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rederik, which King Hans, in 1503, had | igaged to make to his brother. The oung king, nourishing a deep-rooted at red against the powerful nobility, horn he, as a crown prince, had already ith the axe and the sword almost annihiited in Norway, and whose exorbitant rivileges he intended to circumscribe in •enmark, refused the demands of the tales. Serious discussions now arose; ad both prelates and nobles declared that

the king did not confirm all their rights nd claims, they would immediately elect is uncle Frederik as their only sovereign uke. Christian II., knowing the ambition f that prince, and fearing the general disatisfaction in Sweden, yielded at the time; e deferred his intended reforms, acknow3dged the rights of the oligarchy, and eceived their homage as Duke of Schlesrig and Holstein. Yet the enmity beween the two princes continued, and was omented by the disloyal and treacherous onduct of Christian towards his uncle. Fhe horrible slaughter of the Swedish wbility in Stockholm on the 8th of Norember, 1520, and the subsequent rebelion of the Danish nobles in 1523, decided .he fate of Christian the Tyrant. He fled :o Germany, and Frederik, being called to the Danish throne, immediately took possession of all the royal castles in the duchies, which thus were united a second time, rhey remained undivided till the year 1544; during which period King Christian III., the son of Frederik I., had governed them in the name of his younger brothers, Hans, Adolph, and Frederik. Another favorable opportunity had thus presented itself to the Danish Council for reclaiming the ancient Danish province of South Jutland, and by uniting it with Denmark, to establish anew the old Scandinavian frontier of the Eyder—or at least, by adopting the advice of the distinguished general, John de Rantzau, at once to declare the right of primogeniture in the duchies. This principle had at that time already been introduced with success into Bavaria and Mark-Brandenburg. But the Danish oligarchs, says a native historian, were more intent upon fortifying their castles and extending their farms, on buying and selling their poor serfs, who were no better than slaves, than on securing the welfare of their king and country. The

Council consented to another still more

disastrous division. _ The king, and his brothers Hans and Adolph, received different districts both of Schleswig and Holstein, with their castles, convents and towns, which were denominated after the principal residences. The king's share was called that of Sonderborg. Duke Hans obtained Hadersleben, and Adolph, Gottorp. The younger brother Frederik became bishop of Hildersheim in 1551. The ducal claims to the possession of Hamburg and the territory of the Ditmarskers, and many privileges and taxes, remained in common; for every one of the dukes possessed the full sovereignty in his own principality, though he recognized the emperor as his liege-lord for Holstein. Yet the royal brothers, on their presenting their homage to the king, refused to perform the usual military service for Schleswig as a Danish banner-fief; acting upon the illegal pretension of the old dukes of South Jutland, that the duchy was a frank-fee exempted from every feodary duty. Years passed on in violent disputes, and at last, when the ceremony of investiture was to take place at the general assembly at Colding, in 1547, in the presence of the king, the dukes on a sudden refused; a tumult arose, the ceremony was suspended, and the princes, mounting their horses, hurried off in disgust. But King Christian did not yield, and though he lived nearly in the same dissensions with his brothers as the unhappy Erik Plough-penning had done, three hundred years before, he still vindicated the right of the Danish crown.

Adolph of Holstein-Gottorp, a prince of a hot and impetuous temper, again turned his arms against the courageous Ditmarskers, who, ever since the terrible defeat of King Hans, had enjoyed uninterrupted possession of their independence. Christian III., however, who wished to rule in tranquillity over his dominions, succeeded in preserving peace till his death in 1559. But his son and successor, Frederik II., was more willing to enter into the designs of his uncle, being afraid of his conquering the whole territory and keeping it to himself. The king, with his Danish army, therefore joined the duke's, and better care was now taken to insure success. The conflict was long and bloody; but the intrepidity of the Ditmarskers could not prevail against the military knowledge and discipline of their enemies. The Danes were commanded by the old Count John Rantzau, the head of one of the noblest families of Holstein, to whose military talents the house of Oldenborg was highly indebted for its victories and grandeur. Adolph too was a prince of uncommon bravery and skill, who fought in the hottest of the battle, and thrice rallied his troops, whom the desperate valor of the enemy had forced to give ground. After a violent struggle the victory declared for the Danes; it was as complete and decisive as they could wish. All the towns and forts surrendered ; the vanquished sued for peace, which was granted them. They paid homage to the King of Denmark as their lawful sovereign, and took the oath of perpetual fidelity to him and his successors. They paid the expenses of the war, and delivered up the standards and military trophies taken from King Hans.

