extending their farms, on buy- therefore joined the duke's, and better ing and selling their poor serfs, who were care was now taken to insure success. no better than slaves, than on securing the The conflict was long and bloody; but the welfare of their king and country. The intrepidity of the Ditmarskers could not Council consented to another still more prevail against the military knowledge and discipline of their enemies. The Danes The decision of Odensee, though not were commanded by the old Count John satisfactory to Denmark, did at least settle Rantzau, the head of one of the noblest two important points : the obligation of families of Holstein, to whose military tal- the part of the dukes to renew the inents the house of Oldenborg was highly investiture, and the recognition of the milidebted for its victories and grandeur. tary service, which though in itself insigAdolph too was a prince of uncommon nificant, still formed the strong link between bravery and skill, who fought in the hot- the duchy of Schleswig and the kingdom. test of the battle, and thrice rallied his The ceremony took place on the 3d of troops, whom the desperate valor of the May, 1580, on the large square of Odenenemy had forced to give ground. After see, where the royal throne had been erecta violent struggle the victory declared fored. The three dukes at the same time laid the Danes; it was as complete and de- their hands on the banner of Dannebrog, cisive as they could wish. All the towns and swore the usual allegiance to their and forts surrendered ; the vanquished sued liege-lord as faithful vassals. A few months for peace, which was granted them. They later, the Hadersleben line became erpaid homage to the King of Denmark as tinct by the death of Duke Hans the elder. their lawful sovereign, and took the oath All the possessions were now equally of perpetual fidelity to him and his succes- divided between Duke Adolph of Holsteinsors. They paid the expenses of the war, Gottorp and the King, while the subdivisand delivered up the standards and mili- ions which entailed so many evils on the tary trophies taken from King Hans.
duchies were put a stop to, in 1608, when T'hough the victors in apparent concord the right of primogeniture was established divided the conquered territory, yet the in the ducal part, and, in 1650, extended dispute about the investiture of Schleswig to the royal province. still continued. As no party would yield, Christian IV. reigned with a strong the decision of that odious question was hand, and taught the dukes to respees referred to the Elector of Saxony, the the feudal rights of Denmark; but treLandgrave of Hesse, and the Duke of mendous events were forthcoming, which Mecklenburg, as umpires. In May, 1579, once more overturned the old relations the sentence was given at the Congress of and at last subjected them to the deOdensee. Schleswig was to be considered cision of the sword. In 1618 the teras a hereditary military fief of Denmark, rible thirty years' war broke out between with which the king was bound to invest the Protestant and Catholic parties is the dukes of the Oldenborg family. The Germany, and King Christian IV., 23 king was to consult the dukes about ques-chief of the Low-Saxon cirele, entered tions of war and peace, and they then Germany with his Danish army. By the pledged themselves to render him military treachery of his Saxon allies he was deservice as their liege-lord, with forly knights feated in the bloody battle of Latter as and eighty foot-soldiers ! This ridiculous Baremberg, in 1626, and the imperia act was then signed by the plenipotentia- General Wallenstein, pursuing the retreatries of the foreign princes, the vassals, and ing king, overran the duchies and all the the sagacious Council of Denmark. The mainland of Denmark with his wild bands states in the duchies showed far more res- The Duke of Holstein-Gottorp then brake olution and perseverance in the mainte-his allegiance and declared against the nance of their rights. They refused in king, and though he lost all his possessies 1563 to recognize the sovereignty of the in the course of the war, they were » Duke Hans, the younger brother of King stored to him by the treaty of Lübeck, s Frederik II., on whom he settled the prin- 1629, between the Emperor and the Kiss cipality of Sonderborg, on the island of of Denmark. The hatred between the Als, nor did the descendants of this line reigning lines had become inveterate. T ever succeed in obtaining the recognition of Duke again united with Sweden, and Carl that dignity to this day.*
Gustav, crossing the belt on the ice, during
the winter, 1658, forced Frederik III, be * The present Duke of -Sonderborg-Augusten- son and successor of Christian IV., in site borg, and his brother Prince Noer, who have taken arms against their cousin, King Frederik VII. of treaties of Roeskilde and Copenhages, the Denmark, are the direct offspring of that family. same year, to concede to the Duke as
his descendants the sovereignty and su- | quests, secured the duchy of Schleswig as preme dominion of the Gottorp division of a permanent and inalienable possession by Schleswig The feudal dependence on the strongest guaranty
guaranty of Sweden, Denmark was thus abolished in the Hol- England and France.* stein-Gottorp dynasty, but continued with By letter patent of the 22d of August, its military service and other duties in the 1721, the inhabitants of the
conquered terlateral lines of Sonderborg, and the intro- ritory were called upon to do homage to luction of a hereditary succession in Den- Frederik IV. as their lawful sovereign, nark, in 1660, strengthened the ties be- and the two districts of Apenrade and Gotween the larger or royal part of the torp were incorporated with that part of luchy and the kingdom.
