« AnteriorContinuar »
resigned their offices. The Minister of Justice having afterwards stated in the Assembly that he had voted not as a member of the Assembly, but as a simple representative, the law officers positively affirmed that he had given the matter (lis previous sanction, and had declared the proposed prosecution ought to be adopted; and a question of veracity arose out of the discussion, most unfavorable for M. Cremieux, who was charged by the reporter of the Committee, to which the question had been referred, with having expressed himself favorably towards their decision, recommending the prosecution. This exposure compelled M. Cremieux to resign his post. Another resignation also took filace about that time. M. Clement Thomas, ate a clerk in a newspaper establishment, who had been raised to the rank of General and intrusted with the command of the National Guard, having in the Assembly designated the decoration of the Legion of Honor, as a "gewgaw of vanity," (hochet de la vanitt) raised such a storm that,notwithstanding his attempted ex
Slanations, he was obliged to retire. The linister of Finance produced his budget for 1848: the credits opened to defray the ordinary and extraordinary expenses of the year are stated at 1,680,000,000 fr. and the resources of the state at 1,685,000,000 fr.—about 320 millions of dollars. It appears by this budget that the expenses created by decrees of the Provisional Government, amounted to—
Foreien Affairs, 480,000
Commerce and Agriculture, 495,000
Public Works, 6,779,000
Public Debt, 600,000
General Service, 30,000
Repayments and Restitutions, 31,077,000
Total, 163,570,119 fr.
The Assembly voted 100,000 fr. a month to the Executive Committee—25,000 for their expenses, and 75,000 for secret service. In the recent elections to fill vacancies in the Assembly, the name of Louis Napoleon, son of the late King of Holland, best known by his two foolish and abortive attempts at Strasbourg and Bologne, for the latter of which he was confined in the fortress of Ham for six years, was on several electoral lists; and in some of the provinces the peasants carried their ballots in their hats, having in large characters, " L. Napoleon! Vive L'Empereur! A bas la Republique!" He was returned for Paris and other places; four Napoleon journals were established, and his name was heard in all the assemblies of the lower classes of Paris, who vigorously shouted, "Vive L'Empereur! Vive Louis Napoleon I" The military were called out to disperse the mobs, which was done with
out much difficulty. On Monday, June lfc the people expected him to take his seaL aal large crowds assembled to welcome Iie During the sitting of the Chamber, intelligent* was brought that a collision bad taken pbebetween the people and the troops, upon vkid M. Lamartine rushed to the tribune in fret excitement, and demanded a decree of f»> scription to be passed against him on the * stant; the Assembly hesitated, but passed ti; measure, after considerable opposition. On t» following day that body reversed their detis*. and voted to admit him, "provided tint h? proved himself a French citizen." Lot' Blanc voted for his admission, possibly from w idea that if any serious tumult arose, be mir> be able to turn it to his advantage. In d* following week disturbances took place i« tt departments, on account of the additional *? per cent, added to the direct taxation br :~ Provisional Government; several lives w* lost, and martial law was declared in *« places.
On the 19th June, the committee rep** the draft of a constitution for the appron.'> the Assembly. It commences by declaring nV "Rights of Man"—guarantees to all citize? Liberty, Equality, Security, Instruction, Uiw Property, Assistance. "The right of Lalw * that which every man has to live or fework. Society must, by the prodoctire t* general means of which it disposes, and rv> will be organized ulteriorly, furnish liS* * able men who cannot procure it otbem*" The legislative power is delegated to a Sep assembly of 750 representatives, including A> geria and the colonies; having population fe its basis, and to be re-elected every three yea-"1 The President is to hold office for four rei" and be elected by universal suffrage, may have at least two millions of votes. A F» President, to be nominated by the Assent on the presentation of the President Vice Preeident is to preside over the Council < State, consisting of forty members nomiBia* by the Assembly.
