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tiful tract, well cultivated, and inhabited | other Northmen, on their prancing seaby a rich and laborious yeomanry. The horses, made the shores of Germany, lands on the eastern coast are very fertile France and England tremble at their apfor several miles in the interior, and pro- proach. They are still a brave, but a duce an abundance of rye, wheat, barley, peaceful and quiet people; they are labopats, beans, pease, rape-seed, and excellent rious and persevering, but extremely slow pulse and fruits. In many parts the and somewhat awkward in their manners. heaths are broken up and converted into They are hospitable and cheerful with their irable lands, agriculture being highly en-countrymen, but cold and retired towards ouraged by the Danish government. Still foreigners, with whom they have but little he raising of cattle and horses supplies intercourse in their far-off and dreary he principal revenue of Jutland. The country. They are more fond of ease than zuge oxen are driven to the rich meadow- of show; and consequently the people in ands of Holstein, where they are fattened Jutland are more comfortable than the nd afterwards sold in Hamburg and Ber- careless inhabitants of the sunny south. in. In later years large exportations They are accustomed to substantial food, f oxen are made by sea to France and and make five meals a day; they are more Ingland. The horses of Jutland and Hol- economical than industrious, and do not tein are strong, large, well-formed, and know or regret the refinements of foreign minently fitted for war.

countries. They are judicious observers Jutland is, by the small rivers Skod- and profound thinkers. They speak very org-aa and Konge-aa, divided into North slowly, with a harsh and inharmonious proutland, containing 9,500 square miles, and nunciation, and are by their countrymen outh Jutland, or Schleswig, 2,624 square on the Danish islands considered cunning niles. The latter province is more fertile in calculating their own profit; the proverb nd better cultivated. Here the geest or is, “as sharp as a Jute.” They are enrable lands from the broken-up heaths dued with imagination, and possess tender nount to 700 square miles, the meadow- and beautiful national songs in their own nds 320, the forests 112, the moors 224, dialect. Though they are patient and id the barren heaths 450. North Jut- enduring, they can be roused to the highnd has twelve more or less considerable est pitch of enthusiasm. They are strongly wns, and 550,000 inhabitants. Schles- attached to their king and country, but ig possesses six towns, among which are care nothing about politics or newspapers, e beautiful and well-built Schleswig, having been for centuries accustomed to unding in a pleasant and picturesque sit- the dull calm of an absolute government ; tion on the Schley, and the lively com- and yet they possess an independent feelercial town of Flensborg ; the province ing of their own, and will not submit to ntaining 350,000 inhabitants. Schleswig harsh arbitrary treatment from their subounded on the south by the German periors. The country people are generally chy of Holstein, extending seventy middle-sized, short, fair-haired, of a gentle les from the Baltic to the North Sea, and and agreeable physiognomy; their women ty-eight miles from the Eyder on the are pretty, with blue eyes and rosy cheeks, rih, to the Elbe and the duchy of Lau- but as clumsy as their helpmates, clatterborg on the south. It contains 2,528 | ing along on wooden shoes. iare miles, with 440,000 inhabitants. This short sketch gives an idea of the peoIstein is thus of smaller extent than ple and country in times past; the eventful hleswig, but more productive and better movements of late years have of course, in tivated, and has a larger population. some degree, exerted their influence even as e Jutlander and the Schleswiger are far as the distant shores of the Liim-Fjord. b of Scandinavian origin, and the mass In South Jutland, both the Danish and the people have nearly the same gene- Low German (Plat-tydske) dialects are in

