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resigned their offices. The Minister of Justice out much difficulty. On Monday, June 12th, having afterwards stated in the Assembly that the people expected him to take his seat, and he had voted not as a member of the Assembly, large crowds assembled to welcome him. but as a simple representative, the law officers During the sitting of the Chamber, intelligence positively affirmed that he had given the matter was brought that a collision had taken place his previous sanction, and had declared the pro- between the people and the troops, upon which posed prosecution ought to be adopted; and a M. Lamartine rushed to the tribune in great question of veracity arose out of the discussion, excitement, and demanded a decree of promost unfavorable for M. Crémieux, who was scription to be passed against him on the incharged by the reporter of the Committee, to stant; the Assembly hesitated, but passed the which the question had been referred, with measure, after considerable opposition. On the having expressed himself favorably towards following day that body reversed their decision, their decision, recommending the prosecution and voted to admit_him, "provided that he This exposure compelled M. Crémieux to re- proved bimself a French citizen.” Louis sign his post. Another resignation also took Blanc voted for his admission, possibly from the place about that time. M. Clement Thomas, idea that if any serious tumult arose, he might late a clerk in a newspaper establishment, who be able to turn it to his advantage. In the had been raised to the rank of General and in- following week disturbances took place in the trusted with the command of the National departments, on account of the additional 45 Guard, having in the Assembly designated the per cent. added to the direct taxation by the decoration of the Legion of Honor, as a “gew- Provisional Government; several lives were gaw of vanity,” (hochel de la vanité) raised such lost, and martial law was declared in some a storm that, notwithstanding his attempted ex- places. planations, he was obliged to retire. The On the 19th June, the committee reported Minister of Finance produced his budget for the draft of a constitution for the approval of 1848: the credits opened to defray the ordinary the Assembly. It commences by declaring the and extraordinary expenses of the year are sta- Rights of Man"-guarantees to all citizens, ted at 1,680,000,000 fr. and the resources of Liberty, Equality, Security, Instruction, Labor, the state at 1,685,000,000 fr.—about 320 mil- Property, Assistance. “The right of Labor is lions of dollars. It appears by this budget that that which every man has to live by his the expenses created by decrees of the Pro- work. Society must, by the productive and visional Government, amounted to-
general means of which it disposes, and schick Foreign Affairs,
480,000 will be organized ulleriorly, furnish labor to Interior
6,823,000 able men who cannot procure it otherwise." Commerce and Agriculture, 495,000 The legislative power is delegated to a single Public Works,
6,779,000 assembly of 750 representatives, including A
113,946,119 ! geria and the colonies; having population for Public Debt,
600,000 its basis, and to be re-elected every three years Dotations,
480,000 The President is to hold office for four years, General Service,
30,000 and be elected by universal suffrage, and best Administration,
2,860,000 have at least two millions of votes. A Vice Repayments and Restitutions, 31,077,000 President, to be nominated by the Assemblr,
on the presentation of the President. TE Total,
163,570,119 fr. Vice President is to preside over the Council of The Assembly voted 100,000 fr. a month to State, consisting of forty members nominated the Executive Committee —25,000 for their by the Assembly. expenses, and 75,000 for secret service. In “ The Council of State draws up the pre the recent elections to fill vacancies in the As-jects of laws that the Government proposes to sembly, the name of Louis Napoleon, son of the Assembly, as well as the projects of perit the late King of Holland, best known by his mentary initiative, which the Assembly subes two foolish and abortive attempts at Strasbourg to its examination. It makes the regulations and Bologne, for the latter of which he was public administration, and exerts, with rep confined in the fortress of Ham for six years, to departmental and municipal administraties was on several electoral lists; and in some of all the powers of control and of inspec the provinces the peasants carried their ballots which are deferred to it by law. Its others in their hats, having in large characters, “ L. tributes are to be regulated by the legislace Napoleon! Vive L'Empereur! A bas la Ré- body. publique!” He was returned for Paris and " The President names and revokes the other places; four Napoleon journals were es- isters, according to his own will. He tablished, and his name was heard in all the and revokes, in a council of the ministees assemblies of the lower classes of Paris, who diplomatic agents, the generals and vigorously shouted, “ Vive L'Empereur ! Vive commanders of land and sea forces, the Louis Napoleon !'' The military were called fects, the governors of the colonies of out to disperse the mobs, which was done with and of the Bank of France, the preurs
généraux and other functionaries of a superior | listened to with attention, and he assured them class. He names and revokes the secondary the government was occupied with their wants. agents of the Government, upon the proposal On returning to their fellows the expression of of one of the ministers.