"The Council of State draws up the p* jects of laws that the Government propose* '• the Assembly, as well as the projects of p»:» mentary initiative, which the Assembly *»£«'to its examination. It makes the regulauc • public administration, and exerts, with fes** to departmental and municipal adminisnaf** all the powers of control and of iwpecsw which are deferred to it by law. Its other *tributes are to be regulated by the legtoav body.
"The President names and revoke* the agisters, according to his own will, tie nae« and revokes, in a council of the minuter* * diplomatic agents, the generals and Buiw': commanders of land and sea forces, the |rffects, the governors of the colonie? of Alpr"1and of the Bank of France, the frwrl* gtniraux and other functionaries of a superior class. He names and revokes the secondary agents of the Government, upon the proposal of one of the ministers.
"He has a right to suspend the agents of the executive power elected by the citizens. The term of this suspension cannot exceed three months. He cannot revoke them without the :onsent of the Council of State. The law determines the cases in which the revoked tgents can be declared ineligible to the same Functions. This declaration of ineligibility can raly be pronounced by a jury.
"The property-tax is only imposed for one year. The indirect taxes may be imposed for several years.
"The essential guarantees of the rights of abor are, liberty of Tabor, voluntary association, quality in the relations between the employer ind the workman ; gratuitous instruction, emulation, suitable to each man's position; establishments of prkcoyance and credit; the establishment of great works of public utility, and :he State destined to employ the men in case of ailure of work."
The financial difficulties of the Government ire increasing, and a supplementary tariff of oils was issued, to be levied on articles cnterng Paris. The feeling in favor of Louis Namleon increased among the lower classes, and lissatisfaction with the Republic was great ind openly expressed, of which the partisans >f "Henry V." and Prince de Joinville ivailed themselves. On the 20th of June, 1,000,000 fr. was voted for the workshops; on he following day 100,000 fr. for the relief of poitical sufferers under Louis Philippe.
The symptoms of reaction in the public nind, and the evils which arose from the attliers mlionauz, in which upwards of 100,000 men vere daily receiving pay, without one tenth *rt having any employment whatever, became o excessive that the government was greatly Jarmed. The military were constantly in irms to disperse riotous crowds, and the Asembly was guarded by an immense military orce. In this state of affairs, M. Marie, the Minister of Public Works, proposed to draft he men from the national workshops in Paris, n large bodies, to the departments, to be emiloyeo there in public works. This measure excited the greatest discontent among those lien, and 12,000 who had been ordered to the lepartroents, were advised by their comrades o resist. On Thursday, July 22d, a body of ibout 400 went in procession to the Luxem»urg, demanding to speak to the Executive Committee. M. Marie consented to receive a leputation of five. One of them attempted to nake an address, but M. Marie refused to hear lim, as he had been one of the insurgents of 15th May, and said, (addressing another,) "You ire not the slaves of that man, you can state •our own grievances." Their complaints were
listened to with attention, and he assured them the government was occupied with their wants. On returning to their fellows the expression of the Minister was distorted, and It was reported he had termed them " slaves." This was more than those who had been flattered as the people, who had made the Revolution, could submit to. The mob cried out, "A bas Marie.'" "A bas la Commission Executive I" "A bas VAssemblie!" They then traversed the streets, their numbers continually increasing, and in the evening, they stationed themselves in various open spaces, which were filled with large and excited masses; barricades were formed, and the government ordered out an immense military force. The following is a condensed account of the frightful outbreak which followed.
