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so far as character and spirit are concerned, than simply to make them change places for a time in the order of society, confining the male sex to the employments of the nursery and kitchen, and throwing open lo the female sex the active walks of business, politics and trade. The difference, as we may all easily see, is original and constitutional, and in this view co-extensive in full with the entire range of our common life. It shows itself in the character even of the infant, as soon as it begins to discover any signs of character whatever. The tastes md tendencies of the boyish nature are peculiar to it as such, from the first hour of ts activity in the nursery, clearly distin;niishing it from the nature of the girl. The distinction reigns throughout all the sports of childhood, and accompanies the ?ntire subsequent development of the spirit, onward and upward to mature age. [t prevails in full force over the whole aroad range of middle life, imparting to it ts highest interest and value in a moral new. Finally, it ceases not in the decay )f bodily vigor and beauty, induced by old lge itself, but reaches forward still, with i radiant light that grows only more melow as it is less tinged with the coloring of sense, far down into the vale of years; ;overing thus in truth the universal tract )f our mortal existence, from the mystery >f the womb to the still more impenetrable ind solemn mystery of the grave.
Nor can the distinction possibly termilate here. It has been made a question ndeed, whether the difference of sex exends to the other world; and it is characeristic of the Hegelian way of thinking in >articular, that it allows but little room for ny such supposition, having a tendency .lways to merge the individual in the general, and to make men mere passing exmplifications of humanity. But this view iverthrows in the end the doctrine of a uture state altogether; since without the :istinctions of individual nature, as somehing continued over from the present life, here can be no sense of personal identity, 10 true resurrection, or other-world conciousness, in any form. It lies in the very onception of our being as we have here [escribed it, that its individual distinctions hould reach throughout the whole man in . permanent and enduring way. PersonIity cannot be evolved at all, except in
such union with a particular natural organization, as to have wrought into it from first to last the same particularity, as a necessary part of its own constitution. It is one of the great merits of Schleiermacher again, to have perceived and asserted, with proper force, the claims of the individual over against the authority of the universal and absolute, as a permanent clement in the constitution of man. The question before us then, according to this view, is already answered. The multiplication of the race will not extend, it is true, over into the other world, and with this must come to an end also the present significance of the sexual relation as concerned in that object; our whole present physical state indeed being but the transient process by which our being is destined to emerge hereafter into a higher order of existence. In that higher state, we are told, thev shall neither marry nor be given in marriage, but resemble in this respect the angels in heaven. The family constitution, in its strict sense, though it be the basis of all morality in its process of rev«lation, belongs only to the present order of tilings, and will not be continued in the complete kingdom of God. But we may not suppose, that the vast and mighty distinction in our nature, out of which this radical constitution now springs, will come to au end in the same way. Entering as it does into the life of the entire person, it cannot be overthrown by the simple elevation of our mortal individuality into the undying sphere of the spirit. On the contrary, it may be expected rather to appear now under its most purely ethical, and for that reason its highest also and richest form. In Christ Jesus, there is neither male nor female, as there is also neither Jew nor Greek; not however by the full obliteration of all such differences, but only through their free harmonious comprehension in a form of consciousness, that is deeper than their opposition, and able thus to reconcile them in an organic way. It is on the background of such universal unity precisely, that the differences stand out after all in the clearest delineation which their nature admits. There will be races and nationalities, and temperaments, strongly marked in heaven, no doubt, as we find them here in course of sanctification upon the earth. And so there will be, not in the flesh, but in the spirit, the difference of sex there too. Humanity, made forever complete in the new creation, will comprise in itself still, as the deep ground tone of its universal organic harmony, the two great forms of existence in which it was comprehended at the beginning, when God created man, we are told, male and female, after his own image. In this view, it involves no extravagance to extend the idea of sex even to the angels themselves, although they neither marry nor are given in marriage.
We are now prepared to notice more particularly, though of course still only in the most general way, the constitutional character of the two sexes in a comparative view. The case requires of course, as already intimated, a glance at the simply physical side of our nature, in the first place, and then at its moral or spiritual side in which only the first comes finally to its full human significance and force. So intimately interwoven however arc these two spheres of existence, that no full view can he had of one apart from the other, and it is only in their union at last that we are enabled to complete properly the comparison we have in hand.
