« AnteriorContinuar »
oppose the Repeal of the Legislative Union. This declaration elicited loud cheers. A similar statement, in behalf of the Government, was made in the House of Lords.
Prince Metternich has arrived in England. There has been a large exportation of gold from England to Holland and other parts of the continent, and the bullion in the Bank of England has considerably decreased, but fresh quantities continue to arrive frorrt abroad.
The People's Charter, as it is called, contains six heads. 1. Universal suffrage; 2. Vote by ballot; 3. No property qualification; 4. Annual parliaments; 5. Payment of members; 6. Equal electoral districts. The total oxport of tea from China to Great Britain, from July, 1847, to 24th February last, is:— Black, 35,855,210 lbs.; green, 3,813,320 lbs.; total, 39,699,030 lbs. ; and of silk in the same period, 17,089 bales.
The Irish Repeal party is now divided into two distinct sections; the O'Connells, with a numerical minority, having declared firmly against exceeding the bounds of constitutional agitation ; whilst the majority, headed by Smith O'Brien, Mitchell of the United Irishman, and others, are inflaming the populace with writings and speeches of the most incendiary character, urging the people to arms, openly defying the Government, and declaring their intention of effecting Repeal by force of arms. Those of the latter party, whose arrest was mentioned in our last number, have been indicted, and true bills for sedition were found against them on the 15th of April; on the evening of which day they were entertained at a grand soirie, where they made speeches just as seditious as those for which they are prosecuted. The people, under the instigation of these men, are arming throughout a very large portion of Ireland with fire-arms and, pikes, and are being drilled to the use of these weapons; rifle clubs are also formed to considerable extent, the day for practice being generally Sunday. To counteract this movement, large bodies of troops are concentrating in different sections, whilst vessels of war are stationed on various parts of the coast. Large and influential bodies of Irish, Catholic and Protestant, have tendered their services to the Government in case of necessity, and their offers have been accepted. A run on the Savings Banks has been made, at the suggestion of the leaders, for the purpose of embarrassing the financial affairs of the country. At Limerick, notices of withdrawal to the amount of £5000 on the 24th of April, were served on the 15th; and the Directors have determined to pay out all sums demanded, but not again to permit those making the drafts to obtain the benefit of these useful institutions. On the 1st of April, Smith O'Brien, with a deputation from Ireland, presented an address to the Provisional Government at Paris, the object of which was to se
cure French assistance in aid of forcible Mimes in Ireland. M. Lamartine, alter «wf complimentary remarks towards the Irish pe-> pie, gave a decided negative to the request. "We are," said he, " at peace, and we are desirous of remaining on good terms of equikt. not with this or that part of Great Britain, bit with Great Britain entire. We believe this peace to be useful and honorable, not only to Great Britain and the French Republic, bit to the human race. We will not commit in «i —we will not utter a word—we will not breath-. an insinuation at variance with the principles of the reciprocal inviolability of nations wbicb we have proclaimed. * * * We snookl be itsane were we to exchange such a diplorcsa for unmeaning and partial alliances with e<« the most legitimate parties in the countswhich surround us. We are not competent > judge them, or to prefer some of them to oi>r> by announcing our partisanship on the one si. we should declare ourselves the enemies of w other. We do not wish to be enemiea of uy of your fellow-countrymen. * * * Weirdestly wish that justice may bind and strengtfcs the friendship of races; that equality my It come more and more its basis; but while pnclaiming with you, with her, (England.) uwith all, the holy dogma of fraternity, we «■perform only acts of brotherhood, in conform^ with our principles, and our feelings tontine Irish nation." Smith O'Brien, and * other parties indicted, having put in atechnicdefence, as to the composition of tie Gnu! Jury, the Attorney-general, to prevent c/b': abandoned the indictments, and filed, ««dkn informations against the accused. All, einf Mitchell, have moderated their tone since i> act above referred to was passed. We pit" specimen from one of his speeches. After fifing instructions on the pike and rifle practic he declared that his " mission is to bear i ba in the final destruction of the bloody old • Bn ■ ish Empire'—the greedy, carnivorous old o* ster that has lain so long like a load upon » heart and limbs of England, and drank the bdm and sucked tho marrow from the bones of Inland. Against that empire of hell a thoussthousand ghosts of my slaughtered couDitJmen shriek nightly. Their blood cries «* tinually from the ground for vengeance! A* Heaven has heard it. That bucaneeriog fei that has braved so long the battle and thcbreW flies now from a sliip in distress. The Cb»n* dis of Chartism roars under her lee; the bre* ers of Repeal are ahead, and the curses ot ■ world swell the hurricane that rages roandbi'i —pirate and blood-stained slaver that sbeu her timbers are shivering at last," &c
Some of the Roman Catholic clergy hM* ceived sharp rebukes from their bishops, for* violence of their political course.