On Friday the insurgents—for the movement had assumed all the character of an open insurrection—possessed themselves of all that portion of the right bank of the Seine, stretching from the Faubourg St. Antoine to the river, whilst on the left bank they occupied all that populous portion called the Cite, the Faubourgs St. Marcel, St. Victor, and the lower quarter of St. Jaques. Their communications between the two banks of the river were maintained by the possession of the Church St. Gervais, a part of the quarter of the Temple, the approaches of Notre Dame, and the Bridge St. Michel. They thus occupied a vast portion nf the most defensible parts of the city, and actually threatened the Hotel de Ville, which, if they had succeeded in taking, might have secured the final victory on their side. On that day there were partial conflicts, but the insurgents seemed to be occupied more at fortifying their positions than in actually fighting; whatever successes the Government troops may have had in various quarters, where conflicts took place, as at St. Denis and St. Martin, it now appears that the enthusiastic courage of the insurgents repulsed them, and even beat them in other parts of the city. The Government forces were divided into three divisions; and large masses of troops were brought to bear with artillery upon the positions of the insurgents; but still Friday passed and the insurrection had evidently gathered strength. On Saturday the National Assembly declared itself in permanence, and Paris was placed in a state of siege. The Executive power was delegated absolutely to General Cavaignac; and at half-past ten the members of the Executive Government resigned. Reports poured in every hour to the Assembly; and as the intelligence arrived of the slaughter, the sensation became deep and alarming. Various proclamations were issued by Gen. Cavaignac to induce the insurgents to lay down their arms, but to no effect. The whole of Saturday was employed in desperate fighting on both sides. Except a lull during a frightful thunder-storm in the afternoon of Friday, the conflicts were without intermission. On Saturday, however, the carnage and battles on the south of the river were horrible. During the whole of Friday night, and %until three o'clock on Saturday, the roar of the artillery, and the noise of musketry, were incessant. In this frightful state of things the Assembly betrayed not a little alarm. Deputations from the Assembly were proposed to go and entreat the combatants to cease this fratricidal strife; but all the successive reports proved that the insurgents were bent upon only yielding up the struggle with their lives; and their valor was only surpassed by their desperate resolution. On Saturday night, at eight o'clock, the capital was in an awful state. Fighting continued with unabated fury. Large masses of troops poured in from all the neighboring departments; but still the insurgents, having rendered their positions almost impregnable, resisted, more or less effectually, all the forces which could be brought against them. The "re</flag," the banner of the Republitpie Democratiqueet Snciale,was hoisted by the insurgents.
On the Sunday morning the Government forces had completely succeeded in suppressing the insurrection on the left bank of the river, after a frightful sacrifice of human life; and Gen. Cavaignac gave the insurgents, on the right bank, till ten o'clock to surrender. The heaviest artillery was brought to bear upon them, and little doubt entertained that the insurrection would be put down. The hope thus held out of the termination of the insurrection was not, however, realized. The fighting continued the whole of Sunday, with a fearful loss of life, especially to the National Guards. On Monday the reinforcements Gen. Lamoriciere had received from Gen. Cavaignac enabled him to hem in the insurgents in the eastern part of the city ; and, although reduced to extremities, they still fought with incredible valor; and it was only after a frightful struggle of about two hours more that the Government troops everywhere prevailed; and the heart of the insurrection being broken, the insurgents were either shot, taken prisoners, or fled into the country, in the direction towards Vincennes. The eastern quarters, comprising the faubourgs St. Antoine, du Temple, Alenilmontant, and Pepincourt were the last subdued. The last band took refuge in the celebrated cemetery of Pere la Chaise, but the Garde Mobile hunted them even from this sanctuary, and they were scattered in the neighboring fields. On Tuesday the insurrection was definitively quelled.
The loss of life has been terrific. No less than ten general officers have been put hors de combat, a greater loss than in the most splendid engagements of Napoleon. Four or five members of the National Assembly are "-^ttigst the killed, and as many more
wounded. But perhaps the most touching death is that of the Archbishop of Paris. The venerable prelate, on Sunday, volunteered to go to the insurgents as a messenger of peace. Cavaignac said that such a step was full of danger, but this Christian pastor persisted. He advanced, attended by his two vicars, towards the barricades, with an olive branch borne before him, when he was ruthlessly shot in hU groin, and fell mortally wounded. He was carried to the nearest hospital, where he since died. Some compute the loss on the side of the troops at from five to ten thousand shun. The number of prisoners captured of the insorgent-s exceeds ten thousand. All the prisoni are filled, as well as the dungeons and vaults of the Tuileries, the Louvre, Palais Royal, the Chamber of Deputies, and the H6:el de Ville. A military commission has already been appointed to try such as were found with arms in their hands; and they will be transported to some transatlantic French colony, a decree having been passed with that object. The savage cruelty with which the insurgents waged war almost exceeds belief. They tortured some of their prisoners, cut off their hands and feet,iod inflicted barbarities worthy of savages. The women were hired to poison the wine soW to the soldiers, who drank it, and died. It seems to be believed generally, that if the insurgent had succeeded in following up their most admirably concerted plan of operations, aad having advanced their line, and possessed themselves of the Hotel de Ville, and folkrwe-J up their successes along the two banks of the river, that the whole city would have bees given up to pillage; indeed the wordLage And Rape are said to have been itscribed on one of their banners. Not leas thai 30,(100 stand of arms have been seized «nJ captured in the faubourg St. Antoine alone.