The physical difference of the sexes is not limited by any means, in the first place, to any particular organs and functions of our simply corporeal structure, but extends to the body as a whole. This is in no sense a mechanical composition merely of various parts, outwardly fitted together, but a living whole pervaded throughout with the presence of a common principle and constitution. It is not possible, accordingly, that a peculiarity so broad and deep as that of sex should appear as something adventitious and accidental only, in some particular parts of the general organization, without affecting the rest. It must impress itself, more or less clearly, upon the whole. This we find, accordingly, to be the case in fact. Both anatomically and physiologically considered, the whole body is made to participate in the sexual character. Man and woman are so completely different in their whole organization that, as it has been remarked, no single part of the one could be properly substituted for the corresponding part of the other. Bones and muscles, the turn of the limbs, general height and bulk, the conformation of the
head and breast, the show of the skin, it expression of the face, the tone of is voice, the bearing and carriage of the person, all are comprehended in the samemping universal distinction. So also in tk case of the several great systems of wtid life is composed; the action of the lua, lungs and brain is subjected to corresponding modification. In man, the arterial mi cerebral systems prevail; in woman, tat venous and ganglionic; creating a prtpt* derance of irritability in the first casr. »a! in the second a similar preponderant insensibility; conditioning thus thrcugb<c their different capabilities and tender*)!*. and indicating with sure necessity i* differeut spheres in which they are ippointed to move. In the next place, wili the purely corporeal or somatic different* now stated, corresponds also the inward « psychical region of what must stOlbedfnominatcd our physical nature. This iseludes the whole natural consciousness, i> product directly of our animal organia'-as such, which the true spirit within »' required to raise into its own native splw of freedom, that it may become the vesture, subsequently, of its own life. Ski consciousness, from the start, is net ll* same thing in man that it is found to be in woman. Sensation and perception, feuing and affection, appetite and tendency, inclination and desire, are all modified ty the power of sex. The whole inward o: outward nature, harmoniously constructs in each case within itself, is compreh«^; in the same distinction, and carried alwij* in the same direction. Man Ls chaw1"' ized by superior strength and acting; while woman is more delicately lender i* passive. Thought predominates in on. in woman, taste and feeling. All go*w indicate that man is formed to exercise i* thority and protection, and to wrestle W* physically and spiritually with the *• rounding world; while woman is Ww her whole nature, rather, to cultivsw* spirit of submission and dependence. » finds her proper sphere in the retire** of the house and family. We are in» way, however, conducted over w**r higher apprehension of the difference ux>° consideration. It is only as nature p"*6 upwards, as its constitution here m)",J\ it to do, into the sphere of the spirit- to* the full sense and force of the di»uncu« .hus sublimated by the ethical process is >rought finally into full view.
In this character the difference is no onger natural, simply, but in the fullest ;ense moral. Personality unites in itself he presence of a spiritual universal life, rhich is strictly and truly the fountain of ts own activity in the form of intelligence md will, and a material organization as he necessary medium and basis of its reveation. In this revelation, the spirit, while t must remain always the centre of the vhole person, with the power to assert its rtvn proper primacy, is notwithstanding apable of being acted upon and influenced n very various measures by the power of lature, as brought to bear upon it through he organism of the body. In proporion, at the same time, to the independence t may be urged and enabled to assert in its )wn sphere, will be the strength and force )f the personality thus brought into view. Now it results from the whole peculiarity )f her organization, as already described, uid so of course lies also in the proper purpose and destiny of her sex, that woman hould possess less of this independence Jian man. Her life springs more immediitely and directly from nature, even under ts true ethical form. There is a specific iiflerence, in this view, between the personality of the sexes, taking up into itself md completing the sense of all differences n a lower sphere. It resolves itself, ultinately, we may say, into this, that the universal side of our common humanity prevails in man, and its individual side in soman. Self-consciousness in man runs ■eadily into the general form of thought, lisposing him for comprehensive observajon, speculation and science: inwoman.it akes more the character of feeling, which s always something single, closely coupled with fancy and art; her thoughts are her awn inward states and impressions mainly, md the product immediately of the outsard occasions from which they grow. So igain self-activity in man takes naturally ,be broad character of will, carrying him orth into the open world, involving him n business and conflict on the arena of public life; while with woman it is exerted more in the form of impulse and desire, falls more fully within the flow of lature as embodied in her own particular jrganization, and for this very reason at
the same time participates more hugely in the character of passive necessity and dependence, as the law by which nature is ruled. The personality of man is more vigorous and concentrated, and, if we may use the expression, more thoroughly and completely personal, than the personality of woman; showing him clearly thus to be the centre and bearer properlv of the human nature as a whole. This implies no inferiority on the part of woman; she is just as complete and noble in her own sphere as man can possibly be in his ; and this sphere is just as necessary as the other also to the true perfection of human life. It lies, however, in the nature of the case, that this life should be, not a dualism, but an inward unity; and that the distinction, therefore, in which it starts, reaching as it does into the personal consciousness itself, should be so ordered, nevertheless, as to return in upon itself again to a common personal ground. The relation of the sexes, then, requires that their two-fold constitution, dividing as it does the proper wholeness of humanity, should be supported at least as a single personality from a common basis, on one side or the other. The general nature, accordingly, is made to centre in man; and woman, taken in symbolic vision from his side, while she forms the necessary complement of his being, comes to her full spiritual development, and gains her true native freedom and independence, only by seeking in him the central support which she lacks in herself, and bringing her whole consciousness thus into profound union with his life, as the inmost and deepest ground of her own.