the duchy, which previously had belonged The revolution of 1660 forms a new period to the Danish crown. The estates of 1 the history of Denmark. It overturned Schleswig took the oath of allegiance to he old elective constitution, with its pow- the king and his hereditary successors, acrful oligarchical council of state, (Rigs- cording to the lex regiu, at the castle of tad) and the extravagant privileges of the Gottorp, on the 4th of September, 1721. obility. The king, according to the new The junior branches of the house of Old3 regia, (Kongelov,) became the most ab- enborg, the Dukes of Augustenborg and plute monarch in Europe, and the succes- Glücksborg, who did not possess any on of the crown was settled both on sovereign rights, gave their oath in writing. le male and female descendants of the In the letter patent and the formulary for Idenborg dynasty. The duchies did not the oath of allegiance, the king expressly abscribe the new act of sovereignty, or mentions Schleswig as an integral part of new their oath of allegiance, nor did they the crown of Denmark, from which it had rectly take any part in those transacctions; been torn away in disastrous times, and le lex regia, however, distinctly expresses declares it henceforth eternally to be ine leading principles, which remain as the corporated as a part of the kingdom. This uiding rule for the question about the rela- declaration is definite, but it was not comons of Schleswig to the kingdom. In its pletely executed. King Frederik IV. did
th article it enjoins the king to secure, en- not realize his first intention of incorpo'e and undivided, under the Danish crown, rating Schleswig as a province. it only the realms of Denmark and Nor- mained a separate hereditary duchy, enay, with all the provinces and islands joying its ancient privileges, but by its longing to them, but moreover all pos- participating in the regulations of the lex ssions which may be acquired by the regia of 1665, it now followed the cognate Ford, or other legal titles, and thus ex- succession of Denmark. In accordance esses the indivisibility of the kingdoms with the new relations into which Schlesd all other possessions which belonged wig thus entered in 1721 with the king
Denmark in 1665. The grand-son of dom, the arms of the duchy were quartered ng Frederik III. at last found an oppor- with those of Denmark Proper; "and so," nity to realize this principle by uniting says the excellent historian, Professor d'incorporating the whole duchy of Christian Molbech,
Christian Molbech, "after a partial sepahleswig in 1720. The hostile relations ration this fertile and important province ween the house of Holstein-Gottorp again became an organic and indivisible 1 the crown of Denmark continued part of the state.” ring the remainder of the seventeenth And yet was the possession of Schles: itury, and on the breaking out of the wig far from being undisturbed. Denat northern war between Sweden, Rus
Brandenburg and Denmark, Duke * “ His Britannic Majesty agrees to guaranty arles Frederik of Holstein-Gottorp; sion that part of the duchy of Schleswig which his
and to maintain and to continue in peaceful posseso had taken side with Charles XII. of Danish Majesty has in his hands, and to defend the eden, lost all bis possessions in Schles
same in the best manner possible, against all and They were conquered by King every one who may endeavor to disturb him therein, derik IV. and his Danish army in 1713, either directly or indirectly.". Treaty between | at the general peace that followed the Denmark and Great Britain of the 26th of July, th of Charles XII. in Norway, 1718, 14th, and that with France August 18th, the
1720. The treaty with Sweden is dated June the 1mark, giving up all her other con
mark had to carry on the contest for more ceded to it in return by the King of Denthan fifty years.
The threatening storm mark. The completeness of the cession came no longer from Sweden—which, van- of Schleswig on the part of Russia is still quished and weakened during the disas- more evident, when compared with ber trous wars of Charles XII., had now exchange of the counties of Delmenfor a time retreated from the great politi- horst and Oldenborg for the Gottorp share cal theatre—but from the more dangerous of Holstein. According to the former Russian Empire. The duke Charles Fred treaty, Schleswig is ceded to the King of erik had taken his residence in Kiel, in Denmark and his royal successors, while Holstein, where he strenuously protested the latter mentions only King Christian against the cession of Schleswig. He soon VII, and his brother, Prince Frederik, after married Anne Petrowna, the daugh with their male heirs; thus declaring that ter of Peter the Great, and became thus, Russia reserved her rights to Holstein on supported by Russia, a formidable enemy the extinction of the male descendants of to Denmark. Yet the prudent Christian the reigning dynasty.