the Minister was distorted, and it was reported "He has a right to suspend the agents of the he had termed them “slaves.” This was more executive power elected by the citizens. The than those who had been flattered as the peoterm of this suspension cannot exceed three ple, who had made the Revolution, could submonths. He cannot revoke them without the mit to. The mob cried out, "A bas Marie !" consent of the Council of State. The law " A bas la Commission Exécutive!” “ A bas determines the cases in which the revoked l’Assemblée !” They then traversed the streets, agents can be declared ineligible to the same their numbers continually increasing, and in functions. This declaration of ineligibility can the evening, they stationed themselves in varionly be pronounced by a jury.
ous open spaces, which were filled with large “The property-tax is only imposed for one and excited masses; barricades were formed, year. The indirect taxes may be imposed for and the government ordered out an immense
military force. The following is a condensed “The essential guarantees of the rights of account of the frightful outbreak which follabor are, liberty of labor, voluntary association, lowed. equality in the relations between the employer On Friday the insurgents—for the movement and the workman; gratuitous instruction, edu- had assumed all the character of an open incation, suitable to each man's position ; estab- surrection-possessed themselves of all that lishments of prévoyance and credit; the estab portion of the right bank of the Seine, stretchlishment of great works of public utility, and ing from the Faubourg St. Antoine to the river, the State destined to employ the men in case of whilst on the left bank they occupied all that failure of work."
populous portion called the Cité, the Faubourgs The financial difficulties of the Government St. Marcel, St. Victor, and the lower quarter of are increasing, and a supplementary tariff of St. Jaques. Their communications between tolls was issued, to be levied on articles enter the two banks of the river were maintained by ing Paris. The feeling in favor of Louis Na- the possession of the Church St. Gervais, a poleon increased among the lower classes, and part of the quarter of the Temple, the apdissatisfaction with the Republic was great proaches of Notre Dame, and the Bridge St. and openly expressed, of which the partisans Michel. They thus occupied a vast portion of of “Henry V." and Prince de 'Joinville the most defensible parts of the city, and availed themselves. On the 20th of June, actually threatened the Hôtel de Ville, which, 3,000,000 fr. was voted for the workshops ; on if they had succeeded in taking, might have the following day 100,000 fr. for the relief of po- secured the final victory on their side. On litical sufferers under Louis Philippe.
that day there were partial conflicts, but the The symptoms of reaction in the public insurgents seemed to be occupied more at mind, and the evils which arose from the aiéliers fortifying their positions than in actually nationaur, in which upwards of 100,000 men fighting ; whatever successes the Government were daily receiving pay, without one tenth troops may have had in various quarters, where part having any employment whatever, became condicts took place, as at St. Denis and St. so excessive that the government was greatly Martin, it now appears that the enthusiastic alarmed. The military were constantly in courage of the insurgents repulsed them, and arms to disperse riotous crowds, and the As- even beat them in other parts of the city. The sembly was guarded by an immense military Government forces were divided into three force. In this state of affairs, M. Marie, the divisions; and large masses of troops were Minister of Public Works, proposed to draft brought to bear with artillery upon the posithe men from the national workshops in Paris, tions of the insurgents ; but still Friday passed in large bodies, to the departments, to be em- and the insurrection had evidently gathered ployed there in public works. This measure strength. On Saturday the National Assembly excited the greatest discontent among those declared itself in permanence, and Paris was men, and 12,000 who had been ordered to the placed in a state of siege. The Executive departinents, were advised by their comrades power was delegated absolutely to General to resist. On Thursday, July 22d, a body of Cavaignac; and at half-past ten the members about 400 went in procession to the Luxem- of the Executive Government resigned. Reourg, demanding to speak to the Executive ports poured in every hour to the Assembly; Committee. M. Marie consented to receive a and as the intelligence arrived of the slaughleputation of five. One of them attempted to ter, the sensation became deep, and alarming. nake an address, but M. Marie refused to hear Various proclamations were issued by Gen. im, as he had been one of the insurgents of Cavaignac to induce the insurgents to lay 5th May, and said, addressing another,) “You down their arms, but to no effect. The whole re not the slaves of that man, you can state of Saturday was employed in desperate fighting our own grievances." Their complaints were on both sides. Except a lull during a frightful
