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vcre exposed in state on a platform erected jefore the Neue Kirche, or New Church. L'he edifice was dressed with evergreens, md long sheets of flowing crape, which oil, waving in a gentle breeze of spring, rom the top of its pillars to the earth. L'he procession moved in early morning. X was led by a company of marksmen, vbo were followed by the students of the Jniversity, headed by Baron Humboldt ind the rector. After these came a num>er of choirs, which sang, at intervals, uneral chants and hymns; then deputations from the burgher guard, marching o the sound of the dead march, beat with nutlled drums. Cars, hung with garands and wreaths of flowers, bore the lead. The clergy of all creeds, the famiies of the fallen, the military officers presmt in Berlin, in a long train, succeeded. Jehind these vocal choirs followed witli sacred songs; the various guilds with heir different badges veiled in crape; ompanies of working-men of all kinds, >earing mourning banners; and a division >f the city guard, with their imperial :ockades likewise in black, closed the profession. Nearly three hours were occupied >y it in passing the palace. On the balcony, one end of which displayed a black lag, and the other, the national colors in :rape, stood throughout the ceremony the \ing, together with several of the princes md ministers of state. The streets through vhich the procession passed, were lined vith the inhabitants, a large number of hem in the habiliments of deep mourning. )ne capacious grave, dug in the form of a Toss, in the burial ground of the Invalids, eeeived the remains of the victims—Proestants, Catholics, Jews, being all laid n different parts of one common sepulchre. The bodies being returned to the earth vhich gave them, the band of the opera ilayed a dirge; addresses were made by chaplains of different forms of faith; the :hoirs, accompanied by the congregated nultitude, chanted a burial hymn; sprigs >( holly, and green wreaths and flowers, vere cast upon the coffins; volleys were lied by the burgher guard over the graves >( their comrades, and all eyes were filled vith tears.
The official return of the troops killed n the city was three officers, and seven ion-commissioned officers and privates;
of the wounded, twenty-eight officers, commissioned and non-commissioned, and two hundred and twenty-five privates.
Meanwhile, the King, after the triumph of the people, had readily yielded to all their demands. He issued a proclamation supplicating his "dear Berliners" to hold fast their loyalty; he harangued them from the balcony of the palace in behalf of order; he changed his ministry; intrusted the capital to the care of the burgher guard; and, promising to forgive and forget the past, he rode through the streets, with the new German colors on his arm, and declared to his subjects, that he would place himself at the head of the movement in favor of national freedom and unity. This announcement, afterwards made officially, was received with universal favor. The cry of "Long live the Emperor of Germany," is said to have called out a gracious refusal of this title; but the sight of the national tri-color, adopted by the King, filled all eyes with joy, and all mouths with "Long live Frederic William."
Some attempts have been made, since the revolution, by the working men, to proceed to the same excess of change, which was partially effected by the same class at Paris. But the citizens have been prompt to interfere to prevent their success; and little has occurred to disturb the peaceful course of reform, which the new Constituent Assembly is still engaged in carrying forward. The frequent charivari serenades, held before the houses of unpopular magistrates and officers, have given rise to some slight collisions between the people and the authorises. The project of a Constitution, proposed by the King, was burned by the citizens before the palace of the Prince Royal. The bourgeoisie, offended by some measures of the government, forcibly demanded and obtained the guard of the military posts of the capital. The Assembly having refused to acknowledge that the combatants of the 18th of March had deserved well of their country, disturbances broke out in Berlin which resulted in the pillaging of the arsenal by the populace. Herr Camphausen entirely lost the confidence of the fickle public, and never having possessed that of the King, was obliged to retire with disgrace from office, together with all the ministers appointed at the commencement of the revolution, and lias been succeeded by the still more liberal ministry of Herr Hausemann. The Assembly, which has taken the place of the former Diet, is conservative in character, but its measures have been popular, and among them is a law for the abolition of fiefs. The Prince of Prussia, recalled from England, whither he had been compelled to retire in consequence of his unpopular principles and conduct, was allowed to take his seat in the.legislative body without opposition from any quarter. The unhappy difficulties which sprang up in the grand duchy of Posen between the German inhabitants and the Polish, were easily suppressed by the government; and the war with Denmark, waged to secure to the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein an independent place in the new German nation, has tended to promote the internal political tranquillity of Prussia, however much it may have jeopardized its relations with Russia and the North.