As events progress in France, the view* the different members of the Provisional G* rnment become more apparent, and it is evilent there is an irreconcilable division in that ody. Dupont (de l'Eure) the nominal Presien't of the Council, is a man very far advanced n life, and in the government a mere cipher. iTie real men of action are, on one side, J.anartine, with Marrast and others, whose views ppear to lean towards moderation; and on lie other, Ledru Rollin, Flocon, Louis Blanc nd Albert, (for effect designated "ouvrier,") /bo are endeavoring to force the nation to dopt the insane and debasing doctrines of the Communists. Ledru Rollin, as Minister of the nterior, has sent out his Commissioners to the 'rovinces, urilh unlimited powers—their first aty being to control the elections for the Naional Assembly. Their acts have, in many istances, been such as could not be outdone y any government, however despotic. The ights of private property appear to have been ntirely banished from the minds of those funcionaries. At Lyons, M. Etienne Arago has ^bidden any person to leave the city with nore than 600 francs, without his permission. It Blois, M. Gouache promulgated his decree, . To establish a Bank of discount; 2. Forbiding the existing banks from paying to the iwners any money deposited with them, except o much as the depositors may think proper to nvest in his bank of discouut; and 3. Postering the payment of all debts until the 15th f May. Some of the Commissioners have een driven from their posts, and could only e reinstated by military force. It is said that he violence of Ledru Rollin at the Council loard, has been productive of scenes of a most indignified character, and that his turbulence as more than once been checked by the peroral courage of his more moderate colleagues. />uis Blanc, in the Introduction to his '• Ten fears' History," divides the nation into the bmirwt*i«and the people, (page 18, note:) "By bourpoisie, I mean the whole body of citizens, who, assessing implements of labor, or capital, work irith means of their own, and are not dependent on others, except to a certain extent. The rople is the whole body of citizens, who, not »"<essitig capital, depend completely on others, nd that in what regards the prime necessaries «f life." The Revolution of 1830, says the lollin and Blanc faction, was the work of the 'xmrgeoisie, wbo reaped all the benefits; the iresent was accomplished by the people, and to use the words of Secretary Marcy) " to the Hrtors belong the spoils." Upon which of hese parties shall have a preponderance in the National Assembly, seems to depend the qnesion, whether a Republic can be established, or vhether the present movement is to be productive of anarchy and its fearful consequences. The Communist party, courting the people, ac:ording to Louis Blanc's definition of the word, lave already evinced a disposition to avail themselves of physical demonstrations to carry out
their views. Many thousands in Paris are out of employment, for whom it is impossible for the government to provide. Ledru Rollin is said to be arranging a plan by which these unfortunate people are to be formed into a garde mobile and removed to the frontiers, for the double purpose of getting rid of them from Paris, and forming a force to counterbalance the conservative feeling supposed to exist in the army and elsewhere. On the evening of the 15th of April, a stormy meeting of the Provisional Government took place; Ledru Rollin, who was particularly energetic, was opposed by Marrast, who declared it was the firm determination of the more moderate party to respond to the general wishes of the nation, and proceed with moderation, as otherwise nothing but civil war and bloodshed could ensue. A violent scene took place, and at the instigation of the Rollin party, an immense meeting was held on the following day, at the Champ de Mars:, and the persons present were marshalled under distinct leaders, and marched in columns of ten deep to the Hotel de Ville. The beat of the rappel had called out the National Guard, who appeared in overwhelming force, and evinced the best possible disposition towards the moderate portion of the government. They occupied the whole square of the Hotel de Ville and the surrounding buildings, and when the procession appeared it was saluted on all sides with cries of "a bus les communistes," "a bas Blanqui," "a bas Cabet," " Vive le Gnui-ernement Prorisoire." A deputation consisting of Cabet, Blanqui and others, were allowed access, and were received by M. Lamartineonly. Cabet who was spokesman for the party, began by declaring that the Provisional Government" had betrayed the cause of the people," and that it was necessary that it should be at once reconstituted. Ho then presented to Lamartine a list of those who should form the Provisional Government, (the principal names being those of Ledru Rollin, Cabet, Blanqui, Louis Blanc, Flocon, Raspail, Albert, and one or two more of the ultra Democratic party,) and declared that if it were not accepted, they would march against the Hotel de Ville and obtain it by force. With this he retired, and the meeting quietly dispersed. The following day, however, the attempt was, to some extent, renewed, but with a similar result.
