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tiful tract, well cultivated, and inhabited by a rich and laborious yeomanry. The lands on the eastern coast are very fertile for several miles in the interior, and produce an abundance of rye, wheat, barley, i»ts, beans, pease, rape-seed, and excellent pulse and fruits. In many parts the heaths are broken up and converted into irable lands, agriculture being highly encouraged by the Danish government. Still he raising of cattle and horses supplies ha principal revenue of Jutland. The luge oxen are driven to the rich meadowands of Holstein, where they are fattened nd afterwards sold in Hamburg and Berm. In later years large exportations f oxen are made by sea to France and Jngland. The horses of Jutland and Holtein are strong, large, well-formed, and minently fitted for war.

Jutland is, by the small rivers Skodorg-aa and Konge-aa, divided into North utland, containing 9,500 square miles, and outh Jutland, or Schleswig, 2,624 square liles. The latter province is more fertile id better cultivated. Here the geeat or •able lands from the broken-up heaths nount to 700 square miles, the meadownds 320, the forests 112, the moors 224, id the barren heaths 450. North Jutnd has twelve more or less considerable wns, and 550,000 inhabitants. Schlesig possesses six towns, among which are o beautiful and well-built Schleswig, mding in a pleasant and picturesque sittion on the Schley, and the lively comsrcial town of Flensborg; the province ntaining 350,000 inhabitants. Schleswig bounded on the south by the German chy of Holstein, extending seventy les from the Baltic to the North Sea, and ty-eight miles from the Eyder on the rth, to the Elbe and the duchy of Lau•jorg on the south. It contains 2,528 tare miles, with 440,000 inhabitants. lstein is thus of smaller extent than lleswig, but more productive and better livated, and has a larger population. e Jutlander and the Schleswiger are h of Scandinavian origin, and the mass the people have nearly the same genecharacter, manners, and customs, ext the greater liveliness and elasticity, ich the Schleswiger has acquired by his ^rcourse and intermixture with the rma.ns. The Jutlandcrs are no longer bold and daring rovers, who with the

other Northmen, on their prancing seahorses, made the shores of Germany, France and England tremble at their approach. They are still a brave, but a peaceful and quiet people; they are laborious and persevering, but extremely slow and somewhat awkward in their manners. They are hospitable and cheerful with their countrymen, but cold and retired towards foreigners, with whom they have but little intercourse in their far-off and dreary country. They are more fond of ease than of show; and consequently the people in Jutland are more comfortable than the careless inhabitants of the sunny south. They are accustomed to substantial food, and make five meals a day; they are more economical than industrious, and do not know or regret the refinements of foreign countries. They are judicious observers and profound thinkers. They speak very slowly, with a harsh and inharmonious pronunciation, and are by their countrymen on the Danish islands considered cunning in calculating their own profit; the proverb is, "as sharp as a Jute." They are endued with imagination, and possess tender and beautiful national songs in their own dialect. Though they are patient and enduring, they can be roused to the highest pitch of enthusiasm. They are strongly attached to their king and country, but care nothing about politics or newspapers, having been for centuries accustomed to the dull calm of an absolute government; and yet they possess an independent feeling of their own, and will not submit to harsh or arbitrary treatment from their superiors. The country people are generally middle-sized, short, fair-haired, of a gentle and agreeable physiognomy; their women are pretty, with blue eyes and rosy cheeks, but as clumsy as their helpmates, clattering along on wocden shoes. This short sketch gives an idea of the people and country in times past; the eventful movements of late years have of course, in some degree, exerted their influence even as far as the distant shores of the Liim-Fjord. In South Jutland, both the Danish and Low German (Plat-tydske) dialects are in use. In 1837, Danish was spoken unmixed in 116 parishes, with 113,256 inhabitants; in these districts Danish is the language used not only in common intercourse, but both in the churches and' schools. In 36 parishes, with 45,460 inhabitants, that language is generally spoken, but the German is employed in the churches and schools. Danish is likewise spoken and understood in Tondern, Flensborg, and the dioceses of Gottorp and Bredsted, with 30,000 souls; so that Danish is still the mother tongue for 194,700 Schleswigers among the 350,000 which inhabit the duchy, thus forming a decided majority.