character, manners, and customs, ex- use. In 1837, Danish was spoken unmixt the greater liveliness and elasticity, ed in 116 parishes, with 113,256 inhabiich the Schleswiger has acquired by his tants; in these districts Danish is the rcourse and intermixture with the language used not only in common interrmans. The Jutlanders are no longer course, but both in the churches and bold and daring rovers, who with the schools. In 36 parishes, with 45,460 inhabitants, that language is generally | time, A. D. 810, occupied in the conte spoken, but the German is employed in sion and subjugation of the Saxons. TL the churches and schools. Danish is like- Frankish emperor being continually be wise spoken and understood in Tondern, assed by the fleets and armed bands Flensborg, and the dioceses of Gottorp the Northmen on the coasts of Frieslad and Bredsted, with 36,000 souls ; so that and at the mouth of the Elbe, founded to Danish is still the mother tongue for strong castle of Hamaburg (Hamburg) 194,700 Schleswigers among the 350,000 its northern bank, and afterwards conclude which inhabit the duchy, thus forming a a treaty with the successor of Godfred, decided majority.

Hemming, according to which the ErdQuite different is the deportment and should form the boundary between De character of the Holsteiner. He is tallmark and the Frankish empire, and e. and handsome, with auburn hair. He is Danes abandon all their conquests sorta economical and industrious, like the Hol- of that river. lander; active and dexterous, ambitious Towards the close of the ninth and quarrelsome. He is arbitrary and tury the Danish king, Gorm the Old, a imperious ; witty, lively, but proud and last succeeded in uniting the small ind overbearing toward his inferiors. He is pendent states of the islands, and the me full of talent and capacity, but boastful, land of Jutland and Scania, (Skaane.) 9 grandiloquent and selfish. The Holstein Southern Sweden, into a powerful biz. cultivators own their lands and are a dom. He crossed the Eyder ; but en: laborious, brave and intelligent people. ing into Nordalbingia, then a province Their farms are exceedingly well kept, and the duchy of Saxony, his career of co comfort and wealth are seen everywhere. quest was arrested." The German ko "he Holstein mariner is clever, bold and en- Henry I. the Fowler, with his Gerten during, and sings his national German songs chivalry, defeated the wild Northmen 2. with the liveliness and spirit of an Italian. established the anarch or margraviate

Such is the character of the soil and Schleswig, between the Eyder and the inhabitants of these three interest | Schley—the limes Danicus, as it is called ing provinces of the Danish monarchy. by the chroniclers, which now for ne

a century remained the battle-ground

the hostile Danish and Saxon borderen The whole peninsula was in the remotest during their continual devastating forar! times of the middle ages inhabited by But Canute the Great, during his in:"" Jutes, Angles and Saxons. After the view with the German emperor Cocal maritime expeditions of the two latter the Salian, in Rome, in the year 107. tribes to Britain, towards the middle of the tained the cession of this district, and to fifth century of our era, Jutes and Frisians the limits of Denmark were restored :a. began to settle in the abandoned districts as they had been in the time of Cher of Angeln or South Jutland, north of the magnet The Saxon march, once 3 Eyder; while large swarms of Vendes, Obotrites, and other western tribes of the Slavonic nation, occupied the eastern * This German settlement beyond the Era coasts of Nordalbingia or Holstein, the is very doubtful. Some chroniclers ascribe 3. seat of the Saxons on the Elbe. In the Charlemagne; others with more probabilir eighth century Denmark did not yet form Klak, a petty king of South Jutland

, bado

the Saxon Henry the Fowler (919—936) Fies! a united kingdom ; different sea-kings converted to Christianity so early as AD ruled on the islands of the Baltic. God- The intrepid missionary of the North, Anecdum fred, the king of Reit-Gothland or Jut- built the first church in Schleswig at that land, advanced on the Eyder, where he and sowed the first seed of Christian piet erected the celebrated wall or mound of love among the wild worshippers or dat

Freya. earth and stones called the Dannevirke

| The existence of this treaty between the across the peninsula from the bay of the river man Emperor and the King of Denmari Schley, (Slias-wykor Schleswig.) westward firmed by a very ancient inscription: to the North Eyder, to protect his Scan- Romani terminus imperii