On the Tuesday following the National Guard was again called out, in consequence of information received that the Communists and somo of the most violent clubs had determined to upset the present government, and to establish "a committee of public safety," but the attempt was not made. Gen. Changarnier has been appointed commander of the National Guard, in the place of Gen. Courtais, at which that body have expressed great satisfaction. Troops of the line have been recalled to Paris. Little or no improvement has taken place in trade; thousands are out of work, and immense numbers of shops closed: the government is still obliged to dispense nearly $25,000 daily, in giving work to the unemployed in Paris alone—work which unfortunately is unproductive and almost worse than useless.
The detached forts round Paris are being fitted up as government workshops. The depreciation of property since the 23d of February to 12th of March is enormous ; and is estimated, in La Presse, as follows: Funded property, - fr. 3,285,793,811 Bank shares, - - 146,680,000
Railways, six lines, - 205,252,500
eleven lines, 110,632,500
Total, fr. 3,748,358,811 And it is supposed that an addition of 1,000,000,000 fr. may be added, for loss on other securities, such as canals, bonds, mines, gas, insurances, &c.; the greater part of which nad not been quoted for six weeks previous to 12th March. The six railway lines at the first date were at a premium: the eleven were then below par; their depreciation then amounted to 143,347,509 fr. which makes the total loss on railways 459,232,500 fr. The government has started a project of taking possession of the railways, giving 5 per cent, stock to the shareholders for the purchase money at the average value for six months before February last. Many of the laws, or decrees, which have been made, appear wholly inconsistent with the fact that the present government is merely provislonary, and is to surrender all power to the National Assembly, which has already (June) met. Among the most striking of this class is one which abolishes the duty on salt from the 1st Jan. 1849, authorizing the importation of foreign salt from that date and imposing duties thereon. It appears from returns, that there are in France over 5,000,000 landed proprietors; 213,168 stockholders; 38,305 owners of annuities; 154,875 pensioners of the state; 104,325 individuals holding offices requiring security; and 627,830 individuals paid by the government On the 15th of April Ledru Rollin, as Minister of the Interior, published a proclamation of the most menacing character, in case of the elections of the provinces not according with the views of Paris, in which he says:—
"The election!, if they do not produce the triumph of social truth—if they are the expression of the interest of a caste—the elections, which ought to be the safety of the Republic, will be, beyond a doubt, its destruction.
"In that case there would be but one way of safety for the people who made the barricades; —to manifest a second time its will, and to adjourn the decision of a false national representation! Can it be that France could wish to force Paris to have recourse to this extreme, this deplorable remedy? God forbid! But no, France has confided to Paris a great mission, and the
French people will not consent to render tbt mission incompatible with the order and nit necessary for the deliberations of the constitutf body. Paris regards itself, with just rraios. as the representative of all the population el the national territory.
"Paris is the advanced post of the army whicb combats for republican ideas: Paris is the rev dezvous for all the generous determination—til the moral forces of France: Paris will notieparate its cause from that of the people, whicb sutlers, waits, and raises its voice from one extremity of the country to the other. If anarchy works afar off, if social influences pervert lit judgment or betray the will of the masstt dapersed or misled by distance, the people of Pan believes itself, and declares itself to be res jointly responsible for the interests of the \r\iU nation. On some points wealth claims its pn vileges, and menaces us with the affliction ej being obliged to conquer, when toe should ktr wished only to persuade."