Quite different is the deportment and character of the Holsteiner. He is tall and handsome, with auburn hair. He is economical and industrious, like the Hollander; active and dexterous, ambitious and quarrelsome. He is arbitrary and imperious; witty, lively, but proud and overbearing toward his inferiors. He is full of talent and capacity, but boastful, grandiloquent and selfish. The Holstein cultivators own their lands and are a laborious, brave and intelligent people. Their farms are exceedingly well kept, and comfort and wealth are seen everywhere. The Holstein mariner is clever, bold and enduring, and sings his national German songs with the liveliness and spirit of an Italian.

Such is the character of the soil and the inhabitants of these three interesting provinces of the Danish monarchy.

The whole peninsula was in the remotest times of the middle ages inhabited by Jutes, Angles and Saxons. After the maritime expeditions of the two latter tribes to Britain, towards the middle of the fifth century of our era, Jutes and Frisians berran to settle in the abandoned districts of Angeln or South Jutland, north of the Eyder; while large swarms of Vendes, Obotrites, and other western tribes of the Slavonic nation, occupied the eastern coasts of Nordalbingia or Holstein, the seat of the Saxons on the Elbe. In the eighth century Denmark did not yet form a united kingdom; different sea-kings ruled on the islands of the Baltic. Godfred, the king of Reit-Gothland or Jutland, advanced on the Eyder, where he erected the celebrated wall or mound of earth and stones called the Dannetirkc across the peninsula from the bay of the river Schley, (Slias-wyk or Schleswig,)westward to the North Eyder, to protect his Scandinavian dominions from the inroads of the conquering Franks of Charlemagne, at that

time, A. D. 810, occupied in the com*" sion and subjugation of the Saxons. Tt Frankish emperor being continually si' assed by the fleets and armed baaithe Northmen on the coasts of FriesW and at the mouth of the Elbe. founded & strong castle of Hamaburg (Hamburg' ••" its northern bank, and afterwards conclncV. a treaty with the successor of Godfw) Hemming, according to which the Etc should form the boundary between Damark and the Frankish empire, awl £" Danes abandon all their conquests met of that river.

Towards the close of the ninth « tury the Danish king, Gorm the Old. last succeeded in uniting the small fc pendent states of the islands, and the Brb land of Jutland and Scania, (Siaw.l-'i Southern Sweden, into a powerful fc: dom. He crossed the Eyder; but et: ■ ing into Nordalbingia, then a prorina I the duchy of Saxony, his career of «' quest was arrested. The German fc::, Henry I. the Fowler, with his Genet: chivalry, defeated the wild Northmen H. established the march or margravu: Schleswig, between the Eyder and l2 Schley—the limes Danicus, as it is «*.W by the chroniclers, which now for US' a century remained the battle-gronn'J i the hostile Danish and Saxon borderr! during their continual devastating forayBut Canute the Great, during his af" view with the German emperor Citr-i the Salian, in Rome, in the year 1027.<*• tained the cession of this district, and l" the limits of Denmark were restored >*t as they had been in the time of Chr magne.f The Saxon march, once at 1

* This German settlement beyond thf £.r is very doubtful. Some chroniclers asnt* •' Charlemagne; others with mote pvUiii" the Saxon Henry the Fowler (919—936.) SetKlak, a petty king of South Jutland, W "* converted to Christianity so early as A P The intrepid missionary of the North. An***-7-' built the first church in Schleswig at tail Bf and sowed the first seed of Christian {•*.'' love among the wild worshippers »/ Ocx i Freya. .

f The existence of this treaty betwt«*» * man Empemt and the King of Danmrtj»" firmed by a very ancient ineeripumI' Romani terminal imperii, which f» « stood over the Old Uolstein Gate <rf *• Tliis town was at that time the bard* **T