thunder-storm in the afternoon of Friday, the wounded. But perhaps the most touching conflicts were without intermission. On Satur- death is that of the Archbishop of Paris. The day, however, the carnage and battles on the venerable prelate, on Sunday, volunteered to south of the river were horrible. During the go to the insurgents as a messenger of peace. whole of Friday night, and until three o'clock Cavaignac said that such a step was full of on Saturday, the roar of the artillery, and the danger, but this Christian pastor persisted. He noise of musketry, were incessant. In this advanced, attended by his two vicars, towards frightful state of things the Assembly betrayed the barricades, with an olive branch borne benot a little alarm." Deputations from the fore him, when he was ruthlessly shot in his Assembly were proposed to go and entreat groin, and fell mortally wounded. He was the combatants to cease this fratricidal strife ; carried to the nearest hospital, where he since but all the successive reports proved that the died. Some compute the loss on the side of insurgents were bent upon only yielding up the troops at from five to ten thousand slain. the struggle with their lives; and their valor The number of prisoners captured of the insurwas only surpassed by their desperate resolu- gents exceeds ten thousand. All the prisons tion. On Saturday night, at eight o'clock, the are filled, as well as the dungeons and vaults capital was in an awful state. Fighting con- of the Tuileries, the Louvre, Palais Royal, the tinued with unabated fury. Large masses of Chamber of Deputies, and the Hôtel de Ville. troops poured in from all the neighboring de- A military commission has already been ap partinents; but still the insurgents, having pointed to try such as were found with arms rendered their positions almost impregnable, in their hands; and they will be transported to resisted, more or less effectually, all the forces some transatlantic French colony, a decree harwhich could be brought against them. The ing been passed with that object. The savage “ red flag,” the banner of the Republique Demo- cruelty with which the insurgents waged war cratique et Sociale,was hoisted by the insurgents. almost exceeds belief. They tortured some of
On the Sunday morning the Government their prisoners, cut off their hands and feet, and forces had completely succeeded in suppress-inflicted barbarities worthy of savages. The ing the insurrection on the left bank of the women were hired to poison the wine sold to river, after a frightful sacrifice of human life; the soldiers, who drank it, and died. It seems and Gen. Cavaignac gave the insurgents, on to be believed generally, that if the insurgents the right bank, till ten o'clock to surrender. had succeeded in following up their most adThe heaviest artillery was brought to bear mirably concerted plan of operations, and upon them, and little doubt entertained that the having advanced their line, and possessed insurrection would be put down. The hope themselves of the Hôtel de Ville, and followed thus held out of the termination of the insur- up their successes along the two banks of the rection was not, however, realized. The fight- river, that the whole city would have been ing continued the whole of Sunday, with a given up to pillage; indeed the words - Pizfearful loss of life, especially to the National LAGE AND RAPE " are said to have been inGuards. On Monday the reinforcements Gen. scribed on one of their banners. Not less than Lamoricière had received from Gen. Cavaignac 30,000 stand of arms have been seized and enabled him to hem in the insurgents in the capiured in the faubourg St. Antoine alone. eastern part of the city ; and, although reduced The insurgents are said to have numbered to extremities, they still fought with incredible 100,000, and the troops to have doubled that valor; and it was only after a frightful strug- amount. The loss is variously estimated gle of about two hours more that the Govern- from 10 to 25,000. Money to a considerable ment troops everywhere prevailed; and the amount was found on the bodies of the plais heart of the insurrection being broken, the and Armand Marrast, Mayor of Paris, in insurgents were either shot, taken prisoners, proclamation, declared the insurrection to her or fled into the country, in the direction towards been the result of foreign intrigue, and other Vincennes. The eastern quarters, comprising members of the Assembly have reiterated the the faubourgs St. Antoine, du Temple, Menil. cry: doubtless, however, the traitors are to be montant, and Pepincourt were the last subdued. found in Paris alone, and it is not improbat The last band took refuge in the celebrated that some members of the Assembly hur cemetery of Père la Chaise, but the Garde Mo- raised this report, to direct attention free the bile hunted them even from this sanctuary, and real instigators, and to screen their own de they were scattered in the neighboring fields. quency, even at the hazard of foreiga war. Ge On Tuesday the insurrection was definitively the Sunday a decree was passed posts quelled.
