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relation wbich is made the fountain of her those who are under its power. In this deepest sorrows, under the iron reign of form, it is the sexual appetite or instinct, a sin, becomes itself the well-spring of her purely natural tendency, which has for its salvation, through the law of faith and object the preservation of the race, as charity and holiness” revealed in Jesus the instinct of hunger is designed to se Christ. So profoundly true again is that cure the preservation of the single indi: other declaration : “ The head of every vidual. It is the power of the general man is Christ, and the head of the woman nature over its own constituent factors ar is the man ;" or as we have it in another parts, by which these are urged to seek, place : “ The husband is the head of the each in the other, the full sense of their wife, even as Christ is the head of the proper bearing, and thus to constitute, in church.” (1 Cor. xi. 3 ; Eph. v. 23.) So the way of reciprocal appropriation, a litintimately close is the union for which the ing union that may fairly represent both. sexual distinction opens the way, and in But nature here, as elsewhere, is rewhich alone it comes finally to its true quired to lose itself always in the power meaning

of a higher life, in which its action shall no On this union, the primitive and most longer be blind and unfree, but the profundamental form of human fellowship, duct of the spirit itself in its own true depends not simply the perpetuation of the form. As the sexual relation extends to race, but the entire problem besides of its the whole person, the union for which it social and moral history. It is by means calls can never be complete, except as is of it, in the first place, that the generic or is made to embrace this in its full totality

, universal life of man is brought to assert under a strictly central and universal forn. its proper authority over against the life It must be a union of mind and will, a of the individual singly and separately process of mutual apprehension, and recip considered. The individual is forced to rocal personal appropriation, in the farfeel that he is no complete whole in him- thest depths of the soul. In no other self; that his nature can be true to its own form can it be truly normal, and answerconstitution only by passing beyond his able to the high purposes it is designed to single person, and seeking its necessary The sexual tendency, ethicised in complement in another ; that in one word, this way, and sublimated into the sphere to be a true and full man at all, he must of personality, becomes loce. This is enter into communion with his race, and always in its very nature something murai make himself tributary, in a free way, to and spiritual, springing from the will, and the high ends for which he has been placed having regard to the inmost person. Sta in the world. This subordination of the in the case before us, it is in the full single life to the general, is of such vast sense also sexual. It rests throughouse consequence to the entire plan and struc- the distinction of sex, and regards the ture of the moral world, that it must be spirit only as beheld and apprehenied secured by an invincible guaranty in the under such modification. Hence the constitution of the world itself. It is imate power of beauty, as constituting curious and instructive to see accordingly, the side of either sex to the eye aki how. the law of society, lying as it does at other, the outward image and expuewis the foundation of all ethics, is here made of the inward life in its sexual fer 4 to take root, as it were, “in the lowest true beauty, of course, in this vies parts of the earth ;" illustrating, on a back upon the spirit, while at the grand scale, the proposition affirmed in time its proper revelation is to be the beginning of this article, that all mo- in the outward person. A sexual 1:19 rality has its basis in nature, and is to be that includes no regard to beault regarded as genuine, only as it shows itself necessarily be immoral, as falling to be in very truth the efflorescence of this that high spiritual region, in whiri lower life, bursting upwards into the ethe- love finds its suitable home. real region of the spirit.

animal nature, in such case, is suspend The bond by which the sexes are thus prevail over the human. It telaga drawn together is lodged, in the first in love, not to overthrow absolutely unders stance, deep in the physical constitution of the power of mere sense, but sul


cover it at every point with its own superior of a specific personal life, which is felt to presence, that it shall not be permitted to be such as the necessary complement of its come into separate view.

own nature. Under no other form can Love, as now described, includes in itself the union here in question be regarded as always a regard to the sexual character as moral. It is not every woman that is such; and so far, there is truth and force adapted, physically or spiritually, to be a in the observation of Sterne, that no man help-meet for every inan; but as the sexes ever loves any one woman as he should, are formed for each other in a general way, who has not at the same time a love for so each individual of either sex may be her whole sex. This, however, is only said to be formed for some corresponding one side of the subject. Love, to be com- individual of the other; and it is of the plete, must be also strictly and distinctly highest consequence, of course, for themindividual, determined towards its object as selves and for the race also, that they a single person to the exclusion of all others. should be able to find and know each