Denmark, who possessed all the

orporated with the rest of South Jutid, remained in immediate dependence on the crown of Denmark. In this lole period we find that the South Jutes Schleswigers had their language, laws, d customs in common with their north1 brethren, the Islanders and the [Skolgers or Danish inhabitants of Scania, le ancient division of the provinces into stricts or shires, called Herreder and ysler, and the genuine Scandinavian roes of towns, villages and natural enery, down to the very banks of the ,-der, give the most evident proof of the anish nationality of the South Jutes. Yet the wars with the Slavonic and ermanic tribes, rendered it necessary for e kings of Denmark to place a powerful mmander in the border province, who, >ssessed of more independence and a rong army, might better secure the anish frontiers towards Saxony. The (ble-minded Knud Lavard, the son of ing Erik the Good, was thus proclaimed e first duke (dux or Hertug) of South ii land in 1102, and took up his resi:nce in Hedeby (Schleswig) on the :hley, which had been erected into an piscopal see. Crossing the Eyder, Duke nud, in many arduous expeditions, vaninshed and converted the heathen Vagriis, Obotrites, and Vendes; he extended is conquests as far as Pomerania, and ireed the German Dukes of Saxony and lolstein to recognize his rights over Vendind.

Holzatia (woody Saxony) formed a part f the duchy of Saxony, belonging to ie warlike house of Billungen, and con•sted of Holstein Proper, Stormarn and ie western district of the Ditmarskers. i the year 1106, after the extinction of lat family, the Emperor Lothaire erected lolstein into a county, with which he inested Count Adolph of Schauenborg, a »stle on the Weser, as a fief dependent on ie German Empire. The Holstein counts ow assisted Knud Lavard in the reduction f the wild Slavonic tribes on the eastern oast; new settlers from Germany and

n the river. In the fourteenth century, Rendsorg was ceded to the Counts of Schauenborg. lie Latin inscription was taken down from the ute in 1S06, on the dissolution of the German !mpire, and is now deposited in the Royal Artil*y Arsenal of the fortress.

Holland were invited into the country, a bishopric was established in Lubeck, and the brave duke proclaimed king of the Obotrites. Yet this sudden accession of power kindled the jealousy of King Niels of Denmark, who considered the enterprising duke of the border province a dangerous competitor for the crown. He ordered Knud Lavard to his court at Roeskilde in Zealand, where that excellent and unsuspecting chief was waylaid in a wood by Magnus, the prince royal, and assassinated, in the year 1129.

During the following reigns of Valdemar I., the son of Knud Lavard, and Knud VI., the Danish power became formidable and threatening to all their neighbors. King Valdemar II., the Victorious, conquered the county of Holstein, which by a treaty, in 1214, with the German Emperor Friederich II., of Hohenstaufen, was incorporated with Denmark. He extended his feudal possessions in Pomerania, and even attacked the distant Esthonia, where the Danish crusaders, with the cross and the sword, introduced Christianity among the Slavonians, and swept the Baltic with their numerous fleets. During this period of seventy years (1157-1227) of victories and conquests, the external dominion of Denmark was raised to a higher splendor than it had ever attained since the reign of Canute the Great. The Danes were the ruling nation of the North; but their chivalrous conquests were soon to be lost by one of those sudden turns of fortune which are characteristic of those turbulent times of the middle ages. King Valdemar, while hunting with his son on the island of Lyoe, was taken prisoner by his vassal, Count Henry of Schwerin, and confined in a castle in Mecklenburg, until he by treaty ceded all the conquered territories between the Elbe and the Eyder, including the county of Holstein, Vagrien, and the whole duchy of Pomerania. The king, on his return to Denmark, immediately assembled a large army and crossed the Eyder. But a powerful confederacy had been formed against him, between the counts of Holstein and Schwerin, the free cities of Hamburg and Lubeck, and the primate of Bremen. In the bloody battle, at Bornhoved, near Segeberg in Holstein on the 22d of June, 1227, King Valdemar suffered a total defeat, and was forced to give up all his pretensions to the countries south of the Eyder.

