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who, not without peril from the flying stones, had come to her rescue.
The indignant lover immediately avenged himself by suspending the session of the University for one year, and ordering the departure of the students within forty eight hours. But the popular agitation in favor of the five clubs, and against the troops, who had been ordered out to suppress the tumult, became so alarming, that Louis was obliged to revoke his decree, banish his countess from the kingdom, and consent to a change of ministry.
But the popular feeling was not long satisfied. Serious disturbances broke out on the night of the 2d of March, though order was restored by the military, after some damage experienced by the royal windows. On the 4th the people assembled again, marched through the streets with white flags, and presented to the King a petition for the extension of their rights. But peace was apparently restored by the royal promise to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, and convoke a new one for the 21st of the month.
Yet the storm was lulled, not laid. In the evening of the same day the cry rang still louder, "Toarms." The arsenal was pillaged, and its weapons distributed among the citizens. The cuirassiers and the infantry refused to fire on the people. And the King, seeing that all was in danger of being lost, announced an unconditional grant of the popular demands.
Crossed in love, and thwarted by his subjects, Louis now came to the sage conclusion of abdicating his crown in favor of his son, the heir apparent. He did so; and Maximilian II. reigned in his stead. The new sovereign, who was acknowledged with enthusiasm, is described as in the full vigor of manhood, being now in his thirty-seventh year, and as both intelligent and accomplished. His first speech on opening the Chambers could not have been otherwise than universally applauded, for the royal orator declared that he had determined to grant a full amnesty for political offences, and that projects of law would be immediately submitted to the Chambers, securing the responsibility of the ministers of the crown, the perfect liberty of the press, a just representation of the people, the abolition of certain oppressive taxes, the promulgation of a new penal code, trial by
jury, and the right of open courts. ft Majesty also promised the insthndcr i the Landwehr, and the emancipitir* the Jews; and concluded by assuring * Assembly that he would do all in hfe Dm« to secure a national representation for Gr* many.*
Besides these commotions of the be?? capitals and chief towns, there har< >*~ many scenes of insurrection in the ml districts. The horizon, for a shon "-. was red with insurrectionary fires in Bit Wurtemburg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Suon Hanover, and Westphalia. In Thsr* gia, the hearth of the old War of it Peasants, the property of the landed p prietors was, at one period, threi'.^ with a renewal of the attacks of 15!i At several points on the Rhine, ltrgt<4 lections of persons, having got posses-; of some pieces of artillery, took up fon> fied positions and stopped the stesm^a for the purpose of restoring the old ?.-pation of towing vessels up the river k men and horses. But the castles of to nobility were the chief marks of pop«^ violence; and among others, was buri-i that of Jaxthausen, on the Jait, *Wl had for centuries been in the possess-*'1 the Berlichingen family, and had bees itfended by Gb'tz, of the iron hand. *!" heading the insurgent peasantry ag»W the troops of the empire. The amrati'. ■■•' damage done by the peasantry, howerr, has been considerably exaggerated: e: wherever they were met, as in Baden -rWurtemburg, with fair offers of relief fn" feudal burdens by their lords and the k<i magistrates, they readily laid down it-' arms, and returned to their ordinary »«• cations, f
Such are the principal events *)*» have recently transpired in Gennanr t the establishment of local freedom."' now proceed to give a brief narration ■« the efforts made to secure a greaterd?.^ of national unity .J
As has been already observed, the Crttmans, seeing the inefficiency of their I * federation, have been gradually becowK desirous, within the last quarter of » «•"
* See Correspondence of the Allgemf «&"■?• t Gazelte de Heidelberg. j_r—Jjt
j See the German Correspondence of rw J*°y^
Examiner, the London Times, [he Joan*"0 Ir
bats, and Gazette de Heidelberg.
y, of adopting a stronger and more iiified, as well as freer form of union. e plan, therefore, of establishing a gen1 representative Diet, or Parliament, posed immediately on the reception of
news of the French revolution, was orably received by the people of the erent States. The suggestion was orially made in a pamphlet, written by >fessor Zopfl, of Heidelberg, who proted that seventy or eighty persons »uld be chosen in the different German ambers of Deputies, and should meet at inkfort for the purpose of assisting the iberations of the German Diet. A week ore the revolution at Paris, this matter s made the subject of a motion in the den Chamber by Herr Bassermann, an incnt liberal, and was seconded by Prof. :lker, one of the most learned political iters of Europe, as well as a veteran in 5 cause of German freedom. But on i arrival of the news from France, this oject, at the instance of Baron Von Garn, of Hesse-Darmstadt, was taken up
the leading liberals of south-western irmany and Prussia, who agreed among emselves to assemble at Heidleberg, in der to take the preliminary measures for rrying it into effect. This meeting was :ld on the fifth of March, and was atnded by fifty persons, many of them :ing members of different German Charasrs. It was then unanimously resolved
take the responsibility of calling a prosional meeting at Frankfort, of reprentatives of the whole nation, who should : authorized to take measures for the imediate organization of a Constituent arliament. A committee of seven perms, also, was elected to carry this resoition into operation. Accordingly, by leir direction, the Gazette of Heidelberg ubli*hed on the 13th a call for a meeting f all persons who were or had been preiously members of the various constitulonal States, together with a number of thtr distinguished advocates of reform, ■'ho were to be specially invited to assemile at Frankfort on the 30th of the same nonth, in order to deliberate and act upon he plan of union adopted by the meeting it Heidelberg.