Still, though Berlin has not, like Paris, had its 15th of May, it must be observed that there has prevailed in that capital the constant fear of it. Indeed, so new and strange has the position seemed to Prussians to find themselves without a government overseeing all things and ordering all things without a sovereign who was the State, the only source of power, of law, and of security, that a nervous dread of anarchy, aggravated by the apprehension of foreign invasion, has prevailed not only in the capital but very widely through the kingdom. In many districts this political excitement has been so intense as to create a hypochondria nervosa,* attended with numerous well marked and disagreeable symptoms.f
If the events which have taken place at Berlin, in.consequence of the French revolution, might, in any measure, have been anticipated by observers of the times, those which have occurred in Vienna have certainly taken all men by surprise. The Austrian monarchy, which ruled over Germans, Slavonians, Wallachians, Hungarians, Poles, Bohemians, Croatians, Italians, and still other tribes—which has given
* Dr. Bruck, of Osnaburg, in Caspar's Wochenschrift.
t For preceding facia relating lo Prussia see the Cologne Gazelle, and ihe German correspondence of the London Fxaminer and London Times.
fourteen emperors to Germany, tad a kings to Spain—has been subverted br t single day's work of the students is burghers of the capital; a fact, by the Tst which would seem to prove to the m& faction of those who have most etriwrd their laugh at the pipe-tails and smidl-bw potations, the caps and canes, the beiri and jack-boots, the spurs, scbnaps, as? surtouts of these Teutonic Burscben, ti* after all these singularities have been drr laughed down, there yet remains so tiquid humanum about them left, not so esssr to be sneered away.
*' After me, the deluge," said MetwnrJd prophetically; but he little imagined t!&" the waters would rise so suddenly, or vs.ovate so extensively the face of secietr His timid, time-serving policy had lasted forty years; yet after a struggle of half * many hours, not a fragment of it was W( behind. It had consisted in quietly. cntiously holding on to the past, with* change or turning. But when the ttasboat had been launched on the Adrian, and committed to the current of the Beube, when the steam car had startled nV silence of the Bohemian and the Carinthian valleys; when, in the north, Frederic William had given a constitution to tiV Prussians; when, in the south, P& IX. had commenced the work of refore even in the Vatican; and when, in the west, the Swiss republic had been reTohtionized, and the French monarchy otwthrown—the past had passed away; tin old ideas were gone; manners, pursue, interests, were changed. And what ** clear even to the veteran minister him«rfc the money, almost the credit of the imperial government, was gone; and like L°u* XVI. of France, he had lived to see hitsself compelled to call together his Sate General, in order to ward off the imnwn«l bankruptcy of the country.
Austria was not unprepared for tbe «■ tinction of its ancient policy ; and nvny significant signs of change had shors themselves before the final crisis. F* several years a revolutionary society hw existed in the capital, small at first tat on the outbreak in Cracow, numberttj » thousand members. By their effort?, J petition numerously signed was sent into the government, two years ago. prsriK for a diminution of the strictness of ik nsorship of the press. Even a few days fore the reception of the news of the irisian revolution, nearly all the profesrs of the University, though at the risk their places, had agreed to petition the nperor for the total abolition of the cenrship; a number of the Austrian and shemian deputies had resolved, at all izards, to demand free constitutions for eir respective countries; Italy was in >en revolt; and very serious manifesta>ns of popular disaffection had been ade in several of the provinces. When, therefore, the fall of Louis Phi>pe was made known at Vienna, on the st day of February, men's minds seemed iddenly made up for commotion. The ablic securities fell; a run was commen:d on the banks of government, and of ;posit; and thirty thousand troops were ■dered to Italy. The professors and stu»nts presented, forthwith, their petition; id the rejection of it at the different bu;aux of the government, brought matters
> a crisis on the 13th of March.
On that day, the professors announced
> the students that they had been directed y the government to enjoin on them the laintenance of good order. But, at the ime time, by way of commentary on the rder, they invited their hearers to go with hem, to present their rejected petition, to be Lower Austrian Chamber of Deputies, hen in session. The invitation was not eclined. All rushed into the street; and fter their minds had been still more inamed by a Latin harangue from an emient jurist, they proceeded towards the Jhamber, in the Herren street. As the 'recession, preceded by the insignia of the Jniversity, advanced on its way, it was oined by several hundred members of the 'olytechnic schools, together with a considrable number of citizens; and was greeted, fherever it passed, by looks, if not words >( encouragement from the men in the itreets, and the ladies at the windows.
On the arrival of the procession at the Chamber, the marshal of the Diet appeared on the balcony, and inquired the :ause of the assemblage. Thereupon, our professors from each faculty stepped forward, and presented their petition. Having laid this before the Diet, the marshal returned with the reply, that it had been favorably received. But when
considerable commotion had arisen, and a number of the students and citizens had made their way into the hall of the assembly, the marshal was directed to proceed to the Emperor, and lay before him a petition of the Diet which had been before agreed upon. The people followed him.