until the 5th of July, the payment of con The loss of life has been terrific. No less cial bills due 230 June; and another grant than ten general officers have been put hors de a credit of 3,000,000 fr. to be distributed combat, a greater loss than in the most the indigent population of the department de splendid engagements of Napoleon. Four or Seine. Gen. Cavaignac having resigned five members of the National Assembly are powers with which he was temporarily ist amongst the killed, and as many more ed, the Assembly passed a decree config
him the entire executive authority, with the was expected to attack Verona, but since that title of President of the Council, with power to period he has maintained rather an unaccountappoint his own ministry. The 9th and 12th able state of inactivity. Lombardy has agreed legions of the National Guard have been dis- to join Piedmont and Sardinia, to forin one kingarmed and dissolved ; the Paris Clubs have dom under Charles Albert. Venice still holds been closed, and several newspapers suppressed. out for a Republic. Emile Girardin, editor of " La Presse," has Vienna has been the subject of another outbeen arrested and confined. Ten thousand of break, which led to the Emperor's retiring from the insurgents are said to be captured and in his capital. On the 15th May an order was prison, and those charged as chiefs, promoters issued for the dissolution of part of the National or instigators, or with having furnished money: Guard which was organized for political obarms or ammunition, or committed any act of jects, and formed a nucleus for a physical force aggravation, are to be tried by Court Martial. party. Dissatisfaction also prevailed respect
The departments have been generally quiet, ing the election law, and the students prepared but at Marseilles, an émeute of the workmen in a petition against the constitution, which they the atéliers nationaux broke out, and barricades proposed to present with a popular demonstration were formed, but the movement was put down of force. They demanded a withdrawal of the with the loss of about fifty of the National military ; that the central committee of the Guard. The people of Paris were at the last National Guard should not be dissolved ; and accounts engaged in burying their dead, and that the election law should be declared null the Assembly had decreed a grand national and void. They were joined by numbers of ceremony in honor of those who fell in defence the lower classes, and the Burgher Guard“ fraof public order and tranquillity. Trade and ternized” with them; and their joint demands commerce appear to have entirely ceased. were ultimately conceded. On the evening of
An insurrection took place in Naples on the that day the Emperor and family privately 17th May, in which 450 of the troops were quitted the city, and retired to Innspruck. This killed ; and subsequently the city was given event created the greatest excitement in Vienna, up to pillage by the government during several | the inhabitants of which are said to be unanihours. Several magnificent villas and palaces mously in favor of maintaining a constitutional on the sea-shore were reduced to ruins, and monarchy. Some young men, who took adhorrible atrocities committed. The King, in a vantage of the confusion to proclaim a Repubproclamation, justified the measure on the lic, were with difficulty saved from the fury of ground of necessity. Upwards of 1700 bodies, the people; and a deputation was forthwith including the soldiers, were interred on the 17th. dispatched to solicit the Emperor's return, but The Sicilians dispatched 1500 men to aid in he declined to come until such time as he should the revolt, who defeated the royal troops sent be assured the city had returned to its former against them. Advices to June 17th state the allegiance. He was received with great ensituation of the King to be critical, the insur-thusiasm at Innspruck, and numerous addresses gent provinces having had some successes and from other parts of his dominions have been refusing to lay down their arms. It is said the presented, praying him to transfer his capital King contemplates abdication. The Parlia- from Vienna to some other place. The outment sitting at Palermo, has published a list of breaks appear to arise from a body of workfour candidates for the throne of Sicily-a son men, kept by the State, at an expense of about of the King of Sardinia, the son of the Duke of 8 or 10,000 forins per day. To develop and l'uscany, Louis Napoleon, and the Prince de put in practice the free institutions granted by Beauharnois.
the Emperor, he has appointed a constituent The Pope, having refused to declare war assembly to meet in Vienna, where he intended gainst Austria, was compelled to form a new to open the proceedings about the 20th June. abinet of Jaymen, leaving the question to Prague, the capital of Bohemia, has been alheir uncontrolled decision; and in obedience most reduced to ruins. An insurrection broke o the popular demand they made war for his ont on the 12th June in consequence of Prince Ioliness, and large bodies of troops were for Windischgrätz refusing cannon and ammunition varded.