Though the victors in apparent concord divided the conquered territory, yet the dispute about the investiture of Schleswig still continued. As no party would yield, the decision of that odious question was referred to the Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, and the Duke of Mecklenburg, as umpires. In May, 1579, the sentence was given at the Congress of Odensee. Schleswig was to be considered as a hereditary military fief of Denmark, with which the king was bound to invest the dukes of the Oldenborg family. The king was to consult the dukes about questions of war and peace, and they then pledged themselves to render him military service as their liege-lord, with forty knights and eighty foot-soldiers! This ridiculous let was then signed by the plenipotentiaies of the foreign princes, the vassals, and ,he sagacious Council of Denmark. The itates in the duchies showed far more res)lution and perseverance in the maintelance of their rights. They refused in .503 to recognize the sovereignty of the )uke Hans, the younger brother of King irederik II., on whom he settled the prinipality of Sonderborg, on the island of Us, nor did the descendants of this line ver succeed in obtaining the recognition of hat dignity to this day.*

* The present Duke of Sonderborg-Augustenarg, and liis brother Prince Noer, who have taken rms against their cousin, King Frederik VII. of enmark, are the direct offspring of that family.

The decision of Odensee, thotgi Ml satisfactory to Denmark, did at least stw two important points: the obligitwn i the part of the dukes to renew the *• vest it ure, and the recognition of the tLtary service, which though in itself hanificant, still formed the strong link betv*s the duchy of Schleswig aod the kineiw. The ceremony took place on the ad <i May, 1580, on the large square of 0c* see, where the royal throne had been erased. The three dukes at the same trat 'tl their hands on the banner of Dannebn^ and swore the usual allegiance to tkat'l liege-lord as faithful vassals. A few mcnbi | later, the Hadersleben line became extinct by the death of Duke Hans the eldet AH the possessions were now eq«a!ij divided between Duke Adolph of Hofc»ea> Gottorp and the King, while the subiwions which entailed so many evils on ih* duchies were put a stop to, in 160S,wbea the right of primogeniture was establbbe in the ducal part, and, in 1650, extends! to the royal province.

Christian IV. reigned with a strou hand, and taught the dukes to resput the feudal rights of Denmark; but tremendous events were forthcoming, whici once more overturned the old relations and at last subjected them to the decision of the sword. In 1618 the terrible thirty years' war broke out betwe*s the Protestant and Catholic parties o Germany, and King Christian IV, ■ chief of the Low-Saxon circle, enteric1 Germany with his Danish army. Bj tb* treachery of his Saxon allies he was defeated in the bloody battle of Lutter am Baremberg, in 1626, and the impeml General Wallenstein, pursuing the retreating king, overran the duchies and all th« mainland of Denmark with his wild band-. The Duke of Holstein-Gottorp then broke his allegiance and declared against the king, and though he lost all his possession in the course of the war, they were restored to him by the treaty of Liibeck. » 1629, between the Emperor and the Ring of Denmark. The hatred between to reigning lines had become inveterate. Th* Duke again united with Sweden, and Ctrl Gustav, crossing the belt on the ice, during the winter, 1658, forced Frederik I1L, to son and successor of Christian IV., in to treaties of Roeskilde and Copenhagen, to same year, to concede to the Duke «" his descendants the sovereignty and supreme dominion of the Gottorp division of Schleswig. The feudal "dependence on Denmark was thus abolished in the Holitein-Gottorp dynasty, but continued with is military service and other duties in the ateral lines of Sonderborg, and the introluction of a hereditary succession in Dennark, in 1660, strengthened the ties beween the larger or royal part of the luchy and the kingdom.

The revolution of 1660 forms a new period l the history of Denmark. It overturned ie old elective constitution, with its powrful oligarchical council of state, {Rigsriad) and the extravagant privileges of the obility. The king, according to the new >.x regia, (Kongelov,) became the most ab}lute monarch in Europe, and the succeson of the crown was settled botli on ie male and female descendants of the 'Idenborg dynasty. The duchies did not lbscribe the new act of sovereignty, or new their oath of allegiance, nor did they rectly take any part in those transactions; ie lex regia, however, distinctly expresses e leading principles, which remain as the riding rule for the question about the relays of Schleswig to the kingdom. In its )th article it enjoins the king to secure, en•e and undivided, under the Danish crown, it only the realms of Denmark and Norly, with all the provinces and islands longing to them, but moreover all possesions which may be acquired by the ■ord, or other legal titles, and thus exesses the indivisibility of the kingdoms d all other possessions which belonged