On reaching the palace, the number of the crowd had become swelled to between 50,000 and 100,000. The assemblage, harangued at intervals by the students, waited impatiently for the reply of the Emperor from mid-day until four o'clock in the afternoon. At that time, the soldiers made their appearance, in order to compel the people to disperse. Straightway, the word of command was given to a battalion of grenadiers to fire. They did so. And this made heroes of the people. They rushed instantaneously upon the soldiers, without giving them time to reload; and a voice suddenly calling out, "Bayonets off," the order was obeyed, as if mechanically. Then arose the cry, " To the arsenal." An aged man, waving his white kerchief, dipped in blood, shouted, with tears in his eyes, "This is the flag of our liberties;" and the throng pressed on to the arsenal and the publL offices. Throughout the city, the alarm-bells tolled to arms. The cannon roared through the streets. Stones and bricks were hurled against the soldiers, and furniture was thrown down upon them from the windows. Though the military had taken possession of the gates, one entrance was, at length, discovered unguarded; and thereupon a tide of invasion poured into the city, which at once overwhelmed all resistance. The Emperor yielded; Metternich resigned; the troops received orders to retire; the people were triumphant; the city was illuminated.
This overthrow of absolute power was not effected without the commission of some excesses by the lower classes. There was some plundering in the city during the contest; urged on by the academicians, the populace burned the villa of Prince Metternich, on the Reunwege, and subsequently hung his Highness in effigy, in front of his former residence. In the country, several factories were destroyed by fire ; some convents were pillaged ; and the peasantry of Gallicia took their revenge for previous wrongs on the subordinate magistrates and office-holders.
The promises of reform extorted from. the Emperor at the time of the revolution, were similar to those made by the King of Prussia; and they were kept by the subsequent proclamation of a liberal constitution of government for the Austrian States, consisting of the kingdoms of Bohemia, Gallicia, Sodomiria, Illyria, and Dalmatia, the arch-duchies of Higher and Lower Austria, the duchies of Salzburg, Styria, Higher and Lower Silesia, the Margravate of Moravia, and the Tyrol. The constitution given to these countries guarantees a responsible ministry; freedom of the press; the rights of petition and association; public and oral judicial proceedings, and trial by jury in criminal cases; a national guard; liberty of worship for all Christian denominations, ackuowedged by law, and for the Jewish persuasion ; a Diet consisting of two chambers—one consisting of princes of the blood, of persons appointed for life by the Emperor, and of one hundred and fifty members to be elected by the large landed proprietors from their own order—the other, composed of representatives of the people, elected in conformity with laws to be enacted by the Diet. Separate provincial Diets, also, are guaranteed hy it for the different provinces.
The provisions of this constitution, however, did not fully satisfy the wishes of the Viennese. The ministry of Herr Pillersdorf, also, soon lost its hold of the public confidence, in consequence of undertaking to carry out several retrograde measures, such as closing the University, and abolishing the political committee of the national guards. The fifteenth of May, therefore, beheld in Vienna a bloodless rising of the people hardly less important in its consequences than the terrible outbreak of the populace in Paris. So overpowering was the popular manifestation, that the ministry yielded at once to the demands which were made on them; and Austria, in consequence, instead of accepting the simple chart of government offered her by the Emperor, will receive it in the form of a constitution, revised and altered by a constituent assembly elected by universal suffrage.
Tired at length of making concessions to the burghers and students of Vienna, Ferdinand suddenly retired from his capi
tal, on the evening of the 17 th, and pr ceeded with his family to the Tyrol. A-rived at Innspruck, he published a nsafesto, in which he declared that, redacet by anarchical attempts to the necessity either shedding the blood of his people « leaving his capital, he had chosen to do :l latter; and, also, that he was ready, Do; £.; to abide by the concessions made to bt subjects on the 15 th of March, but '•. make any others which should be k manded in a legal mode, and not bv font
The real object of the departure of Ik Emperor was to produce a re-action ini capital and elsewhere against the reft* party. It was not successful. TbeTj rolese, though they continued to be VvL were also in favor of the new Genus union, and of the establishment of libs*. institutions. The ministry of Piller-dor. though it had before asked leave to reapcontinued in office, and directed theaffkb* state in conformity with the wishes of » University and the national guard. H Emperor called the members of the difw matic corps to Innspruck, but the wri*': declared that the seat of government R mained at Vienna.