The Pope has since regained his to the students. The Princess was killed by a opularity, and is attempting to negotiate a shot fired from a window, notwithstanding eace.
which her husband went out to implore the In Lombardy the Austrians suffered a defeat preservation of peace; but the mob seized and t Goito, on the 30th May, on which day they were proceeding to hang him, when he was Iso surrendered Peschiera, where the garrison rescued by his troops. Barricades-were raised, nd the inhabitants had for several weeks suffer- crowds of peasants arrived to assist the ind the greatest extremities of want; they were surgents, and the Prince after some fighting
fact almost starved. On the 11th June, the withdrew his troops to the neighboring heights, alians in Vicenza were forced to surrender bombarded the city, and put down the insurreclat place to the Austrians. Charles Albert's tion. -ad-quarters were at Villa Franca, and he The cholera is increasing in Moscow.
Mary Grover, or, The Trusling Wife; a Do- Casar's Commentaries on the Gallic War, with
mestic Temperance Tale. By CHARLES English Noles, fc. By Rev. J. A. SPENCER, BURDETT, author of " Arthur Martin,” &c. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1848. Harper & Brothers. 1848.
The notes to this edition explain everything, Mr. Burdett, who has been many years con- and almost disprove the old saying that there is nected as a reporier with the Courier and " no royal road to learning." The boy who, Enquirer newspaper, writes with great facility with such helps, does not take readily to his and general good taste. His stories are quite Latin, should never be sent to college. Mr. popular with the class for whom they are de- Spencer is favorably known as a classic editor signed, and they tend to promote good habits by his late edition of the Greek Testament. and good feeling. It is very creditable to their author to be able to produce so many pleasing works of fancy after so long an experience of the soul-consuming drudgery of reporting. Modern Painters. By A GRADUATE OF O
Part III. First American, from the third London Edition. John Wiley, 161
Broadway, New York. History of England, from the Invasion of Julius
Casar to the reign of Victoria. By Mrs. This third part of the Modern Painters com MARKHAM. A New Edition, revised and pletes the reprint of one of the most agreeable enlarged, with Questions, adapted to Schools and elegant, one of the most brilliant and faulty in the United States. By Eliza ROBBINS, works of modern genius. The style is Cole author of “ American Popular Lessons,” &c. ridgeian, full, abounding in long words and New York : Appleton & Co. 1848. long periods, but elevated, harmonious, and fuli
of fine and original turns of expression. This This is probably the best school history of part contains the author's philosophical viess England that has been written. It is very of art, and is a work to be read with profit popular at home, and will be here, wherever rather by the scholar and man of letters, than English history is made a branch of common the practical artist. We enjoy it not as a com school education. It has also the merit of being plete or scientific treatise of esthetics, but as very interesting as a book for juvenile readers. a popular and eloquent exposition of the in
aginative view of art, not only in its aim an! scope but in its principles, and the faculties of
mind that create it. A Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, comprising
Recollections, Sketches, and Reflections, made
71st year. Published by E. ANTHONY, 2018
Broadway, New York. Of course we shall not hazard our prophetic reputation by predicting for this republication This admirable work, executed by Mr. Riten a "ready sale. With many who have never of this city, whose exquisite handiwork seen it however, and who know its author only elegance to our own pages, is by far the bes through the general praises of him with which and most agreeable representation of Mr. Sy the press has lately teemed, we may compro- that we have yet seen. A sight of it lesses! mise their good opinion of our taste, in saying all other prints of him in estimation. The that we would not read the book all through, of the eye is truly given. It represents for something considerable—ten thousand dol- venerable statesman wearing his noblesta lars perhaps. It reminds us of what the old pression. The design of the whole is in po trapper in Bryant's California calls the bacon fect taste, and is worthy of the most celebra
d bread and milk of the emigrants; it is engravers. by stuff.”
Mr. Clay, for a copy sent him by Mr. A