Upon this call, a Provisional Assembly "■as organized on the 30th of March, in •he free citv of Frankfort on the Main; its
Senate having before granted the reforms asked for by the citizens, and thus prepared the way for becoming the chief city of the new, as it had been of the old empire. The members of this Assembly, upwards of five hundred in number, consisted partly of volunteers, obeying the call of the Heidelberg meeting, and partly of persons delegated, in conformity with the popular wishes, by the different governments, who were compelled to relinquish their plan of a national Congress at Dresden in favor of the meeting at Frankfort. The session of the Assembly was held in the great cathedral of St. Paul, and was opened by the offering of prayers. Mittermaier, the eminent jurist, was elected President; Dahlman, one of the famous professors driven from Gottingen by the King of Hanover, Von Itzstein, Robert Blum, a well-known publicist, and Prof. Jordan, lately released from prison for political offences, were appointed Vice Presidents. The Heidelberg committee of seven presented a programme of resolutions to be passed by the Assembly, providing for the organization of a Constituent Assembly, and declaring its own views as to what ought to be the basis of the new federal constitution. In opposition to this programme a bill of popular rights was introduced by Herr Struve, in behalf of the republican party, which was negatived by a large majority, as was, also, a proposal that a programme of procedure should be prepared by a committee of the Assembly, raised for that purpose. The measures recommended by the Heidelberg committee were accordingly adopted ; and a committee of fifty members, to whom six Austrian delegates were afterwards added, was appointed to sit at Frankfort until the assembling of the Constituent Parliament. This committee was empowered to advise the German Diet, which was authorized to convoke the Parliament; and was, also, instructed to recall the Provisional Assembly, in case of any dangerous emergency. The republicans refused, at first, to consent to any action of the Assembly's committee with the regular Diet, and expressed their disapprobation of the proposed course of proceedings by withdrawing from the meeting ; but they afterwards returned, when the Diet had repealed certain obnoxious decrees, and expelled those members who had been most active in supporting and executing them.
The most important resolutions passed by the Assembly were, that it had devolved upon itself to prescribe the mode of organizing the Parliament—that SchleswigHolstein should be regarded as a member of the German nation—that Poland should have a separate national organization— that the number of representatives in the Parliament should be in the proportion of one for fifty thousand, making an Assembly of upwards of six hundred members— that the members should be elected by universal suffrage, without reference to religion, rank, or census—that the electors, being German citizens of age, might be selected from any of the Confederated States, without reference to their residence —and that political refugees, returning to the country, should have the right of electing and being elected. These measures having been enacted with praiseworthy dispatch, the Assembly dissolved itself on the 2d of April.
Meanwhile the Diet, compelled to yield to the force of public opinion, then the only governing power in the country, had adopted the new German colors, consisting of black, red, and gold; and had invited each one of the States represented by the seventeen members of its smaller council, to send the same number of persons, possessing the confidence of the people, to take part in their deliberations respecting the revision of the federal pact. This request was acceded to by the different governments, who nominated for their representatives extraordinary, some of the most distinguished jurists and political writers of the country. Immediately congregated in Frankfort, these "men of confidence" served as a link of communication between the Diet and the Assembly's committee of fifty-six. By the joint labor of these bodies, especially those of the seventeen "men of confidence," a report was drawn up and published on the 16th of April, containing a draft of a fundamental law for the organization of a now German Empire; and a call for the assembling, in a manner agreeing with the resolutions of the Provisional Assembly, of the Parliament at Frankfort, on the 1st of May, to act upon the proposed constitution.