The single plant is only a specimen of other in the confused wilderness of the its kind, the particular animal a copy of world's life. the tribe to which it belongs. But it is We may go so far as to say, perhaps, not thus in the human sphere. The indi- that in a perfectly normal state of the vidual man is vastly more than a passing world, this pairing and matching of indiexemplification simply of the generic life vidual natures would be so complete as that flows through his person. He com- to exclude, in every case, all possibility of prehends in himself an independent spe- different choice. Each would be for each, cific nature, that can be properly repre- by absolute singularity of mutual suitablesented by no other. His individuality is ness and want, in such a way as to shut always at the same time personal, and as out the whole world besides.

Of course, such something universal and constant; as our actual life, disordered as it is by sin, on the other hand his personality is always cannot be expected or required to conform ndividual, taking its special complexion strictly to this rule of ideal perfection. from the living material nature out of But still it should include at least an apwhich it springs. Every such individual proximation towards it; and it must be personality is a world within itself, existing regarded as defective, in proportion preinder given relations to other worlds of cisely as it is found to fall short of such orresponding nature around it. No two high' measure. In a state of barbarism, of these are exactly alike, and all by these but small account comparatively is made lifferences fall short of the measure that of individual personality, in the commerce belongs to humanity as a whole. This is of the sexes; which however is simply onstituted only by the society and union itself an expression of the barbarous life to f the individual personalities into which which it belongs, showing it to border

falls, joined together morally, not with close on the merely animal existence below adiscriminate conjunction, but according it, in which, as there is no personality, so

specific reciprocal correspondence, in there is no room also for the idea of love he way of inward want and supply. The in any form. The savage takes his wife eneral law of moral association then very much as a specimen simply of her eing such, it must extend of course in sex, just as he selects his dog, in the same ull power to the primary and fundamen- view, to accompany him in the chase. It al union which we have now under con- is remarkable, too, that in such low stage deration. It lies in the very conception of moral development, the individual naf love, as already explained, that it ture itself stands out to view, for the most hould concentrate itself upon the spirit, part, only under dim and indistinct lines. s revealed under a sexual form; but to do it is the sense of personality in the end, iis fully, it must be carried by inward that advances the single life to its legitiective affinity towards its object as a mate rights and claims, investing it with articular person. It is not simply the clearly marked distinction under its own eneral attraction of sex, that can satisfy form, and challenging towards it in this s demands; it requires besides that this way the attention and respect it is entitled traction shall lodge itself in the presence to receive. We are furnished here accordVOL. 11. NO. IV.



ingly with an unerring standard of civili- | power which belongs to love. The case. zation and social culture, which in the case in its own nature, admits of no comprobefore us especially is always of plain and mise or reserve. Marriage calls solemnly easy application.

for the gift of the whole being, on the altar The sexual union, representing thus the of love, and can never be fully satisfied general relation of the sexes to each other with any sacrifice that is less full and enon the one hand, and involving the elective tire. In proportion as the relation comes personal affinity of individual natures on short of such inward, central community the other, mediated throughout by the of soul and life, it must be regarded as an sacred power of love, comes to its proper imperfect approximation only to its own expression in the idea of marriage; whose true idea. nature, at the same time, is defined and There is a difference indeed in the form explained by the whole analysis through of this mutual self-surrendry on the part which we have now passed. This is sim- of the two sexes, corresponding with the ply the true and normal form of that com- order of their general relation as already merce and communion, in which the dis- noticed. As the united person constituted tinction of sex comes at last to its full by marriage is required to centre ultisense, as the necessary completion of hu- mately in man, it follows that the union manity, and the primitive basis of all his- calls for the largest measure of such free tory and society. The attributes that be sacrifice on the side of woman. For this, long of right to this union, are the true also, she is happily disposed by her whole and proper attributes also of marriage ; constitution. Love is emphatically the which is not therefore something joined to element of her life. She needs the opport our nature, as it were, from abroad, and tunity of going fully out of herself in this in the way of outward order or device, way, in order that she may do full justice whether human or divine ; but should be to her own nature. There is nothing considered rather as part of our nature life, accordingly, more deep, and beautifa itself, a simple fact in its organic constitu- and full of moral power, than the dernice tion, without whose presence it must cease of woman's love. It goes beyond all ths: to exist altogether.