The insurgents are said to have numbers' 100,000, and the troops to have doubled tbtf amount. The loss is variously estimated c from 10 to 25,000. Money to a n mid—tir amount was found on the bodies of the sUr and Armand Marrast, Mayor of Paris, in » proclamation, declared the insurrection to Marr been the result of foreign intrigue, and alkr members of the Assembly have reiterated a» cry: doubtless, however, the traitors are t» tr found in Paris alone, and it is not improta** that some members of the Assembly Ab» raised this report, to direct attention front a> real instigators, and to screen their own 4nW quency, even at the hazard of foreign w the Sunday a decree was | until the 5th of July, the payment i cial bills due 23d June; and another a credit of 3,000,000 fr. to be dis the indigent population of the de, Seine. Gen. Cavaignac having resigned powers with which be was temporarily i ed, the Assembly passed a decree
iim the entire executive authority, with the itlp of President of the Council, with power to :ppoint his own ministry. The 9th and 12th ogions of the National Guard have been disrmed and dissolved; the Paris Clubs have «en closed, and several newspapers suppressed, -mile Girardin, editor of "La Presse," has een arrested and confined. Ten thousand of he insurgents are said to be captured and in rison, and those charged as chiefs, promoters r instigators, or with having furnished money. rms or ammunition, or committed any act of TOravation. are to be tried by Court Martial.
The departments have been generally quiet, at at Marseilles, an tmeule of the workmen in )e attliers nalianaux broke out, and barricades 'ere formed, but the movement was put down rith the loss of about fifty of the National fuard. The people of Paris were at the last rcounts engaged in burying their dead, and le Assembly nad decreed a grand national eremony in honor of those who fell in defence f public order and tranquillity. Trade and ommerce appear to have entirely ceased.
An insurrection took place in Naples on the 7th May, in which 450 of the troops were illed; and subsequently the city was given p to pillage by the government during several ours. Several magnificent villas and palaces n the sea-shore were reduced to ruins, and arrible atrocities committed. The King, in a reclamation, justified the measure on the round of necessity. Upwards of 1700 bodies, icluding the soldiers, were interred on the 17th. he Sicilians dispatched 1500 men to aid in le revolt, who defeated the royal troops sent jainst them. Advices to June 17th state the tuation of the King to be critical, the insurpnt provinces having had some successes and 'fusing to lay down their arms. It is said the ing contemplates abdication. The Parlialent sitting at Palermo, has published a list of inr candidates for the throne of Sicily—a son 'the King of Sardinia, the son of the Duke of uscany, Louis Napoleon, and the Prince de cauharnois.
The Pope, having refused to declare war gainst Austria, was compelled to form a new ibinet of laymen, leaving the question to ieir uncontrolled decision; and in obedience i the popular demand they made war for his oliness, and large bodies of troops were forarded. The Pope has since regained his >pularity, and is attempting to negotiate a ace.