* VI., the son and successor of Frederik By these treaties and later settlements IV., found the means to frustrate the war- with the lateral lines of Augustenborg like schemes of the duke, without any and Beck, the house of Oldenborg came rupture with that power. More imminent at last into undisputed possession both of seemed the war in 1762, when, on the Schleswig and Holstein. The latter duchy, death of the Empress Elizabeth, Peter III., though a German fief, was incorporated the son of Charles Frederick, succeeded with the kingdom of Denmark in 1806, 62 her on the throne of Russia. The first act the dissolution of the German empire, in of his reign was a declaration of war against consequence of the victories and conquests Frederik V. of Denmark. As the head of of the Emperor Napoleon. But at the the house of Holstein-Gottorp, he renewed Congress of Vienna in 1815, Holstein again his claims to the ceded part of Schleswig. entered into connection with the Germanic Immense armaments were undertaken in confederation. King Frederik VI., a Denmark; a fine fleet of sixty men-of-war duke of Holstein, obtained a vote in the was sent cruising in the Baltic, and an diet of Frankfort, and bound himself to army of seventy thousand combatants was join the federal army with a contingent of advancing upon the Russians in the envi- three thousand five hundred troops. rons of Wismar, when the news of the At the general peace in 1815, all the revolution at St. Petersburg, the violent different nations, which formed the coalabdication and murder of Peter, put a sud- tion against France, had been the gaines den stop to the military demonstrations. Denmark alone, as the faithful ally of the Catherine II., his successor, did not prose- Emperor Napoleon, had been almost crushcute the quarrel of her hot-headed hus- ed under the weight of accumulated disband.* She recalled the Russian troops asters, and from a flourishing kingdom o from Mecklenburg and concluded a treaty the second rank, with a numerous arms, a with Denmark, which was confirmed by gallant navy and extensive commerce, her son, the Emperor Paul, in 1773, in ac- had then, in her isolated position, dwindled cordance with which, the house of Hol- down to a small state, of a third or fourth stein-Gottorp forever renounced all claims rank among the victorious nations around upon Schleswig, and by a second treaty of her. Her capital had been burnt ; ter the same date, exchanged its possessions fleet carried off; her colonies, credit and and rights in the duchy of Holstein for the commerce nearly destroyed-and to cro counties of Oldenborg and Delmenhorst, all, Norway had been surrendered to the
Swedes, who at that time were still be * Mr. D’Israeli
, M. P., said in his speech on the enemies. Norway, which for nearly four 19th of April last, in the House of Commons: centuries and a half had been united to ber, “ When Russia was about to invade Denmark, and the latter having applied to this country, * This important fact demonstrates that England signified her intention to carry out the Russian emperor, as a direct descendants provisions of her guaranty, and in consequence Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp, has a nearer die of that notification, Russia did not invade Schles- the duchy of Holstein, than the Duke and free wig.”
and whose people bore in origin, language, miles and 45,000 inhabitants. The poor history and manners, the closest affinity to Lauenburgers remained six days Prussian the Danes, was now violently severed from subjects, and were then, on the 4th of her sister kingdom. Denmark received, by June, 1815—"à perpétuité et en toute souway of compensation, another small slice veraineté et propriété"—transmitted to the of German territory, cut away with the King of Denmark. The Frankfort deputy large pruning-hook of the imbecile soul. Weleker, has lately had the most hopevenders at Vienna, from the newly liber- less difficulty in persuading the quiet and ated bulk of Germany. What injustice industrious Lauenburgers that these treatand blunders were committed by the self- ies are null and void, and that they, as ish and short-sighted diplomatists of the Germans, belonging to the common gloriHoly Alliance at Vienna! Poland, Italy, ous fatherland, were to take up arms Belgium, Norway and Lauenburg dismem- against their former Danish liege lord. bered and shuffled about at the mere whim Such were the relations between Denand caprice of gambling politicians! And mark and the duchies of Schleswig, Holnow-in 1848—they have either freed stein and Lauenburg in 1815. There did themselves with the sword, or are still not at that time exist any party spirit, any fighting and bleeding for their freedom. Schleswig-Holstein separatistic tendencies, Lauenburg alone must now, by the Ger- which might have prognosticated any hosman Parliament at Frankfort, be forced to tile conflict between the two different narenounce an alliance, which Denmark so tionalities of the monarchy. unwillingly acceded to in 1815. The cir- That movement began later, and origicumstances which brought that German nated not with the people, but with the luchy under the Danish crown are very nobility-the Ritterschaft-and the swarm remarkable. When King Frederik VI. of German employees, forming a bureauwas obliged by the treaty of Kiel, in 1814, cracy, who by the ambitious intrigues of o cede the kingdom of Norway to the the princes of Augustenborg, were led to :rown of Sweden, the king of that country, hope that by a final rupture with Denmark, in his part, offered as an indemnity to the they might
deprive her both of Schleswig King of Denmark and his successors, the and Lauenburg, and thus form an indeluchy of Swedish Pomerania and the prin- pendent state of their own, which by its ipality of Rügen, with seventy-five and a important maritime position on the Baltic alf German square miles and 160,000 and the North Sea, might, as they said, nhabitants.
become the handle of the sword, which Prussia now stood forward and demand- Germany was to throw into the scales of d the cession of these maritime provinces, fate on the Northern Seas. roposing to give Denmark an equivalent A second article on this imperfectly unerritory, which it did not possess. But in derstood, but interesting subject, will rerder to fulfil its promise, Prussia then per- late these movements in the duchies, and iaded the King of Hanover-George III. | the events of the civil war they have oc
Great Britain--to cede the duchy of Saxe- | casioned. auenburg, with nineteen German square