is possible, under the same form, on the Marriage of course, then, is the process side of the other sex. The perfectios. of reciprocal appropriation, by which the marriage, so far as she is concerned, tures sexes, according to their original destina- on the measure in which she is prepare tion, become one, and so complete them to make herself over, in body, mind, ar selves each, in the power of a single per- outward estate, without limit or reserve : sonal life. In the nature of the case, this him whom she has chosen to be ber brug double appropriation is required to extend The husband is not required to quit tin to the entire being of the parties concerned self, exactly to the same extent and in Ein the transaction ; for the sexual differ- same way. He may not resign the sun ence is such, as we have already seen, that of his more central and universal charen each side of the relation requires the op- ter, by which precisely he is qualified posite, not in part only, but in full, to become the personal bearer of the ente: make itself complete. This implies, at the life involved in the marriage bond. same time, a corresponding act of self- this, however, gives him no right to rtabandonment on each side, in favor of the cise bis independence in a selfish way. other, as the necessary condition of full lays him under obligation only to mababa mutual appropriation in return. Each self over, in this character, to the poem yields itself up to be the property of the sion of his wife, answering thus, wita * other, in the very act of embracing this unbounded fidelity and truth, the full again as its own property. So as regards bounded measure of her confiden the merely natural and outward life. The truth. “So ought men to lore parties are made “one flesh.” This is of wives as their own bodies; he that he right, however, only in virtue of the in- his wife, loveth himself.” ward spiritual embrace, by which the The idea of marriage, as now preses personality of each is brought to rest in clearly excludes, not only all promises that of the other, by the deep mysterious concubinage, but also all polygamy

livorce. In its very nature, it is the full / which is in full violation of the original ind enduring union of one man with one and proper equality of the race. The voman, according to the law of sexual dif- savage, it is said, turns his wife into a erence and correspondence. Many out- slave, the instrument of his own pleasure vard reasons may be urged against the and convenience; and it is only a higher orrregularities now mentioned ; but the der of the same barbarism, by which, in the grand argument in the case at last is just reigning structure of our present civilizahis, that they contradict the true conception, the whole sex is shorn of its political ion of the sexual union itself. This can and public rights, and forced to devote lever take place normally, except in the itself to the service of man in the nursery vay of mutual self-surrendry and whole and kitchen. We need in this respect, we ppropriation of each other, on the part of are told, a reconstruction of society, in hose who are its subjects, that is, in the such a way that, among other abuses, this way of marriage. Polygamy necessarily Mohammedan prejudice also may be fully riolates this law; and the same is true abolished, admitting woman thus to a free lso of divorce, which is tolerated by participation in all public counsels and Christianity accordingly only where the transactions, so far as she may show abilnarriage bond has been already nullified ity for the purpose ; and placing her on in fact by the crime of adultery.

full level with the opposite sex both at We cannot bring the whole subject to a home and abroad. So runs the theory. onclusion better, perhaps, than by mak-It has the universal custom of the world ng use of it to expose, in a direct way, as against it, and also what would seem to has been done in some measure indirectly be the most explicit testimony of the Bible. ulready, the entire theory of what is But of this we speak not at present. We sometimes styled the emancipation of wo- meet it here with the moral geology, if we nan, as held with various modifications, may so term it, of our human nature itby our modern Fourierites and Socialists self, drawn forth with overwhelming eviof every description. Of all forms of dence from the everlasting mountains of agrarianism this is to be counted, as it is its original constitution. The theory in n some respects the most plausible, so question is just as unphilosophical as it is also the most mischievous and false. No unbiblical and contrary to all history. It maxim, universally taken, can be more violates morality and nature alike. mpudently untrue, than that which as- It is by no accident, or violent wrong serts the general liberty and equality of merely, that woman is made to occupy a the human race in the sense of this disor- secondary rank in the economy of human ganizing school. The freedom and inde- society. Her outward weakness makes it pendence of all