, which foc dinavian dominions from the inroads of the This town was at that time the border for

stood over the Old Holstein Gate of Reh conquering Franks of Charlemagne, at that Denmark, who possessed all the tolle and do


incorporated with the rest of South Jut- | Holland were invited into the country, a land, remained in immediate dependence bishopric was established in Lübeck, and upon the crown of Denmark. In this the brave duke proclaimed king of the whole period we find that the South Jutes Obotrites. Yet this sudden accession of or Schleswigers had their language, laws, power kindled the jealousy of King Niels înd customs in common with their north- of Denmark, who considered the enterprisern brethren, the Islanders and the Sko ing duke of the border province a dangerringers or Danish inhabitants of Scania. ous competitor for the crown. He ordered Che ancient division of the provinces into Knud Lavard to his court at Roeskilde in listricts or shires, called Herreder and Zealand, where that excellent and unsusSysler, and the genuine Scandinavian pecting chief was way laid in a wood by lames of towns, villages and natural Magnus, the prince royal, and assassinated, cenery, down to the very banks of the in the year 1129. Syder, give the most evident proof of the During the following reigns of Valdemar Danish nationality of the South Jutes. I., the son of Knud Lavard, and Knud VI.,

Yet the wars with the Slavonic and the Danish power became formidable and termanic tribes, rendered it necessary for threatening to all their neighbors. King he kings of Denmark to place a powerful Valdemar II., the Victorious, conquered ommander in the border province, who, the county of Holstein, which by a treaty, ossessed of more independence and a in 1214, with the German Emperor Frietrong army, might better secure the derich II., of Hohenstaufen, was incorporaJanish frontiers towards Saxony. The ted with Denmark. He extended his oble-minded Knud Lavard, the son of feudal possessions in Pomerania, and even Ging Erik the Good, was thus proclaimed attacked the distant Esthonia, where the he first duke (dux or Herlug) of South Danish crusaders, with the cross and the utland in 1102, and took up his resi- sword, introduced Christianity among the ence in Hedeby (Schleswig) on the Slavonians, and swept the Baltic with their chley, which had been erected into an numerous fleets. During this period of piscopal see. Crossing the Eyder, Duke seventy years (1157–1227) of victories nud, in many arduous expeditions, van- and conquests, the external dominion of uished and converted the heathen Vagri- Denmark was raised to a higher splendor as, Obotrites, and Vendes ; he extended than it had ever attained since the reign s conquests as far as Pomerania, and of Canute the Great. The Danes were rced the German Dukes of Saxony and the ruling nation of the North ; but their olstein to recognize his rights over Vend- chivalrous conquests were soon to be lost nd.

by one of those sudden turns of fortune Holzatia (woody Saxony) formed a part which are characteristic of those turbu

the duchy of Saxony, belonging to lent times of the middle ages. King Vale warlike house of Billungen, and con- demar, while hunting with his son on the sted of Holstein Proper, Stormarn and island of Lyoe, was taken prisoner by his e western district of the Ditmarskers. vassal, Count Henry of Schwerin, and

the year 1106, after the extinction of confined in a castle in Mecklenburg, until at family, the Emperor Lothaire erected he by treaty ceded all the conquered terolstein into a county, with which he in- ritories between the Elbe and the Eyder, sted Count Adolph of Schauenborg, a including the county of Holstein, Vagrien, stle on the Weser, as a fief dependent on and the whole duchy of Pomerania. The 2 German Empire. The Holstein counts king, on his return to Denmark, immediw assisted Knud Lavard in the reduction ately assembled a large army and crossed the wild Slavonic tribes on the eastern the Eyder. But a powerful confederacy ist ; new settlers from Germany and had been formed against him, between the

counts of Holstein and Schwerin, the free the river. In the fourteenth century, Rends- cities of Hamburg and Lübeck, and the g was ceded to the Counts of Schauenborg. primate of Bremen. In the bloody battle,

Latin inscription was taken down from the at Bornhöved, near Segeberg in Holstein e in 1806, on the dissolution of the German pire, and is now deposited in the Royal Artil- on the 22d of June, 1227, King Valdemar † Arsenal of the fortress.