Valdemar II. died 1241, and the subsequent civil war, which broke out among the pretenders to the crown, brought Denmark to the very brink of destruction. This principal cause of such a rapid decline, was not only to be ascribed to the haughty bearing and dangerous influence of the rich and proud Catholic clergy and feudal nobility, mostly of German origin, who had received fiefs in the kingdom, but particularly to the pernicious practice at that time, of investing the royal princes, or other relatives of the kings, with the duchy of South Jutland, (ducatws Futice,) as a fief dependent on the Danish crown. Abel, the younger son of Valdemar, who had been invested with the duchy of Schleswig, laid claim to this province, as a free and independent patrimonial inheritance against his elder brother, King Erich Ploughpenning. Abel was defeated, and forced to receive the investiture of the duchy as a personal fief, not hereditary; but he took revenge against his brother, by the assassination of the latter on the Schley in 1250. The civil dissensions between the Kings of Denmark and their powerful vassals, the Dukes of South Jutland, who contended either for independent dominion or hereditary tenure, continued nearly without interruption; but though they often received aid from the German counts of Holstein, beyond the Eyder, they never succeeded in accomplishing their object.

The most distinguished of all the Holstein counts, Gerhard the Great, of Rendsborg, assumed, on the death of Duke Erich of South Jutland, the guardianship of his young son Valdemar, in opposition to the demands of his uncle, King Christopher II. of Denmark, who laid claim to that right. The king, at the head of a brilliant feudal army, entered the duchy and occupied the castle of Schleswig; but he shortly afterward suffered a signal defeat by the Holstein count on the Hesteberg; in consequence of which the Danes evacuated the duchy and retreated to North Jutland. The nobility of the kingdom, being disgusted with Christopher, expelled him from the country, and, yielding to the intrigues of Count Gerhard, called his ward, the young Valdemar Erikson, to the throne, and elected the

ambitious Holsteiner administrator of \> kingdom, during the minority of prince. In return for these good oC-» of his powerful uncle, Valdemar, wfc-:-. k that time, (1326,) was only twelve yew of age, bestowed the whole duefe* South Jutland upon Count Gerhard u: hereditary fief, and, according to the He stein historians, signed an important »<:; i LUbeck, by which he declared Schlerr^ and Holstein to be eternally united, ad bound himself never to reclaim the d»;or reunite it with the crown of Decmi-i

Thus we have arrived at the first ■»? of these two provinces, in the year \tH But it is fully evident from whatsfn-; point we view the subject, that thh it was without legality, and did not Cm)' those rights, which the haughty cooit«< Holstein inferred from it. The gnari;: could not lawfully accept a grant of t own ward under age, the validity of »ba he had to confirm himself. Nor ccraW i prince, chosen by a party of dissati-J nobles, dispose of an integral part of ':.'kingdom, quite contrary to the espial* tion of rights (Haandfa»tning) whicib guardian had signed in his name, wi without consent of the general ekfW Diet of the kingdom—the Dosufi.' Duke Valdemar was never crowned 'a of Denmark; he is not numbered inn: the monarchs of that country, and r, shortly afterwards forced to give ap this pretensions and retire to Schleswu