With such natural and personal difference, the sexes are designated fioni the start to different spheres of life, and have widely different missions to fulfil in the social system. Neither the duties of the man, on the one hand, nor his virtues and perfections on the other, are the same in general that belong to woman; and so also the vices which most dishonor the one are not always of parallel turpitude for the other. Man's vocation is to go forth into the world, to wrestle with nature as its rightful lord and master, to make his understanding and will felt on the general course of life. The forest-felling axe, the soil-subduing plough, the mason's hammer and the joiner's saw, the wand of judgment, the sceptre of authority, and the sword of war, belong properly to his hand, and to his alone. Business, politics, outward enterprise, learning and science, are all comprised in his legitimate domain. Woman, on the other hand, finds her true orbit, as we have already said, in the quiet retreats of private and domestic life. Her highest glory and greatest power are comprehended in the sacred names of wife and mother. She is not indeed shut out from society, in a wider view. On the contrary, she is fitted to exert the largest influence in the social sphere, strictly taken, as distinguished from that of business and science; but it is always under her domestic character only, and in virtue of her peculiar constitution, as representing the individual side of the world's life, rather than that which is general and universal. The moment she affects to overstep this limit, by the personal assumption of public and general functions, in which she can have no part properly, except through the medium of the other sex, she makes herself weak, and forfeits her title to respect. The popular platform, the rostrum, the pulpit, are interdicted to her nature, no less than the battle-field and the crowded exchange. All public primacy is unsuitable to her sex; nor is it easy to see, certainly, how the "monstrous regimen of women," as denounced by the old Scottish Elijah in his memorable "Blast," should not be as fair an object of indignation and scorn, when seated on the throne, as it is felt to be in all inferior stations.* Christianity here is
* " Who would not judge that body to be a monster," saya Knox, "where there was no head eminent above the rest, but that the eyes were in the hands, the tongue and the mouth beneath in the belly, mid the ears in the feet! No less ia the body of that commonwealth, where a woman bcareth empire; for either doth it lack a lawful head, as in very deed it doth, or else an idol is exalted instead, of the true head. An idol I call that which hath the form and appearance, but lacketh the virtue and strength, which the name and proportion doth resemble and promise. I confess a realm may, in despite of God—he of his own wise judgment so giving them over unto a reprobate mind—exalt up u woman to that mon•triferous honor, to be esteemed as head. Hut impossible it is to man or angel to give unto her the propertie<and perfect offices of a lawful head; for the same God that denied power to the hand °*k, to the belly to hear, and to the feet to
always deep, and at the same time true to nature. "Let your women keep silent in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also sailh the law. And if they will learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is s shame for women to speak in the church." So again: "Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, was in the transgression."