In Lonbardy the Austrians suffered a defeat
Goito, on the 30th May, on which day they *o surrendered Peschiera, where the garrison »d the inhabitants had for several weeks suffer1 the greatest extremities of want; they were
fact almost starved. On the 11th June, the alians in Vicenza were forced to surrender lat place to the Austrians. Charles Albert's :ad-quarters were at Villa Franca, and he
was expected to attack Verona, but since that period he has maintained rather an unaccountable state of inactivity. Lombardy has agreed to join Piedmont and Sardinia, to form one kingdom under Charles Albert. Venice still holds out for a Republic.
Vienna has been the subject of another outbreak, which led to the Emperor's retiring from his capital. On the 15ih May an order was issued for the dissolution of part of the National Guard which was organized for political objects, and formed a nucleus for a physical force party. Dissatisfaction also prevailed respecting the election law, and the students prepared a petition against the constitution, which they proposed to present with a popular demonstration of force. They demanded a withdrawal of tho military ; that the central committee of the National Guard should not be dissolved ; and that the election law should be declared null .and void. They were joined by numbers of the lower classes, and the Burgher Guard " fraternized " with them; and their joint demands were ultimately conceded. On the evening of that day the Emperor and family privately quitted the city, ana retired to Innspruck. This event created the greatest excitement in Vienna, the inhabitants of which are said to be unanimously in favor of maintaining a constitutional monarchy. Some young men, who took advantage of the confusion to proclaim a Republic, were with difficulty saved from the fury of the people; and a deputation was forthwith dispatched to solicit the Emperor's return, but he declined to come until such time as he should be assured the city had returned to its former allegiance. He was received with great enthusiasm at Innspruck, and numerous addresses from other parts of his dominions have been presented, praying him to transfer his capital from Vienna to some other place. The outbreaks appear to arise from a body of workmen, kept by the State, at an expense of about 8 or 10.U00 florins per day. To develop and put in practice the free institutions granted by the Emperor, he has appointed a constituent assembly to meet in Vienna, where he intended to open the proceedings about the 20th June.
Prague, the capital of Bohemia, has been almost reduced to ruins. An insurrection broke out on the 12th June in consequence of Prince VVindischgritzrefusingc.innon and ammunition to the students. The Princess was killed by a shot fired from a window, notwithstanding which her husband went out to implore the preservation of peace; but the mob seized and were proceeding to hang him, when he was rescued by his troops. Barricades-were raised, crowds of peasants arrived to assist the insurgents, and the Prince after some fighting withdrew his troops to the neighboring heights, bombarded the city, and put down the insurrection. The cholera is increasing in Moscow.
Mary Graver, or, Tlie Trusting Wife; a Domestic Temperance Tale. By Charles Burdett, author of " Arthur Martin," &c. Harper & Brothers. 1848.
Mr. Burdett, who has been many years connected as a reporter with the Courier and Enquirer newspaper, writes with great facility and general good taste. His stories are quite ponular with the class for whom they are designed, and they tend to promote good habits and good feeling. It is very creditable to their author to be able to produce so many pleasing works of fancy after so long an experience of the soul-consuming drudgery of reporting.
Casar's Commentaries on the Gallic War, vrtfh English Aotes, dpc. By Rev. J. A. Sfesce*. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1848.
The notes to this edition explain everything, and almost disprove the old saving that there U "no royal road to learning.'' The boy who, with such helps, does not take readily to bis Latin, should never be sent to college. Mr. Spencer is favorably known as a classic editor by his late edition of the Greek Testament.
Modern Painters. By A Graduate Ot OxFord. Part III. First American, from the third London Edition. John Wiley, 161 Broadway, New York.
This third part of the Modern Painters encpletes the reprint of one of the most agreeable and elegant, one of the roost brilliant and f_iu'n works of modern genius. The style is CoJ*ridgeian, full, abounding in long words i~ long periods, but elevated, harmonious, and fa.* of fine and original turns of expression. :: -t
part contains the author's philosophical of art, and is a work to be read with rather by the scholar and man of letters, the practical artist. We enjoy it not i plete or scientific treatise of aesthetics, but as a popular and eloquent exposition of the imaginative view of art, not only in its aim mnl scope but in its principles, and the faculties cf mind that create it