The Holstein historians pretend tt this document—this magna chart* "Schleswig-Holstein," which theT J the Constitutio Valdemariana, (ormf >tJ very basis in the dispute between a* kings of Denmark and their German nS jects in the duchies, by the gtaW,: which it is supposed to give to the inseparability of the two provinces. Fas ■' is a highly remarkable fact that the ?eence of this document never ha k* proved; no copy of it has ever k*i found, and it may, therefore, with P,; ground, be considered as altogetherspc'? phal. No mention whatever is n*^ '■ it in the original capitulation of ?KC Valdemar, nor in the letter of feoffor which Count Gerhard received in 1"*by which the Danish Council of St* (Rigsraad) confirmed the invest"""" _^ South Jutland as a simple bw ■& (Fanekhn) of the Danish crown. Sopp* ig even that such a document had existed, et it remained without any influence on ie relations of the kingdom ; no reference as ever made to it by the Holstein 'ounts during their disputes with Deniark at that lime, and the dukes of South uiland continued to recognize the kings f Denmark as their lawful liege-lords, 'et we shall presently see an attempt of tie Holsteiners to re-establish this imagiary constitution of Valdemar the Minor, i the concessions of Count Christian of )ldenborg, to his uncle, Count Adolph of lolstein, in 1448, on which they, at the iresent day, build all their pretensions to heir right of a "Schleswig-Holstein union." Christopher II., in the mean time, reurned from his retreat in Mecklenburg, ind the Danes flocked round him with lopes to escape from German oppression, le regained his crown, and young Valdenar Eiikson, renouncing his ephemeral lignity, returned to his duchy of South [utland, which Count Gerhard surrenderid to him. But the weak and despicable Christopher II., encompassed by enemies )n all sides, not only recognized the sucjession of the Counts of Schauenborg to ihe Danish banner-fief of South Jutland, in case of the death of Valdemar without male heirs, but, in his pecuniary distress, mortgaged the whole of North Jutland to Count Gerhard for a sum of money, and the islands to Count John of Itzehoe. These chieftains immediately occupied the Danish provinces thus surrendered to them, with their wild bands of German hirelings and adventurers. Poor, distracted Denmark had never found herself in greater distress. Her prelates and nobles fawned on the high-plumed foreigners; her industrious citizens and brave yeomanry were alike oppressed by their countrymen and enemies, and treated as if they were serfs. Her nationality seemed on the point of perishing beneath that of the Germans; her political power was on the eve of a total dissolution. King Christopher died broken-hearted on the Island of Falster in 1333; the province of Scania rose in arms, slaughtered the German condottieri, and united with Sweden. Yet the Holsteiners, with their active and ambitious chief, Count Gerhard, one of the greatest warriors of the age, still possessed all the mainland. Attempts at insurrection were made, but the Danes were

routed in every battle. Otho, the prince royal, defeated near Viborg, was carried a prisoner to the gloomy castle of Segeberg in Holstein. Valdemar, his younger brother, lived an exile at the court of Brandenburg. The cruelty and exactions of the foreign soldiery now became insupportable; even the good-natured Jutes at last were roused to resistance, when Count Gerhard, at the head of ten thousand Germans, began devastating that unhappy country with fire and sword. But the hour of retribution had arrived. The Danish knight, Niels Ebbesen of NSrrcriis, on the 18h of March, 1340, with sixty daring followers, entered the castle of Randers, and slew the count in the midst of his numerous mercenaries. Prince Valdemar Christopherson now returned from Germany, and succeeded by his prudence, perseverance, and eminent political talents, in redeeming nearly all the alienated and mortgaged provinces of the kingdom. He was less successful in his exertions to recover South Jutland. The male line of Abel's descendants became extinct in 1375. The old wary King Valdemar III. had foreseen this important event, and a Danish army immediately entered the duchy and occupied its principal towns. But the Holstein Count, Iron-Henry, the chivalrous son of the great Gerhard, was still more prompt. He took possession of the castle of Gottorp and was attacking the Danes, when the news of the death of King Valdemar, at Vordingborg in Zealand, again suspended the war. His nobleminded daughter, Margaretha, the Semiramis of the North, governed the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway in the name of her son Oluf Hakonson, and being pressed by a disastrous war with the overbearing Hanseatic confederation, and desiring the aid of the Counts of Holstein, she, at an assembly of the Danish nobility, at Nyborg, in 1386, bestowed upon the Count Gerhard of Rendsborg, the son of Iron-Henry, the much disputed duchy of South Jutland, as a banner-fief of the Danish crown, to remain indivisible in the hands of only one of the counts, who, as a Danish vassal, had to perform the usual feudal military service to his liege-lord. The net did not expressly state whether the fief was personal or hereditary; and the Danish kings demanded the repetition of the oath of allegiance at every succession.

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