suffered a total defeat, and was forced to give up all his pretensions to the countries ambitious Holsteiner administrator of the south of the Eyder.

kingdom, during the minority of the Valdemar II. died 1241, and the subse- prince. In return for these good offices quent civil war, which broke out among of his powerful uncle, Valdemar, who, at the pretenders to the crown, brought that time, (1326,) was only twelve years Denmark to the very brink of destruction of age, bestowed the whole duchy of This principal cause of such a rapid de- South Jutland upon Count Gerhard as a cline, was not only to be ascribed to the hereditary fief, and, according to the Holhaughty bearing and dangerous influence stein historians, signed an important act in of the rich and proud Catholic clergy and Lübeck, by which he declared Schleswig feudal nobility, mostly of German origin, and Holstein to be eternally united, and who had received fiefs in the kingdom, bound himself never to reclaim the duchy, but particularly to the pernicious practice or reunite it with the crown of Denmark. at that time, of investing the royal princes, Thus we have arrived at the first anion or other relatives of the kings, with the of these two provinces, in the year 1326. duchy of South Jutland, (ducatus Futia,) But it is fully evident from whatsoever as a fief dependent on the Danish crown. point we view the subject, that this act Abel, the younger son of Valdemar, who was without legality, and did not create had been invested with the duchy of those rights, which the haughty counts of Schleswig, laid claim to this province, Holstein inferred from it. The guardian as a free and independent patrimonial in- could not lawfully accept a grant of his heritance against his elder brother, King own ward under age, the validity of which Erich Ploughpenning. Abel was defeat- he had to confirm himself. Nor coulds ed, and forced to receive the investiture prince, chosen by a party of dissatisfied of the duchy as a personal fief, not heredi- nobles, dispose of an integral part of the tary ; but he took revenge against his kingdom, quite contrary to the capitulabrother, by the assassination of the latter tion of rights (Haandfæstning) which is on the Schley in 1250. The civil dissen- guardian had signed in his name, and sions between the Kings of Denmark and without consent of the general elective their powerful vassals, the Dukes of South Diet of the kingdom-the Danseher Jutland, who contended either for inde- Duke Valdemar was never crowned line pendent dominion or hereditary tenure, of Denmark; he is not numbered smo continued nearly without interruption ; but the monarchs of that country, and though they often received aid from the shortly afterwards forced to give up si German counts of Holstein, beyond the his pretensions and retire to Schleswig Eyder, they never succeeded in accom- The Holstein historians pretend : plishing their object.

this document—this magna charta The most distinguished of all the Hol- Schleswig-Holstein," which they ca stein counts, Gerhard the Great, of Rends- the Constitulio Valdemariane, fortes borg, assumed, on the death of Duke very basis in the dispute between te Erich of South Jutland, the guardianship kings of Denmark and their German sat of his young son Valdemar, in opposition jects in the duchies, by the guara! to the demands of his uncle, King Christo- which it is supposed to give to the s pher II. of Denmark, who laid claim to separability of the two provinces. But that right. The king, at the head of a is a highly remarkable fact that the exist brilliant feudal army, entered the duchy ence of this document never has bee and occupied the castle of Schleswig; but proved; no copy of it has ever be he shortly afterward suffered a signal de- found, and it may, therefore, with great feat by the Holstein count on the Heste- ground, be considered as altogether speen berg; in consequence of which the Danes phal. No mention whatever is made evacuated the duchy and retreated to it in the original capitulation of Po North Jutland. The nobility of the king- Valdemar, nor in the letter of fees dom, being disgusted with Christopher, which Count Gerhard received in 130 expelled him from the country, and, yield-by which the Danish Council of 3 ing to the intrigues of Count Gerhard, (Rigsraad) confirmed the investire called his ward, the young Valdemar South Jutland as a simple banen Erikson, to the throne, and elected the (Fanelehn) of the Danish crown. Suppe