The form of government thus preja*^ resembles very nearly that of oar w< country, except that it proposes a hes* itary instead of an elective head. JL 4 Germanic States are to be incorpws^ into the new Empire, including the iz-i of Schleswig-Holstein, and excepts? a grand duchy of Posen. In the phe' the existing confederation of indepmis States, is to be established one umtol ».* ereignty, which, however, shall tlfc*i the different States all the powers Mo* ent with the existence of national ffi^ and which shall guarantee to than« maintenance of all those funds^'J rights and institutions which have rer»j been granted to the people.
The central or imperial power s i embrace the exclusive right of repra* ing the German States in their feel relations; of making wax and peace; I negotiating treaties; of commandite ai supporting an army and navy; of fcok lishing a uniform system of custom di'J* a general postal system; a general fr** of money, weights, measures, and paasa and of exercising a surveillance over is roads and telegraphs.
The supreme power is to be vestal i a hereditary Emperor, and a Diet V* Emperor is to reside at Frankfort on"' Main; but the mode of his election, n "i first instance, is not prescribed in tbe (■* stitution. He is to be clothed with '.* executive power of the Empire, anl i appoint its functionaries, together with ■ officers of the army and navy, awl* superior officers of the national miw* He is to be inviolable and irresponstbi! but an act, to be valid, must beartb*-nature of a responsible minister.
The Diet is to consist of an Uppfr cJ a Lower Chamber. The former is to &■ tain not over two hundred member*, c* sisting of the reigning princes of thf ;:f'| ferent States, who may attend «*$*' personally or by substitute; a de^" from each of the free cities; and Otw1' lors of the Empire, chosen, onch»»': the. people of the States, and oneh»>f ^ the Governments, for the period of •**" years. The Lower Chamber is j» * composed of deputies, elected <w<* a * years, and to be removed in third* f^l two years. They are to be elected by * people in districts consisting each i
.000 inhabitants. Every citizen is to e the right of voting, who lias attained majority, and has not been convicted of
infamous offence. Every citizen, of the
of thirty years, is eligible to office, and d not reside in the district electing him. 7here is to be established an Imperial art of Justice, composed of twenty-one rubers. They are to receive their apntmentsfor life—one third from theEmor, one third from the Upper Chamber, I one third from the Lower. The urt is to hold its sessions at Nuremberg, 1 is to have the power of deciding upon political and judicial controversies besen the German States, and between ! reigning princes; and also in certain «s between individuals and the general State governments; and upon a variety other matters.
The time for the meeting of the Contuent Assembly having been adjourned <m the 1st of May, in order to give time : completing the elections, this body was
length organized on the 18th of that inth. On that day the members, having :ld a preliminary caucus the evening here, proceeded, under the escort of the vie guards of Frankfort, to the church
St. Paul, and made choice of Baron on flagern for President, and Herr Von )izon, advocate of Mannheim, who had •esided over the Committee of fifty-six, ir Vice President. Both of these gentleien are leaders of the party which is in vor of liberal monarchical institutions.
The preliminary subjects of legislation aving been disposed of, and time having een given for the free interchange of pinion among the members respecting le best mode of securing a new union of be States, the Assembly resolved, on the d of June, to appoint a commission to onsist of fifteen members, nominated by he committees, for the purpose of examiner the different propositions for the esablUhment of a provisional central power.
The proposition to appoint a federal di'ectory of three persons was discussed at ength, but was finally rejected in favor of 1 vicar of the Empire, chosen by the As*mbly. The election of this officer took place on the 29th, and resulted in the selection of Archduke John, of Austria, he having 450 votes, the President of the Assembly, Baron Von G;igern, having
eighty-two, Herr von Itztein thirty-two, and twenty-five members of the extreme left declining to vote.
This appointment has been favorably received throughout the country, and, all things considered, it must be regarded as a judicious one. The King of Prussia, who succeeded to the throne a few years since under so flattering auspices, has rendered himself exceedingly unpopular in Germany by his opposition to the progress of liberal principles of government, and latterly by the conflicts between his troops and the inhabitants of his capital. He had given, indeed, to Prussia a sort of political constitution, but lie had not done it with a good grace. He had early adopted the imperial colors, and proclaimed himself the leader of the new German movement, but his conduct was thought—to say no more—somewhat too ambitious, and the sincerity of his patriotism was made the subject of very grave doubts. He had volunteered to defend the cause of German nationality against the Danes, and had done it at some expense of blood and money; but it seems that he has succeeded by that movement in duping, not the nation, but himself. His brother, the Prince of Prussia and heir apparent, being an enemy to constitutional forms of government, was still more obnoxious to the people. Prussia, therefore, which, under other circumstances, would have been entitled to the selection of a head for the new national government, standing, as she does, at the head of German civilization, and having done more, by the policy of the Zollverein, towards effecting the unity of the States than any other power, was obliged to relinquish her claims in favor of a rival whose legislation, for the last half century, has promoted neither the union of the country, nor the progress of Mberty. But Austria was fortunate in possessing a prince who had been long disgraced at court and beloved by the people. The personal qualities of the Archduke John overbalanced the indifferent claims of his State.