The election of members for the NaboraJ Assembly on Sunday, 23d April, and the following day, went off quietly in Paris, althrwt serious apprehensions were entertained of a coup de main. An attempt was made to Skjt the ballot box in one arrondissement, but tbe affair was discovered early enough to be prevented. The scrutiny of the votes took place on the 28th. Lamartine had by far the greatest number: the moderates have received the nwi votes; and Ledru Rollin, Louis Blanc, Flocot and Albert, are very low down on the list Abcm one-third of the electors in Paris have not voted; and the ouvriers especially have shown ten little anxiety to take part; whether from iafc ference or discontent, or from having Sme scheme in view, is not known. There are gran charges of fraud in the elections; numbers ir said to have given several votes, and that e!«toral "tickets" have been sold by those wl» obtained them. Ledru Rollin sent on? of be commissioners with unlimited powers to Alarm which is exclusively under the Minister of tt a Gen. Cavaignac refused to receive him, wnet he raised a mob and exhibited a cap of liberty. which was speedily trampled on by the Natiooi' Guard and the respectable citizens. The &:<■ ernor threatened to ship him off, and sent i complaint to the war department, when Lfdrr. Rollin was obliged to cancel the appointmes The government have issued an order for the dispersion of the Germans congregated in gn*' numbers on the eastern frontier of FrifX* This measure and the result of the election* has created a rise of about three per cent, ia the prices of French funds. The specie in t» Bank of France is considerably diminiabed
The King of Prussia, immediately after being compelled by hie own subjects to talk? large popular concessions, and whilst h» throne was by no means in a stable cooditic* embarked in two projects which are likelv" cause much trouble. One of his first acts *»• > set about a confederation of the States, so s to establish a Federal German Empire, 'his has involved him in a war with Denmark, nd caused a coolness towards him in the cabiet of Austria; the latter empire having hitherto een considered the head of the German States, 'he ministry have officially declared that Ithough Austria is desirous of cementing a umplete union with Germany, it is not invaded either to sacrifice the local interests of le imperial provinces, or to renounce the in»pendence of the internal government of Ausia. The Government, therefore, assumes to self full power to adopt or reject the decisions r the confederation, as it may think proper; id " provided that the last stipulation is not Imitted as reconcilable with the character of
confederation of States, Austria will not be i a position to join it." In consequence of a ;tition from his Polish subjects, the King of russia declared his desire and intention for a itional re-organization of the Grand Duchy of osen, and for that purpose sent a Commisoner. From the great antipathy which exists itween the Polish and German inhabitants of at Duchy, the measure has at present resulted i both parties settingthe King s functionaries : defiance, and getting up a civil war between leraselves; ana the King has been compelled
> decide that the national re-organization of e Polish population, shall not be extended to tose portions of the Grand Duchy in which le Germans are in greater number than the oles: the peculiarly German portions of the achy are to be forthwith incorporated with e German confederacy.
The Emperor of Austria has granted to all a provinces, except Hungary, Croatia, Sclamia, Siebenbergen, and for the present, the ilian provinces, a constitution, granting trial r jury—Independence of the Judges—Parliaents, to be assembled annually—Freedom of ligion, speech, the press, petition, and public eeting, civil equality of the citizens, responsility of ministers, &c. Hungary is to form a parate organization, and also Austrian-Pond, of the latter the Emperor taking the title
The war between Denmark and the German rofederacy, has arisen respecting the Duchies Schleswig and Holstein, now under the rule the King of Denmark, and which have been inexed to that kingdom for more than a cenry; the population of which consists of a ixtore of Danes and Germans. The present ing, on his accession, a few months since, •anted a constitution to the whole of his iminions, incorporating them together. To is the Duchies objected on the ground at, in them, the Salic law prevailed, and that e proposed constitution would render them ibject to be under the rule of female sover7ns, who were eligible to rule in Denmark,
and that the proposed incorporation would annul privileges enjoyed in them; and a revolt ensued. The King of Denmark marched his army, and defeated the insurgents; whereupon the King of Prussia and the German confederation, on the ground that Holstein was part of the confederation, that the Duchies are independent States, that they are firmly united to each other, and that the male line obtains in both, marched their forces against the King of Denmark, who denies their right, under any circumstances, to interfere as regards Schlesswig, which never formed part of the German confederation. The Prussian and German forces have marched into the latter territory and a battle has been fought, which, terminated in favor of the Prussians. The Danes have laid an embargo on Prussian vessels, and Ihe Swedish Government is fitting out ships of war; and it is said that the Swedes are unanimously in favor, and will support the views of Denmark. Russia continues to arm, watching all the proceedings in Europe, and acting at present with strict neutrality.
In Italy, the King of Sardinia and his allies have possession of nearly the whole of Lombardy. An attack was made on Peschiera, but repulsed by the Austrians, and Radetzky has offered battle to Charles Albert, which the latter did not accept. The latter declines entering the Venetian territory, on the ground of its having been declared a republic, and declares that if the Lombards establish a republican government, he will desert their cause and return to his own dominions. Troops have marched from Rome to assist in expelling the Austrians, and the King of Naples has been compelled by his subjects to send his contingent, although they were much required to keep his own people quiet. Sicily has declared its independence of Naples, and the Parliament has decreed that Ferdinand Bourbon and his dynasty have forever fallen from the throne of Sicily, which shall be governed by a constitutional government, under an Italian prince, to be called to reign as soon as the constitution is established.