Denmark in 1665. The grand-son of ng Frederik III. at last found an opporlity to realize this principle by uniting 1 incorporating the whole duchy of hleswig in 1720. The hostile relations ,ween the house of Holstein-Gottorp I the crown of Denmark continued ring the remainder of the seventeenth it wry, and on the breaking out of the fSLt northern war between Sweden, RusBrandenburg and Denmark, Duke .-irles Frederik of Holstein-Gottorp, o had taken side with Charles XII. of eden, lost all his possessions in Schlesr. They were conquered by King sclerik IV". and his Danish army in 1713, [ it the general peace that followed the th of Charles XII. in Norway, 1718, a mark, giving up all her other con

quests, secured the duchy of Schleswig as a permanent and inalienable possession by the strongest guaranty of Sweden, England and France.*

By letter patent of the 22d of August, 1721, the inhabitants of the conquered territory were called upon to do homage to Frederik IV. as their lawful sovereign, and the two districts of Apenrade and Gottorp were incorporated with that part of the duchy, which previously had belonged to the Danish crown. The estates of Schleswig took the oath of allegiance to the king and his hereditary successors, according to the lex regia, at the castle of Gottorp, on the 4th of September, 1721. The junior branches of the house of Oldenborg, the Dukes of Augustenborg and Glucksborg, who did not possess any sovereign rights, gave their oath in writing. In the letter patent and the formulary for the oath of allegiance, the king expressly mentions Schleswig as an integral part of the crown of Denmark, from which it had been torn away in disastrous times, and declares it henceforth eternally to be incorporated as a part of the kingdom. This declaration is definite, but it was not completely executed. King Frederik IV. did not realize his first intention of incorporating Schleswig as a province. It remained a separate hereditary duchy, enjoying its ancient privileges, but by its participating in the regulations of the lex regia of 1665, it now followed the cognate succession of Denmark. In accordance with the new relations into which Schleswig thus entered in 1721 with the kingdom, the arms of the duchy were quartered with those of Denmark Proper; "and so," says the excellent historian, Professor Christian Molbech, "after a partial separation this fertile and important province again became an organic and indivisible part of the state."

And yet was the possession of Schles: wig far from being undisturbed. Den

* " H19 Britannic Majesty agrees to guaranty and to maintain and to continue in peaceful possession that part of the duchy of Schleswig which his Danish Majesty has in his hands, and to defend the same in the best manner possible, against all and every one who may endeavor to disturb him therein, either directly or indirectly." Treaty between Denmark and Great Britain of the 26th of July, 1720. The treaty with Sweden is dated June the 14th, and that with France August 18th, the same year.

mark had to cany on the contest for more than fifty years. The threatening storm came no longer from Sweden—which, vanquished and weakened during the disastrous wars of Charles XII., had now for a time retreated from the great political theatre—but from the more dangerous Russian Empire. The duke Charles Frederik had taken his residence in Kiel, in Holstein, where he strenuously protested against the cession of Schleswip;. He soon after married Anne Petrowna, the daughter of Peter the Great, and became thus, supported by Russia, a formidable enemy to Denmark. Yet the prudent Christian VI., the son and successor of Frederik IV., found the means to frustrate the warlike schemes of the duke, without any rupture with that power. More imminent seemed the war in 1762, when, on the death of the Empress Elizabeth, Peter III., the son of Charles Frederick, succeeded her on the throne of Russia. The first act of his reign was a declaration of war against Frederik V. of Denmark. As the head of the house of Holstein-Gottorp, he renewed his claims to the ceded part of Schleswig. Immense armaments were undertaken in Denmark; a fine fleet of sixty men-of-war was sent cruising in the Baltic, and an army of seventy thousand combatants was advancing upon the Russians in the environs of Wismar, when the news of the revolution at St. Petersburg, the violent abdication and murder of Peter, put a sudden stop to the military demonstrations. Catherine II., his successor, did not prosecute the quarrel of her hot-headed husband.* She recalled the Russian troops from Mecklenburg and concluded a treaty with Denmark, which was confirmed by her son, the Emperor Paul, in 1773, in accordance with which, the house of Holstein-Gottorp forever renounced all claims upon Schleswig, and by a second treaty of the same date, exchanged its possessions and rights in the duchy of Holstein for the counties of Oldenborg and Delmenhorst,

* Mr. D'Israeli, M. P., said in his speech on the 19th of April last, in the House of Commons: "When Russia was about to invade Denmark, and the latter having applied to this country, England signified her intention to carry out the provisions of her guaranty, and in consequence of that notification, Russia did not invade Schleswig."