g even that such a document had existed, I routed in every battle. Otho, the prince et it remained without any influence on royal, defeated near Viborg, was carried a be relations of the kingdom; no reference prisoner to the gloomy castle of Segeberg as ever made to it by the Holstein | in Holstein. Valdemar, his younger broounts during their disputes with Den- ther, lived an exile at the court of Branark at that time, and the dukes of South denburg. The cruelty and exactions of utland continued to recognize the kings the foreign soldiery now became insupf Denmark as their lawful liege-lords. portable; even the good-natured Jutes at et we shall presently see an attempt of last were roused to resistance, when Count he Holsteiners to re-establish this imagi- Gerhard, at the head of ten thousand Gerary constitution of Valdemar the Minor, mans, began devastating that unhappy 1 the concessions of Count Christian of country with fire and sword. But the hour Oldenborg, to his uncle, Count Adolph of of retribution had arrived. The Danish lolstein, in 1448, on which they, at the knight, Niels Ebbesen of Nörreriis, on the resent day, build all their pretensions to 18h of March, 1340, with sixty daring folheir right of a “Schleswig-Holstein union.” | lowers, entered the castle of Randers, and

Christopher II., in the mean time, re- slew the count in the midst of his numerurned from his retreat in Mecklenburg, ous mercenaries. Prince Valdemar Chrisind the Danes flocked round him with topherson now returned from Germany, hopes to escape from German oppression. and succeeded by his prudence, perseverle regained his crown, and young Valde- ance, and eminent political talents, in renar Erikson, renouncing his ephemeral deeming nearly all the alienated and mortlignity, returned to his duchy of South gaged provinces of the kingdom. He was lutland, which Count Gerhard surrender- less successful in his exertions to recover d to him. But the weak and despicable South Jutland. The male line of Abel's Christopher II., encompassed by enemies descendants became extinct in 1375. on all sides, not only recognized the suc- The old wary King Valdemar III. had session of the Counts of Schauenborg to foreseen this important event, and a Danthe Danish banner-fief of South Jutland, ish army immediately entered the duchy in case of the death of Valdemar without and occupied its principal towns. But male heirs, but, in his pecuniary distress, the Holstein Count, Iron-Henry, the chivalmortgaged the whole of North Jutland to rous son of the great Gerhard, was still Count Gerhard for a sum of money, and more prompt. He took possession of the the islands to Count Jobn of Itzehoe. castle of Gottorp and was attacking the These chieftains immediately occupied the Danes, when the news of the death of Danish provinces thus surrendered to King Valdemar, at Vordingborg in Zeathem, with their wild bands of German | land, again suspended the war. His noblehirelings and adventurers. Poor, dis- minded daughter, Margaretha, the Semiratracted Denmark had never found herself mis of the North, governed the kingdoms in greater distress. Her prelates and of Denmark and Norway in the name of nobles fawned on the high-plumed foreign- her son Oluf Hakonson, and being pressed ers; her industrious citizens and brave by a disastrous war with the overbearing yeomanry were alike oppressed by their Hanseatic confederation, and desiring the countrymen and enemies, and treated as aid of the Counts of Holstein, she, at if they were serfs. Her nationality seem- an assembly of the Danish nobility, at ed on the point of perishing beneath that Nyborg, in 1386, bestowed upon the of the Germans; her political power was Count Gerhard of Rendsborg, the son of on the eve of a total dissolution. King Iron-Henry, the much disputed duchy of Christopher died broken-hearted on the South Jutland, as a banner-fief of the DanIsland of Falster in 1333; the province of ish crown, to remain indivisible in the Scania rose in arms, slaughtered the Ger- hands of only one of the counts, who, as man condottieri, and united with Sweden. a Danish vassal, had to perform the usual Yet the Holsteiners, with their active and feudal military service to his liege-lord. ambitious chief, Count Gerhard, one of the The act did not expressly state whether greatest warriors of the age, still possess the fief was personal or hereditary; and ed all the mainland. Attempts at insur- the Danish kings demanded the repetition of rection were made, but the Danes were the oath of allegiance at every succession.

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