The Pacha of Egypt is suffering the greatest debility of body and mind. His health renders him totally incapable of attending to the government of his country. At a meeting of his family and the most influential Pachas and Beys, it was decided that the government should be conducted under Ibrahim Pacha and a council, who were to assume Mehemet Ali's seal until his death, which is expected to happen shortly. Belgium is enjoying political tranquillity, but its mercantile and financial affairs are in a very depressed state, greatly owing to the stoppage of its trade with France. In Holland, the King has re-organized the representative portion of the government on a more popular basis.
SillimarCs American Journal of Science and Arts. Edited by B. Siluman, B. Silliman, Jr., and James D. Dana. New Haven: May I, 1848.
This is the fifteenth number of the Second Series of this important periodical. The contents are as follows:—A Review of the Annual Report of the U. S. Survey: this article has been copied into the National Intelligencer for May 17, and occupies three columns of that paper. A paper on Philosophical Induction, by Samuel Tyler: whether Science can proceed altogether without the aid of " thinking," is at least doubtful; Mr. Tyler seems to think not, else he would not have been at the trouble to write this article. An article by Samuel S. Haldeman, an excellent and accurate naturalist, on the identity of two very curious and doubtless interesting animals. Letter on Philosophical Analogy; containing some new views. A description of two new minerals, by J. Lawrence Smith. Analysis of Meteoric Iron that fell in Bohemia, by A. Duflos and N. W. Fischer. Explanations of various electrical phenomena by the undulatory hypothesis, by Professor Hare, of Philadelphia: Professor Hare is evidently of the same mind with Mr. Tyler. Description of a mass of Meteoric Iron, discovered near Murfreesboro, Tenn., by Professor G. Troost: a bit of information judicious and brief. A Greek naturalist would have filled fifty pages with what is here packed into one. Parallelism of the older rocky strata (" Palaeozoic formations") of North America with those of Europe. On Halley's Comet, by Professor Loomis, of New York. A mathematical paper on the propagation of sound, by Eli W. Blake. Review of Professor Asa Gray's Manual of Botany: a book with which all botanical readers are well acquainted. Review of Matteucchi's Lectures on Living Beings; which describes some curious electrical experiments upon the nerves of animals. A translation from Poggendorf's Annaton, of a paper by Professor Scheerer of Christiana, on the similarity in the forms of crystals of unlike substances, throwing new fight on the secret constitution of matter. Mathematical paper, by Professor Stanley of Yale College. Not the least valuable part of this Journal is the scientific intelligence, taken from foreign Periodicals, which Keeps us informed of the progress of European Science.
In looking over several of these articles, it occurred to us to say, that in America as well
as in Germany and France, science is terr much obscured by the use of Greek mmcs In a free State like ours, statesmen u politicians are compelled to popularize everything of a public character or that appertiic1 to the people. In science, on the contnrr. no sooner does a savan discover a newftfl or a new object, than he claps a Wo cover over it in the shape of a tremendci* composite Greek name. For example, thooji we are personally familiar with the incier". rock strata that lie under our coal-tiefe we quite failed to recognize them under t> formidable name palttozoic, which, as the Gre-J dictionary informs us, signifies "containiiif remains of the ancient or primeval forms c! life." Seriously, and with the greatest deference to our learned and ingenious sariLwhom we believe to be not a whit inferior '.. those of Europe, would it not be renderiic2 service to humanity to divest their labors is far as possible of this heavy and perisln!* load of technicalities? Of all dialects,tint*' science has the briefest existence; why, thes. waste a moment in adding one unnK&>" name to the vast and gloomy vocabulary! Tfc is not the age of Linnaeus or of Gmelin; '■ the age of Faraday, and of Humboldt. Sa begin now to seek eagerly for the precufruits of the understanding; it is injudicic*even inhuman, to do the least thing to fc« knowledge from the people.
Meanwhile no man has done more to (x great purpose of popular instruction thu^s? Senior Editor of this Journal. Professor Soman's reputation is as wide as the ConaoB'and wider; for his Journal is the ambsW' of our science in foreign countries. It goes • Germany, France and England, and softer? w disgrace anywhere.
The Mexican War: A History of its Oritn and a Detailed Account if the Victories sk terminated in the Surrender cf the Cap*irith the Official Dispatches of the Goff By Edward D. Mansfield. New Yori. Barnes & Co., 50 John street.
Probably no war, at least during its progr*has ever had so many historians as out fwith Mexico. Many of these have been ■** catch-penny affairs, and others designed s~F to give a sketch of battles. In the work bets' us, Mr. Mansfield has gone fully into the *>