The Archduke is a brother of the late Emperor Francis, and an uncle of Ferdinand. At the age of twenty-seven, he excited a general enthusiasm in his favor among his compatriots, by organizing, in the Tyrol, the famous partisan war, which commenced, and, by receiving the capitulation of the fortress of Huningue, which consummated the deliverance of Germany from the French. The popularity thus acquired was more than adequate to counterbalance the reverses he experienced, when, in 1809, he was driven by the viceroy from Italy to Pesth ; and was prevented, by untoward circumstances, from taking "part with his troops in the fight at WaTara. Retiring from service at the close of the war, with the title of directorgeneral of the fortifications of the Empire, he incurred the displeasure of the court by his frank condemnation of the policy of Metternich, and of the intrigues of the aristocracy and the Jesuits. Forbidden to reside in the Tyrol, in consequence of his too great popularity among his old companions in arms, he retired to Styria, and occupied himself with the pursuits of agriculture and mining, the study of botany, and with following the chase. In this sport he displayed such intrepidity and hardiness as to gain the reputation of bein?' one of the best chamois hunters in Switzerland, and, indeed, as to so awaken the fears of the great premier, that his portrait, taken in the costume of the Styrian chase, was forbidden to be sold in the print-shops of Vienna. Adopting the simple mode of life, and mingling in the rustic society of the mountaineers, he endeared himself as much to the Styrians as he had done to the Tyrolese. And well might this be the case, for he crowned his partiality for their mountains by taking to wife one of their fair damsels, the humble daughter of a mailre de paste. The marriage, though ridiculed at court, received the imperial consent, and the pretty Styrian, ennobled by the title of Baroness von Brandhof, became an Austrian Archduchess.*
In 1842, Prince John attracted ihe special attention of the friends of progress by a toast gram at teat fete of the cathedral of Cologne, pceynt by the King of Prussia in i of the middle ages. ■* No Austria," said he, " bat i and united." In the late Vienna, he also signalised haaiself by tie recommendation of popular iiiitj an i mi effected the resignation of Meoerava b* informing the people that be AW tuigaui He is now sixty-six years of age. iia*sri apparently not more than fifty, and » ssL in possession of full physical and isfidjectual vigor.
After having been notified of his af*pojr> ment, the Archduke proceeded to Fnakfort, where be was received with aiaiiasfc rejoicings, and was installed, oc tie lid of July, Vicar of the Empire. The sawtry, thereupon appointed by him, of Hen- von Schmerling, of Vienna, i ber of the Parliament, Minister of the Isierior and of Foreign Affairs, Herr HcvLsbc of Hamburg, member of the P^rhasKcl Minister of Justice, and Major Genera.'.'.a Poucker, of Prussia, Minister of War. Os. the 15th, the Vicar was obliged to low for Vienna, in order to open the new Austrian Assembly. After that, he wi3 return and reside in Frankfort.
Upon the installation of the Vicar J the Empire, the German Diet, insutstec
And without giving time to her father n» ad* i syllable, she hastened to her chamber. VVfeuir at stable boy and the postillion of the last mniam harnessing fresh horses, the yoaas tjiit di^fsari herself in a pretty postillion's cos I a roe, wburi ah* had worn dining the fetes of the la** cantm. Then descending quickly, she threw bersei: as ■ the saddle, seized the reins and whip, aa>d drove *£ the Archduke most gallantly.
The eyes of the traveller did not delay to fan a themselves on the genteel postillion. The il a«" pliant limbs, the well-turned shoulders, the jr>c figure inclosed in a scarlet uniform, »mr«t<t aar* prised the prince, until engaging in eoe<rersat-j» with his accomplished driver, the soft, (aar aaaetai the latter betrayed her secret.
"Jtut thou art a girt!" said the Archduke
And the terrified postillion replied a* best aV could: "Tlit-rc was no one else at the hnaps afaw father when you arrived, and your in^rrvai 't* ness could not wait."
The Archduke banished the fears of taw asanas* child, whom he found as intelligent a* KeOf, aa> at the moment of separation, said to her.
"Since you have made yourself a mu I * 9* sake, it is no more than fair that 1 should aaal* }>• back a woman <wife.)"
The young yirl had no objections, aadtW iiiaraftei having obtained ibe content of tar BBasrjy to his marriage, received her u hia bride.