, not only outwardly but necessary, to some extent; but this itself nwardly also, is conditioned always by the is only the index of a still deeper necessity position assigned to them of God in the for it, in her spiritual constitution. All social organism to which they belong the purposes of her being, all the condiAll are free only as comprehended in giv- tions of her welfare and peace, all the en social relations, and in the measure of laws of her interior organization, require their correspondence as parts with the idea this subordination to the other sex, and of the whole. The proper unity of life, urge her towards it as the only possible as an organic system, involves of necessity way in which her personality can be made the conception not simply of manifold dis- complete. This relation of dependence tinction, but of relative dependence also needs to be well fortified indeed against and subordination. Of this we have a abuse ; as it may run easily otherwise into broad, perpetual exemplification, in the con- vast tyranny and wrong; but still it restitution of the sexes. The school which mains forever indispensable in itself to we have now in view, affects to vindicate woman's proper life, and under its normal what it calls the rights of woman against character constitutes emphatically her the authority of the stronger sex, as spiritual salvation. It is not in her physithough this had taken advantage of its cal nature merely that she is formed to accidental physical superiority in this view, lean on man as her necessary prop and to assert a primacy and lordship here, stay. He is the ultimate centre also

her personality, through which alone she of the female nature to that of man precan stand in right organic communication cisely which makes room for that peculiar with the general world, and so attain to union of the two, in which the true idea true and solid freedom in her own position. of marriage consists. The possibility of No agrarian radicalism can ever change such an inward personal oneness as it rethe moral order of humanity here, for we quires in the case of husband and wife, may say of it precisely as the Psalmist turns not simply on their difference of sex, does of the constitution of the planets: but on the order also in which this rela

Forever, O Lord, thy word is settled in tion is found actually to hold. The comheaven !” The emancipation of these mon personality which is thus created, heavenly bodies from their appointed or- must have a real centre on which to rest; bits, were just as rational an object of re- and the correspondence between the seres forming zeal as the attempt to set woman is such that this is fully and necessarily free from her natural subordination to the determined to the one side only, and not headship of man. All such freedom is to the other. The help which each needs something monstrous in its very nature; here in the other, is not at all, in this reand the wrong which it involves can never spect, of parallel character. The whole fail to avenge itself with terrible moral nature of woman urges her towards man, retribution on all concerned in it, wherever as the necessary centre of her own being; it may be allowed. Most disastrous will her personality is so constituted, that it can be its action on woman herself, if she can be perfected only by falling over upon the be tempted thus to forsake her own char- deeper and broader consciousness of mas, acter and sphere. She must unsex her- as its ultimate support. The personality self, more or less, in the very step; and of man, on the contrary, is constitutional by doing so, she is necessarily shorn, to formed to take this central position, and is the same extent, of all her native dignity made complete by woman, not as the basis and strength. The more thoroughly mas- of his being, but as the necessary integra culine she may prove herself to be in this tion simply of its proper compass and way, the more fully and certainly will it volume. So related, the two are suited be at the cost of all true respect, whether to flow together in the power of one public or private. The process of such and the same life, and may be expected to unnatural self-dereliction exerts unavoida- do so, where the proper conditions are bly, at the same time, a demoralizing in- present, by the mysterious union of mar fluence on her own spirit. She becomes riage; which, in such view, is no outward in reality coarse, and the fine gold of her temporary contract of merely civil natur. nature is turned into what must be counted no simply moral partnership, however hit at best but common brass. Society, too, and solemn, for purposes beyond itself is made to suffer necessarily, by the per- but a mystical, sacramental band rather version. It requires a certain amount of that reaches into the inmost sanctuary a moral fanaticism, in the first place, to en- life, and is thus of indissoluble force by dure at all any such aberration of the sex very nature. All this, however, is made from its proper sphere, and the thing itself to assume a different aspect, as soon as can never fail subsequently to aggravate lose sight of the order which holds in the the evil out of which it thus springs. The original interior economy of the seses, and influence of woman, exercised in this form, under the pretence of restoring wome is not at all to refine the face of life, but her inborn rights, admit such a view of b to render it vulgar and harsh. Such an nature as sets it in full parallel with me “emancipation,” made general in any com- opposite pature of man. There is no munity, would involve the overthrow ulti- then for the idea of marriage, as the mately of all taste and refinement, the ganic comprehension of two lives me downfall of all morality and civilization. power of a single personal tool

It It deserves to be well considered, that impossible to withstand the fatal error. this doctrine of the full co-ordination of which it is resolved into the conceptice the sexes in the social system, strikes ne- a simply outward compact between de cessarily at last at the sanctity of the pendent parties for mutual conve yarriage relation. It is the subordination and profit. Then of course its in

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