There was no rupture, however, of uV relations between Ferdinand andhismii^ ters; and, at first, an attempt was made '•> carry out the retrograde policy from ha spruck, which it had been found impossible to do from Vienna. But the pubki tion of a decree for dissolving the AeacV mic Legion only had the effect of inviting in a new defeat the partisans of reaction. The people again barricaded itstreets of the capital, on the 26th and 27tt of May, and held possession of them una the ministry yielded, and consented to d* appointment of a committee of pub* safety. Other decrees were after*** promulgated by the government of a 12*' ral character, including one for the abition of feudal rents in the duchy of Cn» thia, one modifying the penal code, ■^ another convoking the Constituent A-xS bly. The elections of members of this Assembly were ordered to be mad« * accordance with the provisional decW* law of the 2d of May, though several important exceptions were allowed to n*1 the wishes of the people.
The Emperor, seeing that nothing «* to be gained by absence from hi* cap* ipressed a willingness to return at the jening of the new Assembly. But the ate of his health, it is said, prevented m from doing so; and his place on that ■casion was supplied by the Archduke )hn. The opening finally took place on le 22d of July. At the same time a new inistry, under the presidency of Baron on Wessenberg, took the place of that of ^err Pillersdorf, which had failed to relin the confidence of the people. The ■turn of the Emperor was expected at an irly day, but it is in the hands of the .ssembly, not in his, that are now held le destinies of the empire. During the course of the commotions nd changes at Vienna, of which a narrave has been given, the Austrian Governicnt has had to encounter very serious irficulties in several of the provinces, parcularly in those in Italy. It has there laintained a prolonged defence, though it rould seem, in the present hampered conition of the empire, as if nothing were ecessary to the ultimate success of the Uilians, except those virtues, without the lossession of which liberty ought never to vi acquired, as it can never be maintained. Hie blockade of Trieste has been raised by he intervention of the Parliament at ■'rankfort. A rebellion of the Slavonian )opulation of the capital of Bohemia has >een suppressed by the loyalty of the imperial troops, and the firmness of their :ommandant, Prince Windischgra tz. Hungry has obtained a diet of its own, which s now in session, and remains in nominal subjection to the empire. It is rent, howsver, with an unhappy strife between the lifferent races of the kingdom, the issues A which it is impossible to foresee.*
In the smaller German States, the denands for reform have been granted more readily by their sovereigns ; and bloodshed has been avoided by the troops espousing the cause of the people. The act of/raterniziny had, in many districts of the country, its ludicrous, as well as its serious aspect,—the solemnity being celebrated by tlie fraternal exchange of pipes, a desperate challenging of beer-cups, and the "lost tumultuous dancing between the
For preceding facts, see ihe Gazelle of Silesia; »?lie deOpener; Hamburg Burseuhalle, March 17|n; London Examiner, March 23th.
bauers and burghers, who had exchanged jackets, and the citizens' wives and peasant girls.
The arbitrary King of Hanover was not a little reluctant to satisfy the wishes of subjects, whom, a few years before, he had deprived of their constitution. But when the students of Gbttingen threatened to leave the University, en masse, and actually marched out of the town, with tri-colored ribbons in their pipe-stems, and their dogs in leashes; when the citizens appeared openly smoking in the streets, contrary to the new law, and not a soldier would charge bayonet on them; when in the capital the military were intimidated by the bold attidude of the people, who threatened the King with deposition, if their claims were not at once granted, Ernest, seeing that it was the only method of saving his crown, dismissed his ministers, and called to his councils Herr Stube, one of the liberal deputies, who, for refusing to abet his Majesty in the arbitrary measures adopted on his accession, had been prosecuted and imprisoned during several years. Moreover, on the 20th of March, he granted the freedom of the press, the publicity of parliamentary debates, the right of association, a political amnesty, with restoration to civil rights; and promised still further reforms, to be decided upon by the advice of the Assembly' of the States.*
In Bavaria, King Louis had forfeited, some time before the occurrence of the French revolution, the respect of his subjects, by his connection with the notorious Lola Montes, created by him Countess of Lansfeld. This lady, having set up her court at Munich, undertook to patronize a newly formed society in the University, bearing the name of Allemania. But the old associations, known by the names of the five Bavarian provinces, picked a quarrel at an eating-house with the neophyte; and the latter, hard pressed, sent to their patroness for protection. Thereupon the Amazonian mistress appeared in propria persona on the scene. This, of course, increased the tumult, which finally terminated in the mobbing of the fair favorite, and her escape on the arm of the King,