ceded to it in return by the King of Damark. The completeness of the «s&« of Schleswig on the part of Russia • fid more evident, when compared with bo exchange of the counties of Delnahorst and Oldenborg for the Gottorp ihii» of Holstein. According to the formf treaty, Schleswig is ceded to the hag of Denmark and his royal successors, whie the latter mentions only King Chrism VII. and his brother, Prince Fredtri with their male heirs; thus declaring u.tt Russia reserved her rights to Holstem n the extinction of the male descendants d the reigning dynasty.*

By these treaties and later settlemrtB with the lateral lines of AugustenW and Beck, the house of Oldenborg <sc* at last into undisputed possession both d Schleswig and Holstein. The latter dach'. though a German fief, was incorporate; with the kingdom of Denmark in 1806.M the dissolution of the German empire, e consequence of the victories and conqw* of the Emperor Napoleon. But at ik Congress of Vienna in 1815, Holstein agsa entered into connection with the German confederation. King Frederik VI., * duke of Holstein, obtained a vote in tl* diet of Frankfort, and bound himself ti join the federal army with a contingent d three thousand five hundred troops.

At the general peace in 1815, aD th* different nations, which formed the eo»Btion against France, had been the g&inrv Denmark alone, as the faithful ally of lis Emperor Napoleon, had been almost craved under the weight of accumulated &asters, and from a flourishing kingdom >v the second rank, with a numerous arm;. J gallant navy and extensive commerce, six had then, in her isolated position, dwindle down to a small state, of a third or hurt.'. rank among the victorious nations aiwoi her. Her capital had been burnt; l* fleet carried off; her colonies, credit anJ commerce nearly destroyed—and to crovs all, Norway had been surrendered to tfc* Swedes, who at that time were still I'' enemies. Norway, which for neanyw centuries and a half had been united tot*'

* This important fact demonstrates tiM "• Russian emperor, as a direct deseemlmt d t* Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp, has a nearer dai"* the duchy of Holstein, than the Duke and Prao of Augustenborg.

id whose people bore in origin, language, story and manners, the closest affinity to ie Danes, was now violently severed from er sister kingdom. Denmark received, by ay of compensation, another small slice f German territory, cut away with the irge prumng-hook of the imbecile soulenders at Vienna, from the newly liber:ed bulk of German)'. What injustice nd blunders were committed by the selfh and short-sighted diplomatists of the ioly Alliance at Vienna! Poland, Italy, elgium, Norway and Lauenburg dismemered and shuffled about at the mere whim id caprice of gambling politicians! And aw—in 1848—they have either freed jemselvcs with the sword, or are still ijhting and bleeding for their freedom, auenburg alone must now, by the Gerlan Parliament at Frankfort, be forced to •nounce an alliance, which Denmark so n willingly acceded to in 1815. The cirumstances which brought that German uchy under the Danish crown are very emarkable. When King Frederik VI. as obliged by the treaty of Kiel, in 1814, o cede the kingdom of Norway to the rown of Sweden, the king of that country, n his part, offered as an indemnity to the ung of Denmark and his successors, the luchy of Swedish Pomerania and the prinipality of Rugen, with seventy-five and a lalf German square miles and 160,000 Dhabitants. Prussia now stood forward and deraandd the cession of these maritime provinces, iroposing to give Denmark an equivalent erritory, which it did not possess. But in rder to fulfil its promise, Prussia then pernaded the King of Hanover—George III. •f Great Britain—to cede the duchy ofSaxe-auenburg, with nineteen German square

miles and 45,000 inhabitants. The poor Laucnburgers remained six days Prussian subjects, and were then, on the 4th of June, 1815—'* a perpetuite et en loute souverainele et propriele'"—transmitted to the King of Denmark. The Frankfort deputy Weleker, has lately had the most hopeless difficulty in persuading the quiet and industrious Lauenburgers that these treaties are null and void, and that they, as Germans, belonging to the common glorious fatherland, were to take up arms against their former Danish liege lord.

Such were the relations between Denmark and the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg in 1815. There did not at that time exist any party spirit, any Schleswig-Holstein separatistic tendencies, which might have prognosticated any hostile conflict between the two different nationalities of the monarchy.

That movement began later, and originated not with the people, but with the nobility—the Ritterscha/t—and the swarm of German employees, forming a bureaucracy, who by the ambitious intrigues of the princes of Augustenborg, were led to hope that by a final rupture with Denmark, they might deprive^her both of Schleswig and Lauenburg, and thus form an independent state of their own, which by its important maritime position on the Baltic and the North Sea, might, as they said, become the handle of the sword, which Germany was to throw into the scales of fate on the Northern Seas.

A second article on this imperfectly understood, but interesting subject, will relate these movements in the duchies, and the events of the civil war they have occasioned.

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