The order of society, springing as it does from the sexual relation first of all. imperiously requires that the oppositional which it holds should be sacredly regarded and preserved, throughout the whofe economy of life. All that serves to neutralize it, or to thrust it out of sight, should be reprobated as an agency unfriendly to the best interests of the human race. Civilization and culture, morality and religion, while they call for the free intercourse of the sexes, as polar sides of one and the same social constitution, call no less clearly at the same time for their constant distinction and separation in all that pertains to inward character and outward life. They need a different education. Th* accomplishments which adorn the Oik? ar» not those that most become the other. It is not without reason, that they are required to distinguish themselves in tbeir outward dress. "Doth not even nature ostH teach you," says the apostle, •' that if i man have long hair it is a shame unto him * But if a woman have long hair, it is a <*knj to her: for her hair is given her for a «■•»eiing." All confusion of the sexes, sO removal of the lines and landmarks that snow the true and proper boundary between then, is a crime against society of the most serious order. For either sex to forsake itt own sphere, and intrude into that whirl belongs of right only to the other, tboogt it should be even in the most trivial thicks merely, is ever something revolting to ill reason and taste. To be unsexly. in «*■
ume, habit, spirit or occupation, is to be it the same time unnatural and immoral.
This opposition and distinction, however, a we have already seen, are intended only o make room for the more perfect union if the two interests thus flung asunder. It s because they are different in this way, nd in proportion also as the difference is inderstood and respected, that the sexes re capable of entering into the intimate inion, which lies at the ground of our rhole human life. Physically, psycholo;ically, and morally, man shows himself to ie at all points what woman is not. The ne is the opposite of the other. But for his very reason, the relation is one also ( reciprocal want and supply. Neither ection of the race is complete in its own ature, while the defect which exists on ach side is met with its proper comilement precisely in the comparative adantage of the other. Humanity is the nity of the two sexes; which, as such, ccordingly can never rest in one apart rom the other, but must seek continually lie full conjunction of both, as original, ecfcssary component sides of its proper onstitution. In the nature of the case, ; can never be satisfied with such conjuncion, except under the most inward and piritual form as the power, ultimately, f a single individual life. The sexes are lade complete only in and through each ther; and this necessarily by such a union nly as extends to their whole constitution, hysical and spiritual, embracing thus the ntire inward life full as much as that 'hich is exhibited outwardly in the sphere f flesh and blood. Each is needed to fill ut and complete the personality or moral ature of the other, no less than its matelal organization. The qualities of man's pirit require to be softened and refined by ommur.ion with the milder nature of 'Oman; as she on the other hand needs tie strength and firmness of his more uniersal life, on which to lean as the stable rop of her own. The personality of man i enriched and beautified through woman, n the side of nature; the personality of roman is consolidated and perfected brough man, on the side of the idea.
In this view, of course, the union which he case demands, cannot overthrow, but iust serve rather to establish in full force, he order wc have already found to hold
between the two sexes in their personal constitution. It is emphatically the fact of this order, involving as it does a certain primacy on the one sideanda corresponding subordination on the other, that makes it possible for the union to take that vital, fundamental form that is here required. Two strictly co-ordinate personalities could not be expected to flow thus into the power of a single life. It is because woman has her true and proper centre at last in man, and not in herself, that it is possible for the sexes to become not simply one flesh, but one mind also and one soul. Her consciousness thus poised upon the personality of man, is brought to such harmony, and freedom, and active force within itself, as it could never be advanced to in any other way. All this implies no sort of dishonor or degradation. It is simply the necessary form of our general human life itself, whose perfection demands this distinction • of sexes as something which, to be real at all, must hold in such proportional relation and no other. It is precisely the strength and glory of woman, to be thus dependently joined to the personality of man, as the vine is carried upwards by clinging to a trunk more vigorous and rough than its own, which it serves at the same time gracefully to ennoble and adorn. Marriage is, indeed, in this view, more significant and necessary, we may say, for woman, than it can be held to be for man. It is the appointed and regular process of her full emancipation from the power of sense and nature, over into the sphere of a firm and enduring spiritual independence. She needs it to make her own personality, whether as intelligence or will, sufficiently central and deep, to sustain itself as it should against the force of the surrounding world. It is by the mighty energy of love in this form that she conies at last fully to herself, and is enabled to bring into clear revelation the true wealth of her nature. In a deep sense thus we may apply to the case that mystic word of tlifl apostle: "She shall be saved (dial rfxvoXoviatr) by child-bearing." Connected as it is immediately with the thought of her moral weakness, as exemplified in the fall, (1 Tim. ii. 14, 15,) it seems to refer not obscurely to the like mystic word of the curse pronounced against her, Gen. iii. 16, in consequence of that catastrophe. The